Prosperity is the measure or touchstone of virtue, for it is less difficult to bear misfortune than to remain uncorrupted by pleasure. — Tacitus

Wars and Battles of Early America

Between its founding in 1776 and the early 20th century, the United States was only involved in few conventional wars. Frontier wars between european settlers and American natives, on the other hand, continued for over 250 years, from the time of the earliest settlements in Virginia to the end of the 19th century.

The histories of most conventional wars are well documented. Most battle summaries related to these wars which follow were taken from Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles, 1904. American Indian Wars are difficult to summarize due to their irregular tactics, but they play an important part in regional histories and we have a good collection of histories that cover these stories. We have grouped American Indian Wars regionally and have provided an outline of the major conflicts. We are still working on a more detailed representation and intend to revise our American Indian History unit in a later edition.

Click on red links to see detailed descriptions of American wars.
Click on light blue links for lists of battles. Key historical battles are indicated in blue.
Most of the battle summaries listed below are taken from
Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1904.
 
Conventional WarsIndian Wars
French Indian Wars 1745-63     Battles       Virginia Indian Wars 1610-1676  
American Revolutionary War 1775-83     Battles       New England Indian Wars 1637-1725  
War of 1812 1812-14     Battles       Southeast Indian Wars 1711-1858  
Texas War of Independence 1835-36     Battles       Northwest Indian Wars 1763-1832  
Mexican American War 1846-47     Battles       Plains Indian Wars 1854-1891  
American Civil War1861-65     Battles       Western Indian Wars 1849-1877  
Spanish American War 1898-99     Battles        

Virginia Indian Wars — 1610 to 1676

Wars between the Powhatan confederacy and early colonists in Virginia

  • First Powhatan War (1610-1614)
  • Second Powhatan War (1622-1632) - (Jamestown Massacre - 1622)
  • Third Powhatan War (1644-1646)
  • Bacon's Rebellion (1676)

New England Indian Wars — 1637 to 1725

American Indian Wars in the New England Colonies

  • Pequot War of 1637 - Connecticut (1634-1638)
  • King Philip's War - Massachusetts (1675-1678)
  • Father Rale's War - Maine (1722-1725)

Southeast Indian Wars — 1711 to 1858

American Indian Wars and conflicts in the Carolinas, Florida, Alabama, and Tennesee.

  • De Leon Expedition - Florida - (1513-1521)
  • De Soto Expedition - Florida, Alabama, Mississippi (1539-1543)
  • Tuscarora War - North Carolina (1711-1715)
  • Yamasee War - South Carolina (1715-1717)
  • Cherokee Wars - Tennessee (1758-1761 - During French-Indian War)
  • Chickamauga War - Tennesee (1776-1794 - Following American Revolution)
  • Creek War - Alabama (1813-1814 - During War of 1812)
  • First Seminole War - Florida (1817-1818)
  • Second Seminole War - Florida (1835-1842) Battles: Negrofort, Dade Massacre, Wahoo Swamp, Okeechobee
  • Third Seminole War - Florida (1855-1858)
  • Trail of Tears - Forced location to Oklahoma (1830 - 1838)

French Indian Wars — 1745 to 1762

Colonial wars in America between the British and French with their Indian Allies.


1745  
Siege of Louisburg (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
This place, the strongest fortress in America, was captured June 16, 1745, by a force of New Englanders, under Pepperel, aided by a naval force under Commodore Warren.
  
1752  
Battle of Great Meadows (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 3, 1752, between 350 Virginians, under Washington, and 700 French, under Coulon de Villiers. The Virginians occupied a square log enclosure, known as Fort Necessity, where they resisted the French attack for nine hours, till lack of ammunition forced Washington to surrender. The Virginians lost 60 killed and wounded; the French considerably less.
  
1754  
Battle of Youghiogany (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
A skirmish of no importance in itself, but notable as being "the shot fired in America which gave the signal that set Europe in a blaze", and was in a sense the cause of the Seven Years' War. On May 27, 1754, Washington, with 40 Virginians, surprised a small French detachment, under Coulon de Jumonville, despatched probably as a reconnaissance by Contrecoeur from Fort Duquesne. The detachment, with one exception, was killed or captured.
  
1755  
Siege of Beausejour (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
This fort in Nova Scotia, held by a garrison of 460 men under Duchambon de Vergor, was invested June 4, 1755, by 2,000 Massachusetts volunteers and a small force of regulars under Colonel Monckton. On the 14th the besiegers opened fire, and on the 16th the garrison surrendered.
  
1755  
Battle of Monongahela (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 9, 1755, between 900 French and Indians, under Contrecoeur, and about 1,400 British and Virginians, under Braddock. The English were attacked shortly after crossing the river, and though the officers and the Virginians fought gallantly, the troops, ignorant of Indian warfare, gave way to panic, and after three hours' fighting, were driven across the Monongahela, with a loss of 877 killed and wounded. Of 86 officers, 63 fell, including Braddock, who was mortally wounded. The French lost 16 only; their Indian allies somewhat more heavily.
  
1755  
Battle of Lake George (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
Fought September 8, 1755, between 1,500 French and Indians, under Baron Dieskau, and 2,500 New England militia, under Colonel William Johnson. A small force sent by Johnson to the relief of Fort Lyman was ambushed by the French and driven back to camp, but Dieskau pursuing, was repulsed in his attack upon the camp, with a loss of about 400. Dieskau himself was wounded and captured. The loss of the New England men during the day was 216 killed and 96 wounded, most of whom fell in the ambush.
  
1756  
Siege of Oswego (Seven Years War ) French victory
This place, held by a garrison of 1,400 Provincial troops, under Colonel Mercer, was besieged by the French, under Montcalm, August 11, 1756. After a bombardment of 3 days in the course of which Mercer was killed, the place surrendered. The losses on both sides were very small.
  
1757  
Siege of Fort William Henry (Seven Years War ) French victory
This fort, held by 2,200 British and Colonial troops under Colonel Monro, was besieged, August 4, 1757, by Montcalm, with 6,000 French and Canadians and 1,600 Indians. Montcalm's batteries opened on the 6th, and on the 9th, having lost 300 killed and wounded, and nearly all his guns being disabled, Monro surrendered. He was to be permitted to retire unmolested to Fort Edward, but the French were unable to control their Indian allies, who attacked the unarmed column as it retired. Before order was restored, some 50 had been killed, and 400 carried off prisoners by the Indians.
  
1758  
Battle of Louisburg (Seven Years War ) British victory
Louisburg, having been restored to the French, was invested June 3, 1758, by a force of 11,600 British troops, under General Amherst, and a fleet of of 41 ships of war, under Admiral Boscawen. It was defended by 3,800 French regulars, besides Indians and armed citizens, under the Chevalier de Drucour, while in the harbour were 12 ships of war, with crews numbering 3,000 men. Owing to heavy weather no siege guns were landed till the 18th, but by July 20 a practicable breach had been effected, whereupon the garrison surrendered. During the siege the defenders lost 1,200 men killed or died of disease, while the prisoners numbered 5,637, and 239 guns and mortars were taken. Wolfe, who commanded a brigade, specially distinguished himself.
  
1758  
Battle of Trout Brook (Seven Years War ) British victory
A small skirmish, in which the advance guard of Abercromby's army, marching on Ticonderoga, fell in with a French scouting column, 350 strong, under Langy, July 6, 1758. The French lost 150 killed and wounded and 148 prisoners, and the affair would be without importance but for the fact that Lord Howe, who was the brain of Abercromby's staff, was killed in the fight. His death was followed by the disaster of Ticonderoga, and as Parkman says (Montcalm and Wolfe, chap. xx.): "The death of one man was the ruin of fifteen thousand."
  
1758  
Battle of Ticonderoga (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 8, 1758, between Montcalm, with 3,600 French and Canadians, and the British, 15,000 strong, including 6,000 regulars, under General James Abercromby. Montcalm was strongly intrenched on a ridge in front of Fort Ticonderoga, his position being furthered strengthened by an abatis. Abercromby made no attempt to turn the position, but without waiting for his guns, ordered the regulars to take the lines by storm. Notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, who advanced six times to the assault, the position proved impregnable, and Abercromby was forced to withdraw, with a loss of 1,944 killed and wounded, the French losing 377 only. The 42nd Regiment (Black Watch) showed conspicuous bravery, losing half the rank and file, and 25 officers killed and wounded. On July 22, 1759, a British force of 11,000 men under General Amherst, arrived before Ticonderoga, which was held by about 3,500 French and Canadians, under Bourlamaquc.
On the 23rd, Bourlemaque withdrew to the Isle-aux-Noix, on Lake Champlain, leaving only 400 men, under Hébécourt, with instructions to hold Amherst before the place as long as possible. On the 26th, however, Hébécourt set fire to the magazine and retired.
  
1758  
Siege of Fort Frontenac (Seven Years War ) British victory
This place, held by about 110 French troops, under Noyan, was captured by Colonel Bradstreet with 3,000 Colonials, August 27, 1758. The capture was of extreme importance, as it robbed the French of the control of Lake Ontario, and severed their communications with their posts on the Ohio.
  
1758  
Battle of Grant's Hill (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought September 14, 1758, when Major Grant, with 800 Highlanders, and Provincials, attacked a body of Indians in the French service near Fort Duquesne. He was repulsed, and in turn attacked by the garrison of the Fort, 3,000 strong, under M. de Ligneris. Grant was totally defeated, losing 293 in killed, wounded and prisoners, and was himself captured.
  
1759  
Battle of Montmorenci (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 31, 1759, during the siege of Quebec, when Wolfe, with 5,000 men, attacked the entrenched camp of the French, which was defended by 12,000 men under Montcalm. As the British were landing, 13 companies of grenadiers advanced to the attack without waiting for the main body. They were repulsed with heavy loss, which so weakened Wolfe that he decided not to press the attack further, The British loss amounted to 443, almost the whole of which fell upon the grenadiers. The French losses were very small.
  
1759  
Battle of Plains of Abraham (Seven Years War ) British victory
Fought September 13, 1759, when Wolfe, who was lying on shipboard in the St. Lawrence above Quebec, with 4,000 troops, effected a landing secretly in the night of the 12th to the 13th, and took up unperceived a strong position on the Plains of Abraham. Next morning he was attacked by Montcalm, with about equal numbers, but notwithstanding the most desperate efforts, the French were unable to carry the position, and were driven back into Quebec with a loss of about 1,500. Both Wolfe and Montcalm fell mortally wounded. The British loss amounted to 664 killed and wounded. The French immediately afterwards evacuated Quebec.
  
1759  
Siege of Niagara (Seven Years War ) British victory
This fort was besieged in June, 1759, by 2,500 British, with 900 Indians, under General Prideaux, the garrison consisting of 600 French, under Captain Pouchot. Prideaux was killed by the premature explosion of a shell, and Sir William Johnson succeeded to the command. On July 24, when the garrison were almost in extremis, an attempt to relieve the fort was made by 1,300 French and Indians, under Ligneris, but he was repulsed by Johnson with considerable loss, at La Belle Famille, and Pouchot at once surrendered.
  
1759  
Siege of Quebec (Seven Years War ) British victory
This city was besieged June, 1759, by 9,000 British troops, under General Wolfe, assisted by a fleet of 22 ships of war, under Admiral Holmes. The place was defended by about 16,000 French, under Montcalm. Wolfe was too weak numerically for an investment, and his object was to draw Montcalm into an engagement. On July 31 he was defeated in an attack on Montcalm's lines outside the city, but on September 13, having landed above Quebec, he met and defeated the French, who evacuated the place on the 17th. After defeating General Murray, April 27, 1760, the Chevalier de Levis laid siege to Quebec, with about 8,000 French and Canadians. The garrison consisted of no more than 2,500 effectives, but owing to the superiority of their artillery, Levis was unable to make any impression on the defenses. On May 15 a small British squadron anchored off the city, and on the following day attacked and destroyed the French ships carrying de Levis' supplies and reserve of ammunition, whereupon he hastily raised the siege, leaving behind him 40 siege guns and all his sick and wounded.
  
1760  
Battle of Ste Foy (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought April 27, 1760, between 3,000 British troops, under General Murray, and 8,000 French, under the Chevalier de Levis, who was approaching from Montreal, with the object of recapturing Quebec. Murray marched out to attack Levis, but was defeated and driven back into Quebec with a loss of over a third of his force. The French lost about 800.
  
1760  
Battle of Montreal (Seven Years War ) British victory
This city was surrendered to the British, under General Amherst, by Vaudreuil, Governor-General of Canada, September 8, 1760. One of the conditions of the surrender was that the whole of the French army in Canada and its dependencies must lay down their arms. Canada thus became a part of the British dominions.
  
1762  
Siege of Havana (Seven Years War ) British victory
In June, 1762, the Earl of Clanwilliam, with 11,000 British troops, supported by a squadron, under Admiral Pococke, laid siege to Havana. Moro Castle, the key of the defenses, was taken by storm, and after a siege of two months and eight days the city was captured.
  
1763  
Massacre of Michilimackinac (Eighth ) Indians victory
On June 2, 1763, as part of Pontiac's Rebellion, a group of Ojibwe staged a ball game outside the fort and invited British officers to play. Suspecting nothing, the British failed to guard the entrance to the fort. The Indians stormed the fort and killed most of the British inhabitants. The fort was held for a year before the British retook it.
  

American Revolutionary War — 1775 to 1783

American colonies rebel from British rule with the help of the French.

This list of battles excludes conflicts between France and Britain outside of the American continent, and conflicts in the Ohio Valley between Indian allies of Britain and American colonists.


1775  
Battle of Lexington (Boston ) drawn battle victory
Fought April 19, 1775, between the Royal troops, under General Gage, and the Americans. After a brief engagement the Americans were defeated, and retired. The losses on both sides were very small.
  
1775  
Battle of Bunker's Hill (Boston ) British victory
Fought June 17, 1775, when 2,000 British troops, forming a portion of General Gage's army, dislodged the Americans holding Breeds Hill and Bunker's Hill, on the outskirts of Boston. The position was stubbornly contested, the assailants losing 800 men.
  
1776  
Battle of Brooklyn (New York ) British victory
Fought August 27, 1776, between 30,000 British under Sir William Howe, and the Americans, about 11,000 strong, under General Putnam. The Americans were completely defeated, with a loss of about 2,000 killed and wounded. The British lost 65 killed and 255 wounded.
  
1776  
Battle of Trenton (New York ) Colonists victory
Fought Dec 26, 1776 when 2400 colonists under George Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised and 1400 Hessians under Johann Rall. The battle, fought early in the morning after a snowstorm was a route. The colonists captured over 900 prisoners and lost only two.
  
1776  
Battle of Princeton (New York ) Colonists victory
Fought 1776 between the Americans, under Washington, and the British, under General Gage. The British were defeated, and this victory enabled Washington to regain possession of New Jersey.
  
1777  
Siege of Ticonderoga (Saratoga ) British victory
This place was invested, June 22, 1777, by the British, under General Burgoyne, and was defended by 5,000 Americans, under General St. Clair. After a brief siege, the Americans evacuated the Fort, July 5.
  
1777  
Battle of Bennington (Saratoga ) Colonists victory
Fought August 10, 1777, between a British force under Colonel Baum, and the New Hampshire troops under General Stark. Baum had been ordered to seize the American magazines at Bennington, but found the place too strong, and asked for reinforcements. Meanwhile they were surrounded and attacked by Stark. The British fought till their ammunition was exhausted and then surrendered, while Baum was killed trying to cut his way through the American lines.
  
1777  
Battle of Brandywine (Philadelphia ) British victory
Fought September 11, 1777, between 18,000 British under General Howe, and 8,000 Americans under Washington. The British General made a flank movement with a large portion of his force, whereupon Washington attacked the British in the front, but, being ill-supported by his lieutenant, Sullivan, he was driven back, and forced to retreat, with a loss of 900 killed and wounded and 300 prisoners. The British lost 590 killed and wounded.
  
1777  
Battle of Germantown (Philadelphia ) British victory
Fought October 4, 1777, between the Americans under Washington, and the British under Sir William Howe. The Americans attacked the British entrenchments, and were repulsed with heavy loss.
  
1777  
Battle of Saratoga (Saratoga ) Colonists victory
Fought October 7, 1777, between the British, 6,000 strong, under General Burgoyne, and the Americans, under General Gates. The Americans occupied a strongly entrenched position, which was attacked by Burgoyne. After a severe encounter, the attack was repulsed at all points, and the British driven back upon their camp at Saratoga, with heavy loss, including General Fraser, mortally wounded. The Americans followed up their success by an assault upon the British camp, in which they succeeded in effecting a lodgement, and on the following day, Burgoyne withdrew, and took up a fresh position on the heights near the Hudson. On October 15, Burgoyne, surrounded by the Americans, and finding that no aid could reach him, surrendered with 5,790 men, his total losses during the campaign having amounted to 4,689.
  
1777  
Battle of Oriskany (Saratoga ) Loyalists victory
On August 6, 1777 a force of patriots under the General Herkimer was ambushed by a force of Loyalists and natives under General Johnson and Chief Joseph Brant. The patriots were defeated with losses of over 450, including Herkimer.
  
1779  
Battle of Penobscot Bay (Naval-North America ) British victory
Fought July 14, 1779, when a British squadron of 10 ships, under Sir George Collier, completely destroyed an American squadron of 24 ships, and captured the 3,000 men who formed their crews.
  
1779  
Battle of Bon Homme Richard vs. Serapis (Naval-Europe ) Americans victory
Famous naval battle between the French ship Bonhomme Richard under John Paul Jones, and the English frigate Serapis, fought September 23, 1779. In a far inferior vessel, against all odds, the Americans lashed the ships together, cleared the deck with grenades, and boarded the English vessel. The victory, although strategically unimportant, helped encourage the French to become more involved in the war.
  
1780  
Battle of Camden (Southern ) British victory
Fought August 16, 1780, between the British under Cornwallis, and the Americans under Gates and de Kalb. Cornwallis had concentrated about 2,000 men at Camden, and though the Americans numbered 5,000, they were of very inferior quality. After a small affair of outposts, the British attacked the American levies, who were unable to face the steady attack of the regulars, and fled with heavy loss. Among the killed was de Kalb. The British lost 312 killed and wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Cape Henry (Naval-North American ) British victory
Fought March 16, 1781, between a British fleet of eight ships of the line and three frigates under Vice-Admiral Arbuthnot, and a French squadron stronger by one frigate. The French were forced to retire, the British losing 30 killed and 64 wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Guildford Court House (Southern ) British victory
Fought March 16, 1781, between the British, under Lord Cornwallis, and a largely superior force of Americans, under General Greene, The Americans occupied a strongly entrenched position in and round Guildford, and the battle consisted of a series of independent actions, in which the British were uniformly successful, driving out the Americans with heavy casualties, and the loss of all their guns and ammunition. The British lost 548 killed and wounded, but the victory served little purpose, as Lord Cornwallis was too weak to pursue his advantage.
  
1781  
Battle of Lynn Haven Bay (Naval-North America ) French victory
Fought September 5, 1781, between a British fleet of 19 ships of the line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Thomas Graves, and a French fleet of 25 line of battle ships. Admiral Graves attacked the French as they were lying in Lynn Haven Bay, but was unsuccessful, and drew off after two hours' hard fighting, with a loss of 79 killed and 230 wounded. The French lost 22 officers and 200 men killed and wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Eutaw Springs (Southern ) British victory
Fought September 8, 1781, between the British garrison of Charleston, under Colonel Stewart, and the Americans, under General Greene. The British were attacked and at first driven back, but rallying carried the American positions, but with a loss of 700 men, which so weakened their small force that they were unable to profit by the victory.
  
1781  
Siege of Yorktown (Southern ) Colonists victory
The entrenched position of Lord Cornwallis, with 6,000 British troops at this place, was invested by Washington, with 7,000 French and 12,000 Americans, in September, 1781. The British held out until October 19, when, surrounded and outnumbered, Cornwallis surrendered, having lost during the operations, 12 officers and 469 rank and file, killed and wounded.
  

War of 1812 — 1812 to 1814

America's first war with Britain over trading and commerce rights.


1811  
Battle of Tippecanoe (Detroit ) Americans victory
Fought November 7, 1811 between 1000 American militiamen and settlers under William Henry Harrison, and a large number of natives under Tenskwatawa, the brother of Tecumseh. Harrison intended to force the Indian to move their settlement at 'Prophetstown' out of the area, but he was attacked by the Indians, in spite of orders by Tecumseh to avoid aggressive attacks. The battle itself was inconclusive but the Americans succeeded in driving the Indians out of the region. Shortly after, Tecumseh allied with the British during the War of 1812.
  
1812  
Battle of Queenston Heights (Niagra ) British victory
Fought October 13, 1812, between 4,000 British (chiefly Canadian volunteers), under General Brock, and about 5,000 Americans, under Van Reusselaer. The Americans attacked the British position on Queenston Heights, and after very severe fighting, were totally defeated. The exact losses are unknown, but the British took 1,000 prisoners, and the American column was practically annihilated.
  
1812  
Battle of Constitution and Guerriere (Naval ) Americans victory
A famous frigate action, fought August 19, 1812 between the British frigate HMS Guerriere of 49 Guns, under Captain James Dacres and the USS Constitution under Isaac Hull, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities between the two nations. After a furious battle, the Guerriere surrendered. Although of no strategic value, the early victory by American forces boosted morale among Americans considerably.
  
1813  
Battle of Burlington Heights (Niagra ) British victory
Fought May 5, 1813, when the British under Colonel Procter were attacked by 1,300 Americans under General Clay, while engaged with another American force holding Burlington Heights. The Americans broke the British line and seized their guns, but Procter, who had only 1,000 men, with some Indian auxiliaries, rallied his troops and routed Clay, with a loss of nearly I,000 killed, wounded and captured.
  
1813  
Battle of Shannon and Chesapeake (Niagra ) British victory
A famous frigate action, fought May 29, 1813, between the British frigate Shannon, of 38 guns, commanded by Captain Broke, and the American frigate Chesapeake, also of 38 guns, under Captain John Lawrence. The Chesapeake sailed out of Boston Harbour to attack the Shannon, and after a brisk action was taken by the board by the British. The Shannon lost 4 officers and 21 men killed, and 3 officers and 56 men wounded; the Chesapeake, 8 officers and 39 men killed, and 9 officers and 106 men wounded. Captain Lawrence was killed and Captain Broke wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Chrystlers Farm (Champlain ) British victory
Fought November 11, 1813, between 800 British under Colonel Morrison, and about 3,000 Americans under General Boyd. The Americans were defeated with a loss of 249 killed and wounded and 100 prisoners. The British lost 203.
  
1813  
Battle of Lake Erie (Detroit ) Americans victory
Fought September 10, 1813, between the English flotilla of six schooners, under Commodore Barclay, and a largely superior American squadron, under Commodore Perry. The whole British flotilla was destroyed, with a loss of 134 killed and wounded. The Americans lost 27 killed and 96 wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Thames (Naval ) Americans victory
Fought October 5, 1813 between 1,300 British and Indian forces under the command of Colonel Proctor and Tecumseh, who was killed in battle, and 3,500 Americans under William Henry Harrison, shortly after the Americans took control of Lake Erie. The British were decisively defeated and the Americans assumed control of the Northwest Territories.
  
1813  
Battle of Châteauguay (Chesapeake ) British victory
Fought 1813, between the Americans, 7,000 strong, under General Hampton, and a force of Canadian Militia, far inferior in numbers, who were strongly posted near Chateauguay. The Americans attempted to storm the Canadian lines, but the Canadians made a most gallant defense, and repulsed them with heavy loss.
  
1813  
Battle of Black Rock (Niagra ) British victory
Fought 1814, between 1,400 British troops under General Riall, and a force of 2,000 American Indians, occupying a strong position at Black Rock. The British stormed the entrenchments and dispersed the enemy, following up their success by the seizure of Buffalo.
  
1814  
Battle of Chippewa (Niagra ) Americans victory
Fought July 6, 1814, between 4,000 Americans under General Jacob Brown, and 2,400 British, 1,500 being regulars, under General Riall. Riall attacked Brown in a strong position at Chippewa, and was repulsed with considerable loss.
  
1814  
Battle of Lundy's Lane (Batavian Revolt ) British victory
Fought July 25, 1814, between 5,000 Americans, under General Jacob Brown, and 3,000 British, under Sir George Drummond. Drummound occupied high ground on each side of Lundy's Lane, where he was attacked by the Americans. The fighting lasted till far into the night, when a final assault was repulsed, and the Americans retired to Chippewa with a loss of 858. The British lost 878.
  
1814  
Battle of Bladensburg (Chesapeake ) British victory
Fought August 24, 1814, between the British under General Ross, and the Americans under General Winder, who was opposing the British advance upon Washington, and had taken up a position which commanded the only bridge over the Potomac. Ross attacked with a portion of his force, under Thornton, and, having carried the bridge, a combined assault upon the main position resulted in a signal defeat of the American army, which broke and fled. Ross entered Washington the same evening.
  
1814  
Battle of Baltimore (Creek War ) British victory
This city was attacked September 11, 1814, by a British fleet of ten sail, under Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, and a land force of 3,270 under General Ross, who fell during the action. The Americans, 17,000 strong, under General Winder, were defeated, but the British retired on the evening of the 13th. The British lost 46 killed and 300 wounded, the Americans, 20 killed, 90 wounded, and 200 prisoners.
  
1815  
Siege of New Orleans (Detroit ) Americans victory
This city, held by a garrison of 12,000 Americans, under General Jackson, was attacked December, 1814, by a British force of 6,000 men, under General Keane, aided by the fleet. On the 13th the American warships, lying in the Mississippi, were captured by a boat attack, and by the 21st the whole of the troops were disembarked. After a few skirmishes, Sir Edward Pakenham, arrived and took command on the 25th, and on January 1, 1815, a determined attack was made upon the American position. This failed, and owing to difficulties as to supplies, the British retired. On the 7th a final assault took place, but the assailants were again repulsed, with a loss of 1,500, including Pakenham, and the expedition then withdrew. At the time of the action peace had already been concluded, though of course neither party was aware of the fact.
  

Northwest Indian Wars — 1763 to 1832

American Indian Wars in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes Region

  • Pontiac's War - Great Lakes (1763-1766, following British conquest of Canada)
  • Lord Dunmore's War - West Virginia (1774)
  • Western Indian Theatre of Revolutionary War - Kentucky (1778-1782) : Boonesborough, Bryant Stations, Blue Licks
  • Northwest Indian War (a.k.a Little Turtle's War) - Ohio (1785-1795) : Battles Harmer Campaign, Battle of Wabash, Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • Tecumseh's War - Ohio, Canada (1811-1813): Tippecanoe
  • Black Hawk War - Illinois (1832) : Battle of Bad Axe

Texas Revolt—1835 to 1836

Texas rebels against the Mexican government and declares itself an independent republic.


1835  
Siege of Bexar   Texans victory
On October 12, 1835 a force of 600 Texans under Stephen Austin besieged a Mexican garrison of 1200 under Martin de Cos stationed at San Antonio de Bexar. The siege was a disorderly one, with considerable attrition on both sides. However, the Texans were able to receive reinforcements, while the resources of the Mexicans continued to dwindle. Cos eventually moved his base of operation to the Alamo, a nearby fortified mission. On Dec 5, the Texans launched an assault, resulting in 150 Mexican casualties. Soon after Cos realized his position was hopeless and agreed to surrender.
  
1836  
Siege of Alamo   Mexicans victory
On February 22, 1836, General Santa Anna, with the advance guard of the Mexican army, appeared before the walls of the Alamo, a fortified mission station held by 145 Texans under Colonel Travis, who replied to a summons to surrender by a cannon shot. On March 1 the garrison was reinforced by 30 men, Santa Anna's force at this date being 4,000. On the 6th 2,500 Mexicans assaulted the fort, and at the third attempt effected an entrance. The building was defended room by room, the church within the enclosure being the last building captured, when all the survivors were put to the sword. The victory cost the Mexicans 400 killed and many wounded. "Remember the Alamo" became the watchword of the Texans.
  
1836  
Battle of San Jacinto   Texans victory
Fought April 2, 1836, when the Mexican army, under Santa Anna, about 5,000 strong, was routed and almost destroyed by the Texans, under General Houston. The survivors, with Santa Anna and his staff, were taken prisoners, and Texas was freed from the Mexican yoke.
  

Mexican American War — 1836 to 1847

War between America and Mexico in which large territories of California and the Southwest were ceded to the U.S.


1846  
Battle of Palo Alto (rio grande border ) Americans victory
Fought May 8, 1846, between the Americans, under General Taylor, and the Mexicans, under Arista. The Mexicans were completely routed, at very small cost to the victors.
  
1846  
Battle of Monterey (rio grande border ) Americans victory
This town in southern California was captured from the Mexicans, September 23, 1846, by the Americans, under General Taylor, and this success was followed by the occupation of the whole of Northern Mexico by the American army.
  
1846  
Battle of Resaca de la Palma   Americans victory
Fought May 9, 1846, between the 1700 Americans, under General Zachary Taylor, and 4,000 Mexicans, including newly arrived reinforcements, under Arista. The battle was hard fought but the tide turned for the Americans after a successful cavalry attack forced a retreat. The Mexicans suffered 350 killed and wounded, and 150 captured. The Americans suffered 33 killed and 90 wounded.
  
1847  
Battle of Angostura (coahuila ) Americans victory
Fought February 21, 1847, between the Mexicans under Santa Anna and the Americans under General Scott, when the Mexicans were totally defeated.
  
1847  
Battle of Buena Vista (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
Fought February 22, 1847, between 18,000 Mexicans under General Santa Anna, and 4,500 Americans under General Zachary Taylor. The Americans occupied a series of heights commanding the Angostura pass, and were there attacked by Santa Anna, who failed to dislodge them, the day ending with the combatants occupying the same ground as in the morning. On the 23rd, however, Santa Anna retired. The Americans lost 746 killed and wounded; the Mexicans admitted a loss of 1, 500 killed, but it was probably heavier.
  
1847  
Battle of Veracruz (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by a naval assault force of over 12,000 Americans, led by Winfield Scott and Matthew C. Perry. The highly fortified port was defended by 3,360 Mexicans under Juan Morales, and held out for over 20 days before being over-run. The Americans suffered 18 killed and 62 wounded; the Mexicans suffered 180 killed and wounded.
  
1847  
Battle of Molino del Rey (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
Fought September 8, 1847 just outside of Mexico city. 2,800 Americans under Winfield Scott charged a Mexican fortification at just outside Mexico city. Heavy guns were used to destroy the Mexican fortifications, and the Mexicans were driven from their position. The American losses included 116 killed and over 600 wounded. The Mexicans suffered 270 killed and 500 wounded.
  
1847  
Battle of Chapultepec (nuevo leon ) Americans victory
Fought September 12, 1847 when 13,000 Americans stormed the Castle of Capultepec, headquarters of the Mexican army. The fortifications were protected by 4000 Mexican who suffered over 1800 causalities before yielding to the American charge. Six Cadets refused to retreat and wrapped themselves in Mexican flags before jumping to their death. The result of this battle was that the Mexican army retreated, leaving Mexico city in American hands.
  

Plains Indian Wars — 1854 to 1891

American Indian Wars with the Sioux and other tribes of the Great Plains

  • First Sioux War - Nebraska (1854-1856): Grattan Massacre
  • Dakota War - Minnesota (1862)
  • Colorado War - Eastern Colorado, Wyoming (1863-1865)
  • Red Cloud's War - Wyoming (1866-1868)
  • Great Sioux War - Montana, Dakota, Wyoming (1876-1877): Custer's Last Stand, Rosebud, Ceder Creek
  • Ghost Dance War - South Dakota (1890-1891) : Wounded Knee Massacre
  • Commanche Wars - Texas, Oklahoma (1836-1877) : Battle of Adobe Walls

1876  
Battle of Little Big Horn (Sioux Rising ) Sioux victory
On June 25, 1876, General Custer, with the 7th United States Cavalry, 700 strong, attacked the village of the Sioux chief, Sitting Bull. He divided his force into three columns, one of which, led by himself, marched into an ambush, and was massacred to a man. The other two columns were vigourously attacked by the Sioux, and forced to retire. The cavalry lost on this occasion 265 killed.
  

American Civil War — 1861 to 1865

Northern Union defeats the Southern Confederacy


1861  
Battle of Rich Mountain (eastern ) Federals victory
Fought July 12, 1861, between 15,000 Federals, under General McClellan, and 6,000 Confederates, under General Garnett. The Federals stormed the heights of Rich Mountain and Laurel Hill, and drove the Southerners from their positions, with a loss of about 1,000, including prisoners. During the pursuit on the following day, General Garnett was killed in a cavalry skirmish.
  
1861  
Battle of Bull Run (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought July 21, 1861, between 40,000 Federals under General M'Dowell, and 30,000 Confederates under General Beauregard. The Confederates occupied a position extending for about nine miles along the southern bank of the Bull Run, and an attempt to turn and drive in their left was at first successful, but, being rallied by General Beauregard, they assumed the offensive, and totally routed the Northerners, with a loss of 1,492 killed and wounded, 1,600 prisoners, and 28 guns. The Confederates lost 1,752.
  
1861  
Battle of Wilson's Creek (western ) Confederates victory
Fought August 10, 1861, between 6,000 Federals, under General Lyon, and 16,000 Confederates, under General M'Culloch. General Lyon divided his force into two columns, for the attack on M'Culloch's position, and that led by himself surprised the Southerners, and gained a partial success. They rallied, however, and beat him off, Lyon falling, the other column being also repulsed. The Federals lost 1,236, and the Confederates 1,095 killed, wounded and missing.
  
1861  
Battle of Lexington (western ) Confederates victory
This place was invested September 18, 1861, by the Confederates, 8,000 strong, under General Price, who having cut off their supplies, forced the garrison of 3,500, under Colonel Mulligan, to surrender, September 20. The Confederates lost 100 men only.
  
1861  
Battle of Balls Bluff (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought October 21, 1861, between the Federals under General Stone, and the Confederates under General Evans. The Federals crossed the Potomac to attack the Southern position, but were repulsed, and driven back over the river in confusion losing 1,100 killed and wounded, 700 prisoners and the only three guns which they had succeeded in taking across. The Confederates lost 155 only.
  
1862  
Battle of Mill Springs (western ) Federals victory
Fought January 19, 1862, between the Federals, about 9,000 strong, under General Thomas, and 8,000 Confederates, under General Crittenden. The Confederates attacked, and at first drove back the Federals, who began the action with 5,000 men only, but reinforcements arriving, Thomas repulsed the assailants with considerable loss, capturing 12 guns. The Federals lost 246 only. This was the first considerable defeat suffered by the Confederates in the war.
  
1862  
Battle of Roanoke Island (naval ) Federals victory
This island, which commanded the entrance to Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, and which was defended by 500 Confederates, under General Wise, was attacked February 7, 1862, by three brigades of Federals, under General Burnside, aided by 26 gunboats. On the 8th the Federals landed, overpowered the garrison, and occupied the island, losing 235 killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 91 killed and wounded. Of 7 Confederate gunboats employed in the defense, 5 were captured or destroyed.
  
1862  
Battle of Pea Ridge (western ) drawn battle victory
Fought March 7 and 8, 1862, between 16,000 Confederates, under General von Dorn, and the Federals, in equal force, under General Curtis. On the 7th the Confederates drove back the Federal right wing, and nearly succeeded in cutting their communications, though they lost General M'Culloch in the course of the action. On the 8th the Federals drove back the Southerners, and recovered the ground they had lost, the battle ending without decisive result. The losses on each side were about 1,000. This is also called the Battle of Elk Horn.
  
1862  
Battle of Hampton Roads (naval ) Confederates victory
Fought March 8 and 9, 1362, between the Confederate armoured frigate, Merrimac, and 5 gunboats, under Captain Buchanan, and 5 Federal warships, under Captain Marston. On the 8th, the Merrimac destroyed two Federal vessels, and drove one ashore, but on the 9th, the Federals were reinforced by the arrival of the turret-ship Monitor, and after an indecisive action, the Merrimac drew off. In the two days, the Confederates lost only 10 killed and wounded, but the Federal losses were far heavier, the Cumberland alone losing '50 out of a crew of 400.
  
1862  
Siege of Yorktown (naval ) Federals victory
This small village gives its name to the entrenched position occupied by General Magruder with 11,000 Confederates, which was invested by 105,000 Federal troops, with 103 siege guns, April 5, 1862. On the 16th, an unsuccessful attack was made upon Magruder's lines, and both sides having been reinforced, M'Clellan set about the erection of batteries. On May 4, the Federals were about to open fire, when it was found that the Confederates had abandoned the position and retired.
  
1862  
Battle of Shiloh (western ) Federals victory
Fought April 6 and 7, 1862, between the Confederates, 43,000 strong, under General Johnston, and the Federals, 40,000 strong, under General Grant. The Confederates attacked Grant's position on the west of the Tennessee river, and surprised the Federals, driving back the first line in confusion. By nightfall, Grant was practically defeated, but Johnston failed to take advantage of his opportunity, and Grant being reinforced by 20,000 men during the night, was able on the 7th to assume the offensive. After severe fighting the Southerners were driven from the field with a loss of 9,740 killed and wounded and 959 prisoners, General Johnston being among the killed. The Federals lost 9,617 killed and wounded, and 4,044 prisoners.
  
1862  
Battle of New Orleans (naval ) Federals victory
On April 16, 1862, the Federal fleet of 30 armed steamers and 21 mortar vessels, under Commodore Farragut, began the attack on this city by the bombardment of Fort Jackson. After this fort and Fort Mary had been shelled with little intermission until the 25th, Farragut forced the passage, and anchoring off the Levee of New Orleans, the city at once surrendered. The forts, however, still held out, but a mutiny broke out in Fort Jackson, and on the 28th they surrendered to Commodore Porter.
  
1862  
Battle of Williamsburg (eastern ) Federals victory
Fought May 5,1862, between the Confederates, under General Magruder, and the Federals, under General M'Clellan. Magruder occupied a very strong position and held the Federals at bay throughout the day, but being greatly outnumbered, withdrew during the night. The Federals lost 2,228 killed, wounded and missing, the Confederate loss being much smaller.
  
1862  
Battle of Fair Oaks (eastern ) Federals victory
Fought May 31, and June 1, 1862, between the Federals under General M'Clellan and the Confederates under General Johnston. M'Clellan was advancing upon Richmond, and his left wing was attacked in the afternoon of the 31st, and notwithstanding the arrival of Sumner's corp in support, was driven back for two miles. On the 1st the Federals recovered the ground they had lost, but made no further progress, and at the end of the day the Confederates, who were largely outnumbered, were permitted to retire unmolested. The Federals lost over 7,000 killed and wounded, the Confederates about 4,500, including General Johnston. This is also called the Battle of Seven Pines.
  
1862  
Battle of Memphis (naval ) Federals victory
A river action fought June 6, 1862, between 8 Confederate armed vessels, under Commodore Montgomery, and to Federal gunboats, under Commodore Davis. Only one of the Confederate vessels escaped destruction, and Memphis fell.
  
1862  
Battle of Crosskeys (eastern ) Confederates victory
A rearguard action, fought June 8, 1862, between 8,000 Confederates under Ewell, and about 15,000 Federals under Fremont. Ewell was given the task of holding Fremont in check, while General Jackson marched to meet the Federals under Shields, who were endeavoring to effect a junction with Fremont. The Confederates held their ground, beating back their opponents with a loss of 664 killed and wounded. After the action, Ewell crossed the river, burning the bridge behind him, and Jackson was enabled to fall upon Shields with his whole force.
  
1862  
Battle of Port Republic (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought June 9, 1862, between the Federals, 12,000 strong, under General Shields, and an equal force of Confederates, under General Jackson. The Federals were completely defeated, a portion of their army being driven from the field in disorder and with heavy loss.
  
1862  
Battle of Secessionville (naval ) Confederates victory
Fought June 15, 1862, when 6,000 Federals, under General Benham, attacked the strong position of Secessionville, covering the road to Charleston, which was held by 2,000 Confederates, under General Evans. The Federals were repulsed with a loss of 600 men, the Confederates losing 200.
  
1862  
Siege of Vicksburg (western ) Federals victory
This city, held by a Confederate garrison, was invested June 24, 1862, by a fleet of 13 Federal gunboats, under Admiral Farragut, aided by a land force of 4,000 men, under General Williams. After a bombardment which made no impression on the defenses, Farragut re-embarked the troops, and withdrew, July 24. In the course of the siege Captain Brown with the Arkansas, a small river steamer, coated with iron, and carrying eight guns, attacked the Federal flotilla, which mounted 200 guns, and ran the gauntlet successfully, losing 14 men killed and wounded. The Federals lost 82.

On January 9, 1863. the city was again invested by two Federal corps, under General M'Clernand, aided by a flotilla of gunboats, under Admiral Porter. It was defended by a garrison of 3,000 Confederates, under General Churchill. On the 11th an attack by the combined forces overpowered the garrison of the fort, but the town defenses still held out, and the siege was not pressed. On May 18, the siege was renewed by three army corps of General Grant's army, the garrison being now commanded by General Pemberton. On the 22nd an unsuccessful assault cost the Federals 2,500, and a regular siege commenced, with the result that on July 4, Pemberton surrendered with 25,000 men and 90 guns.

  
1862  
Battle of Seven Days' Battles (eastern ) Confederates victory
A series of actions fought by General Lee, with 85,000 Confederates, against General M'Clellan, with 95,000 Federals, Lee's object being to relieve Richmond. On June 26, 1862, General Hill, with 14,000 Confederates, attacked M'Call's division, in a strong position at Beaver's Dam Creek, which attack M'Call repulsed, at small cost to his force. On the 27th, General Porter, 35,000 strong, posted on the Chickahominy at Gaines' Mill, was attacked by 54,000 Confederates, under Lee in person. The Southerners advanced under a heavy artillery fire, and after severe fighting, drove the Federals across the river, and captured 20 guns. On the 28th, M'Clellan prepared to withdraw to the James River, his centre having been pierced, and commenced his retreat. On the 29th, 4 Confederate divisions, under Longstreet, aided by an armoured train, came up with Sumner's corps at Savage's Station, but was repulsed, Sumner thus inflicting a serious check upon the pursuing columns. On the 30th, 3 divisions, under General Jackson, over-took the Federal rearguard, under General French, near the White Oak Swamp, and an artillery duel followed, which cost the Federals some guns. Two divisions, under Longstreet, also attacked M'Call's division, and routed it, M'Call being captured. By the evening of the 30th, M'Clellan reached Malvern Hill, overlooking the James River, and determined to oppose here the further advance of the Confederates, On July 1st, the Confederates attacked, but the Federals held their ground throughout the day, and on the 2nd retired in good order and practically unmolested. The Federals admit a loss of 15,249 men and 25 guns during the operations, but Confederate accounts put the figures much higher, and claim 51 guns. The losses of the Southerners were also very heavy, especially at Malvern Hill, but Lee's object was accomplished, and Richmond was relieved.
  
1862  
Battle of Cedar Mountain (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought August 9, 1862, between 15,000 Confederates under Jackson, and about 20,000 Federals under General Pope, The strong Confederate position was assailed at 5 p.m., and successive attacks were repulsed until late in the evening, when the fighting ceased. The Federals lost about 2,800 killed, wounded, and missing; the Confederates, 800 or 900.
  
1862  
Battle of Sudley Springs (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought August 29, 1862, between the Federals, under General Pope, and the Confederates, under Jackson. Jackson, by a forced march, had succeeded in taking up a strong position in Pope's rear, and defied all attempts to dislodge him, repulsing the Federal attacks with a loss of over 8,000 men.
  
1862  
Battle of Bull Run—Second (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought August 30, 1862, between the Confederates under Stonewall Jackson, and the Federals under General Pope. The Federals attacked Jackson's position, which he maintained till evening, when, the Federal left giving way, he ordered a general advance, and drove the enemy from the field with heavy loss. Over 7,000 prisoners were taken.
  
1862  
Battle of Richmond (western ) Confederates victory
Fought August 30, 1862, between the Confederates, about 6,000 strong, under General Kirby Smith, and 8,000 Federals, under General Manson. The Federals were routed and driven headlong into Richmond, where 5,000 prisoners, 9 guns and 10,000 stand of arms were captured. The Confederate losses were slight.
  
1862  
Battle of South Mountain (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought September 14, 1862, between the Federals, under General M'Clellan, and the Confederates, under General Lee. Lee's object was to hold M'Clellan in check while Jackson captured Harper's Ferry, and to this end he posted General D. Hill with 15,0000n South Mountain. Here Hill was attacked, and driven to the upper slopes, but being reinforced by a portion of Longstreet's command, he maintained his position there, withdrawing on the morning of the 15th. Each side lost about 2,500 men, but Lee had gained his object, as the delay to M'Clellan ensured the capture of Harper's Ferry.
  
1862  
Battle of Harper's Ferry (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought September 16, 1862, when the Confederates, three divisions, under General “Stonewall" Jackson surrounded the Federal garrison of Harper's Ferry, 11,000 strong, with 73 guns, and forced them to surrender.
  
1862  
Battle of Antietam (eastern ) drawn battle victory
Fought September 17, 1862, between the main Confederate army under General Lee, and the Federals under General M'Clellan. On the morning of the 17th Lee had only 35,000 men on the ground against M'Clellan's 95,000. The Federals strongly attacked Lee’s left, and after a stubborn fight drove it back, but reinforcements arriving, Lee resumed the offensive, and recovered his lost positions. On the following day neither side was disposed to resume the struggle, and the battle was therefore indecisive. The Federals lost 12,460 men; the Confederates about 9,000.
  
1862  
Battle of Corinth (western ) Federals victory
Fought October 3 and 4, 1862, between the Confederates under Van Dorn, and the Federals under Rosecrans. Rosecrans was strongly entrenched at Corinth, where he was attacked on the 3rd, and driven into his inner lines. The attack was renewed on the 4th, but an attempt to storm the entrenchments was repulsed, and the Federals, taking the offensive against the disordered Southerners, drove them from the field with a loss of 6,423 killed and wounded, and 2,248 prisoners. The Federals lost 2,359 killed, wounded, and missing.
  
1862  
Battle of Perryville (western ) drawn battle victory
Fought October 8, 1862, between 45,000 Federals, under General Buell, and a somewhat smaller Confederate army, under General Bragg. The Confederates attacked, and drove back the Federals, but no decisive result was arrived at, and during the night Bragg withdrew, having inflicted a loss of 4,000 on the enemy, and captured an artillery train. The Confederates lost about 2,500 killed and wounded.
  
1862  
Battle of Prairie Grove (western ) drawn battle victory
A sanguinary but indecisive action, fought December 7, 1862, between the Confederates, under General Hindman, and the Federals, under General Herron. The losses were about equal.
  
1862  
Battle of Fredericksburg (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought December 13, 1862 between 150,000 Federals under General Burnside, and 80,000 Confederates under General Lee. The Confederates, who occupied a range of heights fringing the Massaponax River, were attacked by the Federals, whom they repulsed after hard fighting, with a loss of 13,991 killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 1,800 only, but Lee, owing to his inferior numbers, did not feel strong enough to push his victory home, and allowed Burnside to evacuate Fredericksburg unmolested.
  
1862  
Battle of Murfreesboro (western ) drawn battle victory
Fought December 31, 1862, between 35,000 Confederates, under General Bragg, and 40,000 Federals, under General Rosecrans. Bragg attacked and drove back the Federal right, but the centre and left held their ground, and prevented the defeat degenerating into a rout. Both sides lost heavily, but the Confederates captured a large number of prisoners and over 20 guns. On the following day the Federal right retook the ground it had lost on the 31st, and at the end of the day both armies occupied their original positions. Early on January 2, however, Bragg retired in good order. Each side lost about 8,000, killed, wounded and missing, in the two days' fighting.
  
1863  
Battle of Charleston (naval ) Confederates victory
The siege of this place may be considered to have commenced April 6, 1863, on which day the Federal fleet crossed the bar. On the 7th an attack was made upon fort Sumter by nine iron-clads under Admiral Dupont, which was repulsed with a loss of 1 ship and the disabling of several others. The defenders lost 2 men only. On July l0th and 11th a land force attacked Fort Wagner, but was repulsed with loss. On the 18th an assault by three brigades under General Seymour was also repulsed with enormous loss; and preparations were then made for a sap. On September 5, after a very heavy bombardment, Fort Wagner proved to be untenable, and, with the works on Morris Island, was abandoned, but the besiegers failed in all their attempts on Fort Sumter, and the inner defenses. From this time the siege became a mere blockade of the port, until, on the approach of Sherman's army, the garrison, then 9,000 strong, evacuated the city, February 18, 1865.
  
1863  
Battle of Chancellorsville (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought May 2, 3, and 4, 1863, between 53,000 Confederates under Lee, and 120,000 Federals under Hooker. Lee, though largely outnumbered, detached half his force under Jackson to turn Hooker's right, while he contained the Federals with the rest of his army. Jackson's march was successfully carried out, and on the afternoon of the 2nd he commenced his attack, routing the Federal lath Corps. This success, however, cost the Confederates dear, for Jackson's staff was mistaken in the dusk for that of a Federal general, and was fired into by a South Carolina regiment, and Jackson mortally wounded. On the 3rd the attack was renewed in front and flank, with further success for the Confederates, while on the 4th the Federals were driven off, and Hooker forced to recross the Rappahannock on the 5th. The Confederates lost about 10,000 men; the Federals about 18,000, including 7,650 prisoners.
  
1863  
Siege of Port Hudson (western ) Federals victory
This fortress was invested, May 25, 1863, by five Federal divisions, under General Banks, and defended by 6,000 Confederates, under General Gardner. An assault on the 27th was repulsed, and a regular siege commenced. After a second unsuccessful assault, on June 14, the garrison, having no hope of relief, surrendered, July 9, having lost 800 men during the siege. The losses of the besiegers were far heavier, the two unsuccessful assaults showing a heavy list of casualties.
  
1863  
Battle of Winchester (eastern ) Confederates victory
Fought June 14, 1863, when 7,000 Federals, under General Milroy, were defeated by three Confederate divisions, under General Ewell, and forced to retreat with heavy loss, including 3,700 prisoners and 30 guns.
  
1863  
Battle of Gettysburg (eastern ) Federals victory
Fought July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, between the army of the Potomac under General Meade, and the army of Virginia under General Lee. On the 1st, Meade's position in front of Gettysburg was attacked by A. P. Hills' corps, and the Federals driven in confusion into the town. On the 2nd, Meade took up a fresh position behind Gettysburg, where he repulsed all the Confederate attacks, though at a heavy cost. On the 3rd, Meade succeeded in driving back the Confederate left, but Lee's main attack succeeded in driving the Federals from the ridge. They rallied and retook it, but had lost too heavily to assume the offensive. Lee again offered battle on the 4th, but the Federals declined it, and Lee retired unmolested, having lost about 20,000 men in the three days. The Federal losses were about the same.
  
1863  
Battle of Chickamauga (atlanta ) Confederates victory
Fought September 19 and 20, 1863, between the Confederate Army of the West under General Bragg, and the Federals under General Rosecrans. On the 19th the Confederates attacked along the whole line and drove back their opponents, cutting them off from the river, and forcing them to bivouac for the night in a waterless country. On the 20th the attack was renewed, and though Bragg's right was repulsed, he was elsewhere successful, and by nightfall Rosecrans was in full retreat, Bragg however, failed to follow up his victory, and allowed Rosecrans to retire on Chattanooga unmolested. The Federals lost 16,351 men and 36 guns; the Confederates about 12,000.
  
1863  
Battle of Chattanooga (atlanta ) Federals victory
Fought November 24 to 27, 1863, between 80,000 Federals under Grant, and the Confederate Army of the West, 40,000 strong, under Bragg. The attack on the Confederate lines commenced on the 27th, the Federals capturing Look Out Mountain, on their extreme left. They advanced unseen through a thick fog, to the upper slopes, and drove out the defenders, whence this action is known as the "Battle above the Clouds." On the following day Bragg's centre was pierced, while the fighting of the 26th and 27th was in the nature of severe rearguard actions. The Federals lost 5,286 killed and wounded, and 330 missing. The Confederates lost fewer in killed and wounded, but they left in the hands of the Federals 6,142 prisoners, 40 guns and 7,000 rifles. Also called the "Battle of Missionary Ridge."
  
1863  
Battle of Nashville (atlanta ) Federals victory
Fought December 15 and 16, 1863, between 50,000 Federals, under General Thomas, and 40,000 Confederates, under General Hood. Thomas attacked the left of Hood's lines before Nashville, and after hard fighting, in which Hood lost 1,200 prisoners and 16 guns, the Confederates withdrew during the night to a position a few miles in the rear. Here they were again attacked on the 16th, and, though at first holding their ground, were in the end driven from the field in confusion, with heavy loss in killed and wounded, besides 4,460 prisoners and 54 guns.
  
1864  
Battle of Ocean Pond (atlanta ) Confederates victory
Fought February 20, 1864, between 5,000 Confederates, under General Finnegan, and 6,000 Federals, under General Seymour. The Confederates occupied a strong position, protected by swamps and forests, near Lake City, where they were attacked by Seymour, whom they defeated with a loss of 1,200 men and 5 guns. The Confederates loss amounted to 700.
  
1864  
Battle of Mansfield (atlanta ) Confederates victory
Fought April 8, 1864, between 20,000 Federals, under General Banks, and about 8,000 Confederates, under General Taylor. Banks, while marching through a difficult country, was attacked by Taylor, and utterly routed, at a cost to the assailants of less than a thousand men. Besides heavy losses in killed and wounded, the Federals lost 3,500 prisoners, 22 guns, and 220 wagons of stores and ammunition.
  
1864  
Battle of the Wilderness (richmond ) Confederates victory
Fought May 5 to 8, 1864, between the Army of the Potomac, 150,000 strong, under General Grant, and 53,000 Confederates, under General Lee. Lee's object was to intercept Grant's advance on Richmond, and early on the morning of the 5th he attacked the approaching Federal columns, and after a hard-fought day, succeeded in arresting the progress of Grant's right wing. On the 6th, Lee almost succeeded in breaking Grant's centre, but at the critical moment, Longstreet, who was to lead the attack, was fired upon and dangerously wounded by his own troops. The Federal right wing, however, was driven back in confusion, and Lee on his side lost no ground. The two following days minor skirmishes took place, leading up to the great battle of Spottsylvania. The Confederates lost about 8,000 in the two days' fighting. The Federal losses were far heavier, amounting to 15,000 in the second day alone.
  
1864  
Battle of Spottsylvania (richmond ) drawn battle victory
A continuation of the Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 10 to 12, 1864, between the Confederates, under General Lee, and the Federals, under General Grant. Lee's position covering Richmond was attacked on the 10th by Grant, and the day ended with both armies in their original positions, while the losses, especially on the side of the assailants, were very heavy. On the 12th Grant renewed the attack, and General Hancock, on the right surprised the first line of the Confederate defenses, and compelled General Johnson and his division to surrender. With this exception, entailing the loss of about a mile of ground Lee held his own throughout the day, and Grant had suffered too severely to renew the attack. The losses from the 5th, the date of the first Battle of the Wilderness, to the 12th inclusive, were: Federals, about 50,000 killed and wounded, Confederates, about 12,000.
  
1864  
Battle of Newmarket (richmond ) Confederates victory
Fought May 13, 1864, between 15,000 Federals, under Sigel, and 3,500 Confederates, under Breckenridge. The Confederates, by a rapid flank movement, fell upon Sigel's force while on the march, and drove them to seek shelter in a wood behind their artillery. The guns were then most gallantly attacked and taken by 250 boys, pupils of the Lexington Military School, who lost 80 of their number in the charge. Sigel retired, having lost very heavily in men, and leaving 6 guns in the enemy's hands.
  
1864  
Battle of Chickahominy (richmond ) Confederates victory
Fought June 3, 1864, between the Federal Army of the Potomac under Grant, and the Confederate army of Virginia under Lee. Grant attacked the Southerners' entrenchments, with the object of forcing the passage of the Chickahominy, and his first onslaught met with some success, but the Confederates, rallying, drove back their assailants to their original position with heavy loss. All further attempts on Lee's lines failed, and the Federals were finally repulsed with a loss of over 13,000 killed, wounded and missing. The Confederates lost about 6,000.
  
1864  
Battle of Petersburg (richmond ) Confederates victory
Fought June 15 to 18, 1864, forming an episode in the Federal attack on Richmond. General Beauregard, with 8,000 men, was charged with the defense of Petersburg, and at the same time had to contain General Butler at Bermuda Hundred. His entrenchments before Petersburg were attacked on the 15th by General Smith, and a portion of the first line carried. On the 16th Beauregard withdrew the force masking Bermuda Hundred, and concentrated his troops in front of Petersburg, but after holding out till the afternoon, a panic seized the defenders, and they were driven from the first line. Beauregard, however, rallied them, and retook the entrenchments. During the night he withdrew to a second and stronger line of defenses, and on the 17th and 18th repulsed, with terrible slaughter, all the efforts of the Federals to carry it.
  
1864  
Battle of Kinnesaw Mountain (atlanta ) Confederates victory
Fought June 27, 1864, between 90,000 Federals, under General Sherman, and 50,000 Confederates, under General Johnston. Sherman attacked Johnston in a strong position and was repulsed with a loss of about 3,000, the Confederates losing 500 only.
  
1864  
Battle of Petersburg (richmond ) Confederates victory
On June 30, 1864, a mine was exploded under the Confederate defenses in front of Petersburg, and an attempt was made by the Federals to carry the entrenchments during the confusion that ensued. The Confederates, however, stood their ground, repulsing all attacks with heavy loss, and of the Federals who succeeded in entering the breast-works, 5,000 were killed or captured. Both the generals commanding, Lee and Grant, were present during the action.
  
1864  
Battle of Peach Tree Creek (atlanta ) Federals victory
Fought July 20, 1864, in the course of the operations round Atlanta, between the Federals, under General Sherman, and the Confederates, under General Hood. Hood attacked the Federal position, and drove off their left wing, capturing 13 guns and some prisoners; being reinforced, however, the Federals rallied, and recovered the lost ground. The Confederates, however, claimed the victory. The Federals lost 3,722, including General McPherson. The Confederate losses were about the same.
  
1864  
Battle of Opequan (richmond ) Federals victory
Fought September 19, 1864, between 13,000 Confederates, under General Early, and 45,000 Federals, under General Sheridan. Success at first inclined to the side of the Southerners, but their left wing was broken by a charge of 7,000 cavalry, under Custer, and the Confederates were completely routed and fled in confusion.
  
1864  
Battle of Fisher's Hill (richmond ) Federals victory
Fought September 21, 1864, between 40,000 Federals, under General Sheridan, and 12,000 Confederates, under General Early. The Confederates were defeated and driven from their position with a heavy loss in prisoners and 11 guns.
  
1864  
Battle of Cedar Creek (richmond ) Federals victory
Fought October 17, 1864, between 10,000 Confederates under General Early, and about 40,000 Federals under General Sheridan. Under cover of a fog, Early turned Sheridan's right, capturing 18 guns, but Sheridan, rallying his broken right wing, totally routed the Confederates, who had been engaged in plundering the captured camp. The Federal losses were the heavier, but Sheridan captured 22 guns, besides retaking the 18 he had lost at the beginning of the action.
  
1864  
Battle of Franklin (atlanta ) Federals victory
Fought Nov 30, 1864, between 30,000 Federals under General Schofield, and 40,000 Confederates under General Hood. Schofield occupied a strong position covering Nashville, where he was attacked by Hood, who penetrated his lines. The Federals, however, rallied, and recaptured the lost positions, and after nightfall, Schofield was enabled to cross the Harpeth in good order, and effect a junction with General Thomas. The Confederates lost about 4,500; the Federals, 1,500 killed and wounded and 1,000 prisoners.
  
1864  
Battle of Mobile Bay (naval ) Federals victory
Fought August 5, 1864 between a fleet of 18 Federal boats under Admiral Farragut, and the confederate port defensive forces under Buchanan. The union firepower greatly exceeded that of the Confederates, but the port was mined. Farragut determined to charge the minefield and issued his famous order, 'Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!' Union losses were 145 killed. The confederates lost 12 killed and 123 captured.
  
1865  
Battle of Richmond (richmond ) Federals victory
In the neighbourhood of this place were fought the final actions of the war, when Lee, with the army of Virginia, endeavoured to break through the ring of Grant's troops by which he was surrounded, and being everywhere repulsed, was compelled to surrender March 8, 1865, on which date he had but 10,000 effectives under his command.
  

Western Indian Wars — 1849 to 1877

American Indian Wars in the Far West, including the Rocky mountains and west coast.

  • Black Hawk Wars (1865-1872)
  • Apache Wars (1849-1886)
  • Navajo Wars (Mostly with Spanish)
  • Nez Perce War (1877)
  • Cayuse and Yakima Wars (1855-1858)
  • Modoc War (1872-1873)
  • Paiute War (1860)

Spanish American War — 1898 to 1898

America defeated Spain and gained control of Cuba the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.


1898  
Battle of Manila (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought May 1, 1898, between the American squadron of 6 ships, under Admiral Dewey, and 11 Spanish vessels, chiefly small, and unarmored. The Spanish fleet was totally destroyed, the Americans suffering no loss.
  
1898  
Battle of San Juan Hill (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought July 1, 1898, when 12,000 Americans, under General Shafter, captured from the Spaniards, after heavy fighting, the strong position of El Caney and San Juan Hill, commanding Santiago de Cuba. The Spaniards made various attempts on the 2nd and 3rd to dislodge them, but without success. The American losses during the three days amounted to 115 officers and 1,570 men killed and wounded.
  
1898  
Battle of Santiago (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought July 3, 1898, between the American fleet of 4 battleships and 3 cruisers, under Admiral W. T. Sampson, and the Spanish fleet of 4 armoured cruisers and 3 torpedo-boats, under Admiral Cervera. The Spaniards endeavoured to escape from the blockaded harbour of Santiago, but were unsuccessful, the whole squadron being destroyed. The Americans suffered hardly any damage, the Spanish gunnery being very inefficient, and lost only 1 man killed.
  
1898  
Battle of Cardenas (cuba ) Spanish victory
Fought May 11, 1898 off the coast of Cuba between 3 American ships, and 5 Spanish ships. Two American ships were disabled and the Americans suffered 11 dead and wounded.
  
1898  
Battle of Guantanamo Bay (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought June 6-10, 1898 between a Spanish force of 800 and 623 American Marines, and resulted in the American conquest of a important bay on the East coast of the Cuban mainland.
  
1898  
Battle of Santiago (philippines ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by American and Cuban ground forces soon after the Naval battle of Santiago opened the ports to American ships. The city was blockaded by the American force while a combined force of over 20,000 Cuban nationals and American regulars fought under General Shafter assaulted the town. The Spaniards, under General Toral were well fortified, and the besieging forces suffered 1600 casualties. After two weeks of fighting, the Spanish general surrendered to the Americans.
  
1899  
Battle of Manila (philippines ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by American and Philippino forces. The Spanish residents agreed to surrender on conditions that the Americans, rather than the Philippino rebels took possession of the city. A mock battle was staged to keep up appearances, but the Philippinos were not permitted to take part. This event undermined the American-Rebel alliance.
  
1899  
Battle of Zapote Bridge (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought June 13, 1899 between a force of 3000 Americans, led by Major Lawton, and a force of 5000 Filipinos, led by Pio del Pilar. The native forces were entrenched in elaborate breastworks, but in spite of a valiant defense did not have the firepower needed to resist the Americans superior firepower. The Americans suffered 15 dead and 60 wounded, while the Filipinos suffered over 500 casualties.
  
1899  
Battle of Tirad Pass (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought Dec 2, 1899 between a force of only 60 Filipinos, under Gregorio del Pilar, and 500 Americans under General March. The purpose of the action was to prevent the capture of the Philipino rebel leader Aguinaldo, and the Filipinos fought to the last man, entrenched in a mountain pass. The delaying tactic was successful, although the Americans eventually prevailed at a loss of over 30 men.
  
1900  
Battle of Mabitac (Bavaria ) Filipinos victory
Fought September 17, 199 between a force of 800 Filipino insurgents and an American force of 145. The battle began when a small force of Americans advanced into difficult terrain held by the native forces. Seriously outmanned and unable to maneuver, the Americans sustained heavy casualties, including 21 killed and 23 wounded.
  

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