Nothing is harder to direct than a man in prosperity; nothing more easily managed than one is adversity. — Plutarch

Timelines of Spanish Empire

    Romans and Visigoths     Moorish Spain     Reconquista     Exploration     Hapsburg Spain     Bourbon Spain     Mexico     South America

Romans and Visigoths—250 B.C. to 711

Punic Wars in Spain to Moorish Conquest



BC YearEvent
ANCIENT IBERIA
1000 Cadiz founded by Phonician traders. Important ports of Spain controled by Carthage.
264–214 First Punic War between Roman and Carthage.
236 Hamilcar makes Spain a Carthaginian province.
218 Hannibal captures Saguntum, a Roman ally; provokes the Second Punic War.
ROMAN HISPANIA
206 Carthaginians driven out of Spain. Romans divide region into Hispania Citerior and Ulterior.
195 Cato (the censor) puts down Turdetani Uprising and other rebellions throughout Hispania.
154 The Lusitanians of Portugal, under Celtiberian hero Viriathus defeat the Romans.
139 Death of the Lusitain hero Viriathus by Roman treachery fails to end the rebellion.
133 Scipio the Younger destroys Numantia after costly siege; growth of Roman civilization promoted.
105 Deadly invasion of Roman Hispania from the Cimbri;—country saved by the Celt-iberi.
97 Celteberians under Sertorius, rise against Rome.
71 Sertorius assassinated; Pompey reconquers Hispania for Rome.
61 Julius Caesar is governor of Hispania Citerior.
49–45 Caesarean Civil War. Early battles at Massilia and Llerda in Spain.
45 Caesar defeats republicans at battle of Munda and becomes unrivaled master of Roman Empire.
22–19 Cantabrian War: Augustus Caesar wins decisive victories over the wild northern tribes.
19 Roman conquest of Spain complete; Divided into Tarraconensis, Baetica, and Lusitania.
AD YearEvent
VISIGOTH SPAIN
350 Ulfilas, an Arian missionary, converts Goths, creates Gothic alphabet, translates Bible.
409 Waves of barbarians, including Suevi, Franks, and Vandals invade Roman Hispania.
414 Ataulfus leads the Visigoths into Hispania and settles there.
415 Wallia leads the Visigoths to victory over rival barbarians and founds the Visigoth Kingdom.
451 Visigoths under Theodoric fight along side the Romans against Attila the Hun at Chalons.
466 Euric made the country still more independent of Rome and framed the Gothic Code.
506 Alaric II opposes Clovis, and loses Aquitaine to the Franks.
586 Recared renounces Arian Christian and embraces the Church of Rome.
589 Third council of Toledo denounces Arianism and puts restrictions on Spanish Jews.
672 Good King Wamba attemps important reforms of government, but is deposed.
711 Visigoths are overwhelmed by Moors at the Battle of Guadalete.

Moorish Spain—711 to 1492

Battle of Guadalete to Fall of Granada


AD YearEvent
MOORISH CONQUEST
711 The Saracens, under Tariq ibn Ziyad, overthrow the Visigoth kingdom at the Battle of Guadalete.
718 Pelayo of Asturias founded Christian kingdom of Asturias following the Battle of Covadonga.
721 Odo of Aquitaine drives the Moorish army out of France at the Battle of Toulouse.
732 The Saracens defeated at Tours by Charles Martel; retreat of Moors to southern Spain.
CALIPHATE OF CORDOVA
755 Caliphate of Cordova established by Abderrahman I, last surviving Umayyad prince.
778 First Frankish raid into Moorish Spain by Charlemagne and his Frankish knights.
800 Charlemagne returns to Spain. Franks gain control of Barcelona, later Catalonia.
824 Franks defeated at by treachery at Roncevalles Pass, subject of Song of Roland .
859 Eulogius, Perfectus and other Martyrs of Cordoba executed for professing Christian faith.
912 Abderrahman III becomes Caliph of Cordoba, leads Moorish armies against Christians.
939 Ramiro II of Leon defeats Abderrahman III, gained Moorish territory in Castile at Battle of Simancas.
976 First conquest of Almanzor, who mastered nearly all of Spain; ruled until 1002.
1002 Death of Almanzor at the Battle of Calatanazor.
1010 Beginning of Civil War between rival claimants to the Caliphate of Cordova.
1031 After 20 years of war, the Moorish empire breaks up into "tarifs" (Taifas).
ALMORAVIDS AND ALMOHADS
1085 Alfonso VI of Castile captures Toledo, gains much Moorish territory in Central Spain.
1086 Almoravid Berbers arrive in Spain and prevail against the Christians at Battle of Zalaka.
1094 Almoravides defeat Moorish princes, consolidate power and set up a dynasty at Cordova.
1095 El Cid captures Valencia; rules over both Moorish, Christian subjects.
1139 Afonso Henriques defeats Yussef at Battle of Ourique, establishes kingdom of Portugal.
1147 Moors lose Lisbon to Afonso of Portugal; Fall of the Almoravide dynasty in Africa.
1184 Almohads defeat last of the Almoravids, make their capital at Seville.
1212 Decisive victory of the Christians at Las Navas de Tolosa decides the fate of Spain.
1236 St. Ferdinand captures Cordova. It stays permanently in Christian hands.
1248 St. Ferdinand captures Seville; Fall of the Almohads of Iberia.
KINGDOM OF GRANADA
1238 Kingdom of Granada established by Mohammed Alhamar; pays tribute to king of Castile.
1340 Army of Spaniards defeats invading army of African Moors at the Battle of Rio Salado.
1482 Ferdinand the Catholic commences a war against Granada. Conquers key city of Alhama.
1492 Moorish capital of Granada captured; Boabdil gives up the city to Isabel and Ferdinad.

Reconquista—1050 to 1516

Reconquest of Toledo to Death of Ferdinand


AD YearEvent
720 Pelayo defeats Moors at Battle of Covadonga, founds Christian kingdom of Asturias.
CORDOVA CALIPHATE
837 Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees gains its independence from the Franks.
910 Leon is united with Asturias and becomes the predominant Christian kingdom in Spain.
932 Fernan Gonsalez asserts the independence of Castile.
976 First conquest of Almanzor, who mastered nearly all of Spain; ruled until 1002.
1031 After 20 years of Civil war, Moorish empire breaks up into "tarifs" (Taifas).
1035 Ramirez I establishes the Kingdom of Aragon.
1072 Alfonso VI becomes king of both Leon and Castile. He quarrels with El Cid.
1085 Alfonso VI captures the Moorish stronghold of Toledo.
ALMORAVIDS AND ALMOHADS
1095 El Cid captures Valencia; rules justly over Moorish and Christians.
1137 Catalonia united permanently to the Crown of Aragon, under Ramon and Petronilla of Aragon.
1144 Alfonso of Leon defeated the Moors; dynasty of the Almohads at Cordova.
1212 Victory of Christians over Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa decided the fate of Spain.
1228 James of Aragon captures the Balearic Isles.
1235 Ferdinand III of Castile captured Cordova.
1248 Ferdinand III. captured Seville; work on the Alhambra begun.
GRANADA
1367 Battle of Navarrete saves Pedro of Castile.
1369 Pedro of Castile overthrown by half-brother Henry II of Castile .
1469 Marriage of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabel united the Christian dominions of Spain.
1481 Establishment of the Inquisition.
1492 Granada captured. Voyage of Columbus sets forth. Expulsion of the Jews.
1504 Death of Isabella.
1512 Ferdinand conquers the greater part of Navarre.
1516 Death of Ferdinand; Hapsburg grandson Charles V inherits throne of Spain.

Exploration—1430 to 1540

Prince Henry the Navigator to Discovery of Mississippi


AD YearEvent
PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION OF AFRICA/ASIA
1420 Discovery of Madiera
1427 Discovery of the Azores
1441 Discovery of Cape Blanco
1456 Alvise Cadamosto reaches Cape Verde
1460 Death of Prince Henry the Navigator
1482 Diego Cao discovers the mouth of the Congo River
1488 Bartholomew Diaz doubles the Cape of Good Hope
1498 Vasco da Gama discovers a sea-route to India
1505 Zanzibar claimed for Portugal
1509 Battle of Diu sets up Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean.
1512 Alfonso de Albuquerque founds the island of Goa for Portugal
SPANISH EXPLORATION OF NEW WORLD
1492 Christopher Columbus Discovers America
1493 First Settlement on Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)
1499 Second Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci
1510 Establishment of Colony at Darien (Balboa)
1511 Conquest of Cuba
1513 Vasco Nunez Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean
1513 Ponce de Leon searches for the fountain of youth and discovers Florida
1519 Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec empire, claims Mexico for Spain.
1519 Ferdinand Magellan embarks on first round-the-world voyage.
1532 Francisco Pizarro and de Soto conquer the Incas of Peru
1541 Hernando De Soto explores much of the Southeast U.S., discovers the Mississippi.

Hapsburg Spain—1516 to 1700

Charles V, Emperor to War of Spanish Succession


AD YearEvent
REIGN OF CHARLES V
1516 Charles V ascends the throne of Spain.
1517 Protestant Reformation breaks out in Germany.
1521-1526 Italian War against Francis I of France.
1526-1530 War of the League of Cognac is fought in Italy.
1527     Charles V sacks Rome and imprisons the pope.
1521 Conquest of Aztecs in Mexico by Hernando Cortez.
1521 Diet of Worms—Lutheran doctrines condemned as heresy.
1525 Charles V establishes a Council of the Indies to govern American territories.
1529 Solyman the Magnificent leads a Turkish army against Vienna, but is forced to withdraw.
1532 Conquest of Incas in Peru by Francisco Pizarro.
1534 Saint Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus.
1535 Charles V leads the Spanish navy to victory at the Conquest of Tunis.
1545 First Session of the Council of Trent.
1555 Peace of Augsburg—Lutheranism tolerated in Holy Roman Empire.
REIGN OF PHILIP II
1556 Charles V Abdicates, Philip II becomes King.
1560 Holy League naval fleet organized under Andrea Doria.
1562 Saint Teresa of Avila begins reform of the Carmelite religious order.
1566 Spanish Treasure fleet to Americas and Philippines established on regular schedule.
1568 Beginning of the Revolt in the Netherlands
1569 Morisco rebellion in Catalonia put down by Don John of Austria.
1571 The Battle of Lepanto detroys the Ottoman fleet in the Mediterranean.
1579 Union of Utrecht—Northern Netherlands declare independence from Spain.
1580 After death of heirless king, Portugal is united under the Spanish Crown.
1584 William the Silent, Protestant patriot of the Netherlands is assassinated.
1588 Spanish Armada sent to invade England is defeated.
LATER HAPSBURGS (Philips III, IV, and Charles II)
1605 Cervantes publishes Don Quixote
1609 Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain
1640 Catalonia made alliance with France, rebelled from Spanish crown
1640 Portuguese noble declared King John IV, leads war of Portuguese independence.
1635-1659 Franco-Spanish War ended with Treaty of the Pyrenees.
1700 Death of Charles II, last Habsburg king of Spain
1700-14 War of the Spanish Succession: England, Austria, oppose Bourbon candidate.

Bourbon Spain—1712 to 1931

Peace of Utrecht to Spanish Civil War


AD YearEvent
18th CENTURY
1704 Loss of Gibralter to the British
1714 War of the Spanish Succession brought to a close, Philip V retains the throne
1718 Spain loses War of Quadruple alliance, surrenders Italian territories
1727 Spain fails to retake Gibralter during War with England
1740-48 Beginning War of the Austrian Succession
1754-63 Seven Year's War, Florida lost to Spain.
1759 Charles III ascends throne and attempts "modern" reforms.
1773 Suppression of the Jesuits
1778 Spain joins American Revolutionary War in order to fight against Britain.
1788 Spain falls under control of queen Maria Louisa and Emanuel Godoy.
NAPOLEONIC/REVOLUTIONARY ERA
1808 Napoleon over-runs Spain, initiates Peninsular War
1810 South American governments declare independence from Spain.
1814 Ferdinand VII is restored to the throne. Refuses liberal constitution.
1817 Much of South America lost to Spain after the Battle of Chacabuco
1820-23 Liberal coup d'etat briefly establishes a republican government
1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain.
1823 Peru and Ecuador win independence from Spain
19th CENTURY
1823 Ferdinand VII, supported by France, is restored to the throne.
1833-43 Carlist Wars, Traditionalists seeks to place Don Carlos on the throne
1835 Ecclesiastical confiscations—Monastic orders dissovled, property confiscated.
1843 Isabella II ascends to throne of Spain at age 13.
1846 Second Carlist War
1868 Isabella II deposed, exiled to France
1869 Liberal constituional monarchy attempted under Amedeus of Savoy
1873 First Spanish Republic attempted, collapsed almost immediately.
1874 Alfonso XII raised to the throne of Spain
1898 Spanish American War, Cuba and Philippines lost to Spain.
1931 Second Spanish Republic quickly descends into anarchy.
1936-39 Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War

Mexico—1520 to 1921

Conquests of Cortez to Mexican Revolution


AD YearEvent
AZTEC EMPIRE
1200 Rise of Aztec nation in the Central Valley of Mexico.
1440 Montezuma I ascends to the Aztec throne.
1502 Montezuma II ascends to the Aztec throne.
1521 Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
1585 Franciscan Missionary publishes Florentine Codex: history of the Aztecs.
VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN
1531 Our Lady of Guadalupe appears to St. Juan Diego
1535-50 Rule of first Viceroy to New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza
1540-42 Explorations of Francisco de Coronado in American Southwest.
1768 Jesuits expelled from Mexico, leaving Baja missions unattended.
1769 Junipero Serra founds over a dozen missions in California.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE
1808 Overthrow of Spanish king by Napoloen leads to Peninsular War in Spain.
1810 Miguel Hidalgo leads revolt, seeks independence from Napoleonic Spain.
1814 Restoration of Bourbon king in Spain leads to lull in independence movement.
1822-23 Agustin Iturbide proclaimed emperor, then overthrown by republican conspirators.


AD YearEvent
EARLY REPUBLIC
1824 Republicans enact 'Federal' constitution of 1824, Guadalupe Victoria elected as first President.
1827 Spanish peninsulares and prominent monarchists expelled from Mexico.
1829 Vincente Guerrero forces resignation of rival president-elect, seizes control of government .
1829-33 Government falls into chaos, presidency changes hands nine times during second 4 year term.
1833 Santa Anna gains control of presidency, enacts 'Seven Laws' to strengthen central government.
1836 Texas declares its independence from Mexico, defeats at Battle of San Jacinto.
1846-48 Mexican American War. Mexico forced to cede northern provinces to the United States.
REFORM ERA
1855 Juarez and Alvarez organize 'Plan of Ayulta': Liberal overthrow of government.
1857 Liberals enact 'Constitution of 1857' including controversial anti-clerical measures.
1857-61 United States intervenes in 'War of Reform' on behalf of liberals.
1861 Benito Juarez elected President, cancels payment on national debt.
1862 French Intervention on behalf of conservatives, installs Maximilian I as Emperor of Mexico.
1867 Maximilian of Austria is tried for treason and shot. Juarez returns to power.
1876-1911 Reign of Porfirio Diaz; Mexico stable and at peace under autocratic leaders.
MEXICAN REVOLUTION
1910 Diaz legalizes political parties, allows opposition to run for President, then rigs election.
1911 Francisco Madero, backed by "Constitutionalist party" overthrows Diaz.
1913 Victoriana Huerta, leader of "Federalist party" and ally of Diaz.
1914 Carranza, constitutionalist leader, overthrows Huerta with help of U.S. Navy.
1917 Liberal constitution of 1917 is so anti-clerical, even Carranza refuses to enforce.
1924 Atheist Plutarco Calles elected president, brutally enforce anti-Clerical laws.
1926-29 Cristero War: Catholics revolt against brutal oppressions of priests and Church closings.
1929 Calles forms of PRI (Mexican National Party)

South America—1525 to 1921

Conquests of Pizarro to Early 20th Century


AD YearEvent
PERU, COLUMBIA, VENEZUELA
1532 Pizzaro and Almagro conquer Peru
1542 Bartholomew de las Casas promotes better treatment of Native Americans
1572 Tupac Amaru leads the last Incan revolt against the Spaniards
1640 Dutch take control of Northern Brazil; Found Guyana
1697 Mayans defeated by the Spaniards
1767 Jesuits expelled from Latin America
1799 Humboldt explores Mexico and South America
1797-1814 Napoleonic Wars in Europe disrupt governments of Latin America
1811 Venezuela, led by Miranda, declares its independence from Spain
1812 Earthquake in Caracus destroys popular support for independence
1825 Bolivia declares its independence from Spain
ARGENTINA, CHILE
1580 Buenos Aires established as primary port on Pacific
1609 Jesuit "reductions" in Paraguay founded
1816 Argentina declares its independence
1818 Chile declares its independence
1822 San Martin and Bolivar meet in Guayaguil
1879-84 Chile defeats Peru and BOlivia in the War of the Pacific
1864-70 War of the Triple Alliance; Paraguay is defeated
BRAZIL
1500 Brazil discovered and claimed for Portugal by Cabral
1808 Monarchs of Portugal move their capital to Rio de Janiero
1816-31 Reign of Dom Pedro I of Brazil; Brazil declares independence in 1822
1840 Pedro II becames the head of a constitutional monarchy in Brazil
1889 Overthrow of Dom Pedro II by Brazilian military
CARIBBEAN
1804 Slave revolt in Haiti expells the Europeans