Progress should mean that we are always changing the world to fit the vision, instead we are always changing the vision. — G. K. Chesterton

Wars and Battles of Modern Europe

Click on red links to see detailed descriptions of War of Modern Europe (1700-1920).
Click on light blue links for lists of battles. Key battles are indicated in blue.
Most of the battle summaries listed below are taken from
Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1904.
 
Ausrian Succession 1740-48     Battles       Seven Year's War 1752-62     Battles      
French Revolutionary Wars 1785-1800     Battles       Napoleonic Wars 1801-15     Battles      
Peninsular War 1808-14     Battles       Italian Unification 1848-67     Battles      
Hungarian Rising 1849     Battles       Franco Mexican War 1862-67     Battles      
Schleswig-Holstein War 1864     Battles       Austro Prussian War 1866     Battles      
Franco Prussian War1870     Battles       Servo-Bulgarian Wars 1885     Battles      
Balkan Wars 1912-13   The Great War 1914-18     Battles      

War of the Austrian Succession — 1740 to 1748

England takes Austria's side in a European War so it can fight France in America.


1741  
Battle of Molwitz (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought April 8, 1741, between the Prussians, 30,000 strong, under Frederick the Great, and the Austrians, under Marshal Neuperg. Frederick surprised the Austrian general, and, after severe fighting, drove him from his entrenchments, with a loss of about 5,000 killed, wounded and prisoners. The Prussians lost 2,500.
  
1742  
Battle of Czaslau (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought 1742, between the Prussians under Frederic the Great, and the Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Prussians were driven from the field, but the Austrians abandoned the pursuit to plunder, and the king, rallying his troops, broke the Austrian main body, and defeated them with a loss of 4,000 men.
  
1742  
Battle of Chotusitz (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought May 17, 1742, between the Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine, and the Prussians under Frederick the Great. The numbers were about equal, but the steadiness of the Prussian infantry eventually wore down the Austrians, and they were forced to retreat, though in good order, leaving behind them 18 guns and 12,000 prisoners. The killed and wounded numbered about 7,000 on each side, and the Austrians made 1,000 prisoners. The Prussian cavalry delivered several desperate and unsuccessful charges, and were almost destroyed.
  
1745  
Battle of Hohenfriedberg (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought June 3, 1745, between the Austrians and Saxons, under Charles of Lorraine, and the Prussians, under Frederick the Great. The Saxons, who were encamped at Strigau, were attacked in the early morning, and defeated before the Austrians could come to their aid. Frederick then turned upon the Austrians, and routed them, after desperate fighting. The Austrians and Saxons lost 4,000 killed and wounded, 7,000 prisoners, including 4 generals, and 66 guns. The Prussians lost 2,000.
  
1745  
Battle of Sohr (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought September 30, 1745, between 18,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and 35,000 Austrians, under Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Prussians attacked the Austrian position and the Austrians, failing to display their usual courage made no stand against the steady advance of the Prussian infantry, and were driven back in confusion, with a loss of 6,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 22 guns. The Prussians lost between three and four thousand men.
  
1745  
Battle of Hennersdorf (Austria vs. Prussia ) Prussians victory
Fought November, 1745, between 60,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and 40,000 Austrians and Saxons, under Prince Charles of Lorraine. Frederick surprised Prince Charles on the march, and utterly routed his vanguard, comprised of Saxons, with enormous loss. The Austrians were compelled in consequence to retire into Bohemia.
  
1743  
Battle of Campo Santo (Austrian allies vs. France ) Austrians victory
Fought February 8, 1743, between the Spaniards under Mortemar, and the Imperialists under Count Traum. Mortemar was endeavoring to effect a junction with the army of the Prince de Conti, and though the action was undecided, its results were in favour of the Imperialists, who prevented the two armies from joining hands.
  
1743  
Battle of Dettingen (Austrian allies vs. France ) British victory
Fought June 27, 1743, between the British, 40,000 strong, under George II, and 60,000 French under the Duc de Noailles. The British, who were retiring upon Hanau from Aschaffenburg, found their retreat cut off by the French, Dettingen being held by 23,000 men under de Grammont, while the main body was on the opposite bank of the Maine. De Grammont left his lines to attack the British, whereupon George II put himself at the head of his troops, and led a charge which broke the French and drove them headlong into the river. Their losses in crossing were heavy, and they left 6,000 killed and wounded on the field. This is the last occasion on which the Sovereign has led British troops in battle.
  
1744  
Battle of Toulon (Austrian allies vs. France ) French-Spanish victory
Fought February 21, 1744, between a British fleet of 27 sail of the line, and 8 frigates, under Admiral Matthews, and a combined French and Spanish fleet of 28 line-of-battle ships. The British fleet suffered a serious reverse, in consequence of which the Admiral and four captains were tried by court-martial and cashiered. The British lost 274 killed and wounded, the allies about 1,000.
  
1744  
Battle of Madonna dell' Oleno (Austrian allies vs. France ) Austrians victory
Fought September 30, 1744, between the French and Spaniards, under Prince Louis de Conti and Don Philip of Spain, and the Imperialists, under the King of Sardinia. With a view of relieving Cuneo, which the allies were besieging, the King attacked their lines, and though he was defeated in the battle, he gained his object, for Conti was compelled by lack of supplies to raise the siege, October 22, having suffered heavy losses from famine, flood and battle.
  
1745  
Battle of Fontenoy (Austrian allies vs. France ) French victory
Fought May I1, 1745, between 50,000 British, Dutch and Austrian troops, under the Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The Duke endeavored to relieve Tournay, which the French were besieging, and the British troops captured the heights on which the French were posted. The Prince of Waldeck, however, who commanded the Dutch, failed to support the Duke, and the French being reinforced, the trenches were retaken, and the British beaten back. Tournay fell shortly afterwards,
  
1746  
Battle of Rotto Freddo (Austrian allies vs. France ) Austrians victory
Fought July, 1746, when the rearguard of the retreating French army, under Marshal Maillebois, was attacked by the Austrians, under Prince Lichtenstein, and after a gallant resistance defeated with heavy loss, In consequence of this defeat the French garrison of Placentia, 4,000 strong, surrendered to the Imperialists.
  
1746  
Battle of San Lazaro (Austrian allies vs. France ) Austrians victory
Fought June, 1746, between the Austrians, 40,000 strong, under Prince Lichtenstein, and the French and Spaniards, under Marshal Maillebois. The allies attacked the Austrian entrenched camp, and after an obstinate conflict, lasting nine hours, were repulsed with a loss of 10,000 killed and wounded.
  
1747  
Battle of Lawfeldt (Austrian allies vs. France ) drawn battle victory
Fought July 2, 1747, between the allied Austrians and British, under the Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The village of Lawfeldt was thrice carried by the French and thrice recaptured, but about noon the British centre was driven in, and defeat was imminent, when a cavalry charge, headed by Sir John Ligonier, saved the day, and enabled the Duke to retire in good order. The allies lost 5,620 killed and wounded, the French about 10,000.
  
1747  
Battle of Rocoux (Austrian allies vs. France ) French victory
Fought 1747, between the French, under Maurice de Saxe, and the Imperialists, under Charles of Lorraine. The French won a signal victory, as the result of which they occupied Brabant.
  

Seven Year's War — 1752 to 1762

War between Prussia and Austria is joined by France and England.


1756  
Battle of Lowositz (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought October 1, 1756, between 24,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and a somewhat superior force of Austrians, under Marshal Brown. Brown was marching to relieve the Saxons penned up in Pirna, when he was attacked by the Prussians, who, after hard fighting, forced him to retire. Each side lost about 3,000, but the victory was of great importance to Frederick, as it led to the surrender at Pirna of 17,000 Saxons and 80 guns.
  
1757  
Battle of Prague (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought May 6, 1757, between 70,000 Austrians, under Charles of Lorraine, and 60,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great. The Austrians occupied a very strong position on the Moldau, which was attacked and carried by Frederick, Charles being driven back into Prague with a loss of 8,000 killed and wounded and 9,000 prisoners. Marshal Braun was among the killed. The Prussians lost 13,000, including Marshal Schwerin.
  
1757  
Battle of Kolin (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians victory
Fought June 18, 1757, between 34,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and 54,000 Austrians, under Marshal Daun, Daun occupied the heights between Kolin and Chotzewitz, where he was attacked by Frederick, who had nearly succeeded in turning his right flank when the Prussian right broke and fled. The Prussian cavalry charged gallantly six times, but could make no impression on the Austrian defense, and Frederick was beaten back with a loss of 14,000 men and 43 guns. The Austrians lost 9,000.
  
1757  
Battle of Hastenbech (French vs. Prussians ) French victory
Fought July 26, 1757, between 50,000 Hanoverians and others, under the Duke of Cumberland, and 80,000 French, under Marshal d'Estrees. The Duke, who had taken post on the Weser, to protect Hanover, was overpowered by d'Estrees, and driven back to Slade, on the Elbe, with a loss of several hundred men. This defeat was followed by the signature of the Convention of Closter-Seven.
  
1757  
Battle of Gross-Jagersdorf (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Russians victory
Fought August 30, 1757, between 28,000 Prussians, under Marshal Lehwaldt, and a largely superior force of Russians, under General Apraxine. The Prussians were defeated, but Apraxine failed to follow up his victory, and recrossed the frontier.
  
1757  
Battle of Rosbach (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought November 5, 1757, between 80,000 French and Austrians, under Marshal Soubise, and 30,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great. Frederick, who occupied the heights of Rosbach, was attacked by the allies. The Prussian cavalry, however, under Seidlitz, charged down upon the Austrians, and threw them into disorder, and the infantry falling upon the broken columns utterly routed them, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, 7,000 prisoners, including 11 generals and 63 guns. The Prussians lost 3,000 only.
  
1757  
Battle of Breslau (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians victory
Fought November 22, 1757, between 90,000 Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine, and 25,000 Prussians under the Prince of Bevern. The Prussians, who were encamped under the walls of Breslau, were driven into the city with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 3,600 prisoners, including the Prince of Bevern, and 80 guns. They evacuated the city at once, leaving a garrison of 6,000, which surrendered two days later. The Austrians lost 8,000 killed and wounded.
  
1757  
Battle of Leuthen (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought December 5, 1757, between 33,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and 90,000 Austrians, under Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Daun. Frederick made a feigned attack on the Austrian right wing, and then under cover of the ground withdrew the major part of his force, and strongly attacked the Austrian left, which was driven back and finally overthrown by a charge of cavalry. The Austrians lost 7,000 killed and wounded, 20,000 prisoners, including three generals, and 134 guns. The Prussians lost 5,000 killed and wounded. In consequence of this victory, Breslau surrendered to Frederick, with over 18,000 troops, on December l0.
  
1758  
Battle of Crefeld (French vs. Prussians ) Hanovearians victory
Fought June 23, 1758, between 32,000 Hanoverians, Hessians and Brunswickers under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, and about 50,000 French under the Comte de Clermont. The French were totally defeated, with heavy loss.
  
1758  
Battle of Zorndorf (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought August 25, 1758, between the Prussians, 25,000 strong, under Frederick the Great, and a Russian army, under Fermor, which was besieging Custria. Frederick attacked the Russian entrenchments, and drove them out, with a loss of 19,000 forcing them to relinquish the siege. The Prussians lost about 11,000.
  
1758  
Battle of Hochkirchen (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians victory
Fought October 14, 1758, between the Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and the Austrians, under Count Daun. Frederick, who was encamped on the heights of Hochkirchen, was surprised in the early morning by the Austrians, who broke into his camp and seized his artillery. He succeeded, however, in forming up his troops, and descending into the plain, made good his retreat to Bautzen. The Prussians lost 9,000 men, including the Prince of Brunswick and Marshal Keith, all their tents and baggage, and tot guns. The Austrians lost 8,000 killed and wounded.
  
1758  
Siege of Olmütz (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians victory
This place was besieged by Frederick the Great, May, 1758. Having insufficient troops to completely invest the place, Frederick’s task was a difficult one, and Marshal Daun was able to keep communications open, and supply the town with provisions. After a siege of seven weeks, the Austrians captured a convoy of 4,000 wagons, under the escort of Landon, destined for the Prussian army, and Frederick was forced by this loss to raise the siege, and retire.
  
1759  
Battle of Bergen (French vs. Prussians ) French victory
Fought April 13, 1759, between the French under the Duc de Broglie, and the Hanoverians, about 40,000 strong, under Ferdinand of Brunswick. The French gained a signal victory, and retained possession of Bergen, the recapture of which was the object of Ferdinand's advance.
  
1759  
Battle of Warburg (French vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought July 31, 1759, between the French, 35,000 strong, under the Chevalier de May, and a largely superior force of Prussians and British, under Prince Ferdinand. The French were in danger of their flanks being turned, and after a brief engagement, retired, having lost 1,500 killed and wounded and 1,500 prisoners.
  
1759  
Battle of Minden (French vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought August 1, 1759, between the French, 64,000 strong, under the Marquis de Contades, and the Hanoverians, British and Prussians, 54,000 strong, under Ferdinand of Brunswick. Ferdinand detached a force of 10,000 men to threaten de Contades' rear, and then, attacking strongly, broke the first line of the French. But for the failure of the allies' cavalry to advance, the French would have been routed. As it was, they were able to rally, and effect an orderly retreat, though with a loss of 7,086 killed, wounded and prisoners, 43 guns and 17 standards. The allies lost 2,762, fully a half of this number being in the ranks of the six English regiments present, who bore the brunt of the battle.
  
1759  
Battle of Kunersdorf (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians, Russians victory
Fought August 12, 1759, between 40,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and 80,000 Austrians and Russians, under Generals Landon and Soltykoff. Frederick first attacked the Russians in flank, driving them out of their entrenchments, and capturing 180 guns. Then, against the advice of Seidlitz, he attacked the Austrian position on the left of the allies, and, though deserted by the Russians, the Austrians held their ground, and, bringing all their artillery to bear on the Prussians at close quarters, totally routed them, with a loss of 20,000 men. The allies lost 24,000.
  
1759  
Battle of Campen (French vs. Prussians ) French victory
Fought October 18, 1759, between the Prussians under the Prince of Brunswick, and the French under General de Castries, when the Prussians were defeated with a loss of 1,600 men.
  
1759  
Battle of Maxen (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Austrians victory
Fought November 21, 1759, between the Austrians, under Marshal Daun, and the Prussians, under General Finck. Daun surrounded Finck's position, and after comparatively little fighting compelled him to surrender with over 15,000 men, including 17 generals. Seventeen guns were captured. The casualties on both sides were very small.
  
1760  
Battle of Lignitz (Austrians vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought August 15, 1760. Frederick the Great with 30,000 Prussians was posted near Lignitz, and expecting to be attacked by the Austrians, 90,000 strong, under Count Daun, commenced a retreat towards Parchwitz, and took up a position which, according to Daun's plan was to have been occupied by Landon's corps. Landon, quite unconscious of the presence of the Prussians, marched into the middle of Frederick's lines, and was utterly routed, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, 6,000 prisoners and 82 guns.
  
1760  
Battle of Torgau (French vs. Prussians ) Prussians victory
Fought November 3, 1760, between the Prussians, under Frederick the Great, and the Austrians, under Count Daun. The Austrians, besides being numerically superior, occupied a strong position at Torgau. Frederick divided his forces, and while one portion, under Ziethen, attacked in front, he himself led the rest of his army round the position, and fell upon the Austrian rear. Both attacks were repulsed, but during the night, Ziethen, finding the heights badly guarded, gained them, and seized the batteries, turning a defeat into a signal victory. The Austrians lost 20,000, the Prussians, 13,000, and the victory gave Frederick possession of the whole of Saxony.
  
1761  
Battle of Kirch-Denkern (naval ) Prussians victory
Fought July 16, 1761, between the Prussians, under Prince Ferdinand, and the French, under Soubise and the Due de Broglie. The French attacked the strong Prussian position in and around Kirch-Denkern, and after severe fighting were repulsed with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded.
  

French Revolutionary Wars — 1785 to 1800

Wars following the French Revolution.


1792  
Battle of Valmy (Belgium ) French victory
Fought September 20, 1792, between the French, 70,000 strong, under Dumouriez, and the Prussians, under the Duke of Brunswick. The battle consisted in the main of an artillery duel, in which the French had the upper hand, and after nightfall the Prussians retired, recrossing the frontier two days later.
  
1792  
Battle of Jemappes (Belgium ) French victory
Fought November 6, 1792, between the Austrians, under the Archduke Albert, and the French, under Dumouriez. The Austrians occupied a very strong position on the heights above Jemappes, from which they were driven with heavy loss, the French gaining a signal victory.
  
1793  
Battle of Neerwinden (Belgium ) Austrians victory
Fought March 18, 1793, between the French, under Dumouriez, and the Austrians, under the Prince of Coburg. The Austrians won a signal victory, and in consequence of his defeat Dumouriez was compelled to evacuate Belgium.
  
1793  
Battle of Hondschook (Belgium ) French victory
Fought September, 1793, between the Austrians, under Freytag, and the French, under Houchard. The Austrians occupied a strong position from which they were driven in disorder, and with heavy loss As a consequence of this victory, the siege of Dunkirk was raised.
  
1793  
Battle of Wattignies (Belgium ) French victory
Fought October, 1793, when the French, under Jourdan, attacked the Austrians, under the Duke of Coburg, and drove him from his position, forcing him to raise the siege of Maubeuge.
  
1794  
Battle of Turcoing (Belgium ) French victory
Fought 1794 between the French, under Souham, and the British, under the Duke of York. The British were defeated and driven back upon Tournay.
  
1794  
Battle of Fleurus (Belgium ) French victory
Fought June 16, 1794, between the Austrians, 80,000 strong, under the Duke of Coburg, and an equal force of French, under Jourdan. The Austrians attacked, and after a severe engagement, were repulsed and compelled to fall back in the direction of Brussels to cover that city.
  
1794  
Battle of Mouscron (Rhine Valley-1st ) French victory
Fought 1794, between the French, under Moreau and Souham, and the Austrians, under General Clarifait. The French were victorious.
  
1794  
Battle of Bois-le-Duc (Belgium ) Austrians victory
Fought November 12, 1794, between the French and Austrians under the Duke of York, and the French under Moreau. Moreau's object was to enter Holland at a period when the dykes would be no obstacle to his advance, and for the purpose endeavored to cross the Meuse at Fort Crevecmur, near Bois-le-Duc. The allies however, disputed his passage so vigorously that Moreau was forced to retire, and give up his project.
  
1795  
Battle of Aix-la-Chapelle (Colonial-indonesia ) Austrians victory
Fought March 3, 1795, between the French under Miranda and the Austrians under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The French were totally defeated, and fled in disorder, with a loss of 3,500 killed and wounded and 1,500 prisoners.
  
1793  
Siege of Toulon (Eastern Gaul ) French victory
On August 29, 1793, Toulon, which had opened its gates to the British, and was held by a small garrison, under Lord Mulgrave, was besieged by the French, under Dugommier. By December 18, most of the landward defenses had been carried, and the place having become untenable, Lord Mulgrave carried off his troops by sea. This siege is chiefly memorable as being the first important appearance of Napoleon, who commanded the artillery.
  
1796  
Battle of Wartzburg (Rhine Valley-1st ) Austrians victory
Fought 1796, between the French, under Jourdan, and the Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. The Archduke interposed between the armies of Jourdan and Moreau, who were endeavoring to effect a junction, and inflicted a severe defeat upon Jourdan, forcing him to retire to the Rhine.
  
1796  
Battle of Biberac (Rhine Valley-1st ) French victory
Fought October, 1796, between the French under Moreau, and the Austrians under the Archduke Charles, who had previously defeated Jourdan at Warzburg, and now turned upon Moreau, who was retreating through the Black Forest. Moreau severely defeated the Austrians, and continued his retreat unmolested.
  
1796  
Battle of Rastadt (Rhine Valley-1st ) French victory
Fought 1796, between the French, under Moreau, and the Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. After a severe engagement Moreau succeeded in seizing the heights held by the Austrians, and forced Charles to retreat to the Danube.
  
1797  
Battle of Neuwied (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought April 18, 1797, between the French, 80,000 strong, under Hoche, and the Austrians, under Werneck. Hoche won a signal victory, driving the Austrians beyond the Lahn, with a loss of 8,000 men and 80 guns.
  
1799  
Battle of Alessandria (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought June 18, 1799, between the French, 14,000 strong under Moreau, and the Imperialists under Bellegarde. The French gained a signal victory, the loss of the Imperialists being 1,500 men and 5 guns.
  
1799  
Battle of Bergen-op-Zoom (Rhine Valley-2nd ) British-Russian victory
In the outskirts of the town a battle took place September 19,1799, between 35,000 British and Russians under the Duke of York, and the French under Vandamme. The Russians on the right met with disaster, their commander, Hermann, with nearly all his division, being taken prisoners, but the British repulsed the French attack with heavy loss. The victory, however, was not of much advantage to the allies, who were forced to continue their retreat to Zijp. The French lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, and the British 500 only, but the Russian casualties amounted to 3,500, while they also lost 26 guns.
  
1799  
Battle of Alkmaar (Rhine Valley-2nd ) British-Russian victory
Fought October 2, 1799, between 30,000 British and Russians under the Duke of York, and the French, in about equal strength, under Brune. The action began by the Russians driving in the French advanced posts. Meanwhile the Duke of York had outflanked them, and as soon as he was in position a simultaneous attack on the French left and centre forced Brune to abandon the key of his position, Alkmaar, which was at once occupied by the allies.
  
1799  
Battle of Stockack (Rhine Valley-2nd ) Austrians victory
Fought 1799, between the French, under Jourdan, and the Austrians, 60,000 strong, under the Archduke Charles. The French were defeated and driven back upon the Rhine.
  
1800  
Battle of Engen (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought May 3, 1800, between the French, 75,000 strong, under Moreau, and 110,000 Austrians under De Kray. Moreau had crossed the Rhine on the 1st, and was advancing through the Black Forest, and the battle was in reality two distinct actions. Moreau's right, 25,000 strong, under Lecourbe, overtook the Austrian rear-guard, and drove them into and through Stokach, capturing 4,000 prisoners, and a large depot of munitions and stores. Moreau in the centre was attacked at Engen by 40,000 Austrians, under De Kray, whom he repulsed with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and 5,000 prisoners. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded.
  
1800  
Battle of Moskirch (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought May 5, 1800, between 50,000 French, under Moreau, and 60,000 Austrians, under de Kray. The French advance-guard, under Lecourbe, approaching Moskirch found the heights strongly held by the Austrians, and attempted to carry them, but without success. The arrival of the main body, however, turned the scale, and the Austrians were obliged to abandon all their positions, with a loss of about 5,000 men. The French lost about 3,500.
  
1800  
Battle of Erbach (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought May 15, 1800, between 15,000 French under Sainte-Suzanne, and 36,000 Austrians under de Kray, The Austrians, who had 12,000 cavalry, attacked vigorously, but the French, though driven back at certain points, were not routed, and held to their main positions for 12 hours, until the approach of St. Cyr's corps forced the Austrians to retire. Both sides lost heavily in the action.
  
1800  
Battle of Hochstett (Rhine Valley-2nd ) French victory
Fought June 19, 1800, between 70,000 French, under Moreau, and about 80,000 Austrians, under de Kray. Moreau crossed the Danube with the object of cutting off the Austrians from their base, and forcing them to evacuate Ulm. In a battle which lasted 18 hours, he succeeded in establishing himself upon the left bank, and making Ulm untenable. The French took 5,000 prisoners and 20 guns, but the losses on both sides in killed and wounded were small for the numbers engaged.
  
1800  
Battle of Hohenlinden (Royalist Rebellion ) French victory
Fought December 3, 1800, between the French, 60,000 strong, under Moreau, and 70,000 Austrians, under the Archduke John. Moreau occupied the small clearing of Hohenlinden, and the surrounding forest, while the Austrian army marched by five distinct routes to rendezvous at Hohenlinden. The Archduke's attack on the village was repulsed, and meanwhile Moreau had fallen upon his advancing columns atvarious points, and after severe fighting defeated them. The Austrians lost 7,000 killed and wounded, 12,000 prisoners and 87 guns.
  
1798  
Battle of Malta (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
On June 9, 1798 on his way to Egypt, Napoleon requested a landing of his fleet at Malta to gather provisions at the port of Valletta. Upon landing he turned his cannons on the forts and took the island.
  
1798  
Battle of Pyramids (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) French victory
Fought July 21, 1798, when the Mameluke army, under Murad Bey, endeavoured to arrest Napoleon's march on Cairo. The Mameluke infantry, numbering about 20,000, took no part in the fight, but their cavalry, perhaps at that time the finest in the world, charged the French squares with the utmost gallantry. They were, however, repulsed time after time, with great slaughter, and were eventually driven into the Nile, where the shattered remnants escaped by swimming.
  
1798  
Battle of Nile (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
Fought August 1, 1798, Admiral Brueys, with 13 ships of the line and 4 frigates, was anchored in Aboukir Bay. Nelson, with 13 line-of-battleships and one 50-gun ship, penetrated with half his squadron between the French line and the shore, while his remaining ships engaged them on the outside. Thus caught between two fires, the French were utterly routed, only two of their vessels escaping capture or destruction. Admiral Brueys was killed, and his ship L'Orient blown up. This battle is also known as the Battle of Aboukir.
  
1799  
Siege of Acre (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) Turks victory
The city was besieged March 17, 1799, by the French under Napoleon, and defended by the Turks under Djezzar, and a small force of British seamen under Sir Sidney Smith. An assault on the 28th was repulsed with loss, and then a threatened attack by a Syrian army forced Napoleon to withdraw a large portion of his troops. On the resumption of the siege, no less than seven more assaults were delivered, while the French had to meet eleven sallies of the besieged, but they were unable to effect a lodgment, and on May 21 Napoleon reluctantly raised the siege. The fall of Acre would have placed the whole of Syria, and possibly of the Turkish Empire, in the hands of the French.
  
1799  
Battle of Mount Tabor (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) French victory
Fought April 15, 1799, when Napoleon defeated and dispersed the Syrian army raised to create a diversion in favour of the beleaguered garrison of Acre. Kleber's division bore the brunt of the fighting.
  
1799  
Battle of Aboukir (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) French victory
Fought July 5, 1799, Napoleon attacking the position held by Mustapha Pasha, who had recently landed in Egypt at the head of 18,000 Turks. The French were completely successful, two-thirds of the Turkish troops being killed or driven into the sea, while 6,000, with the Pasha, surrendered.
  
1800  
Battle of Heliopolis (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) French victory
Fought March 20, 1800, between 10,000 French, under Kleber, and about 70,000 Turks, under Ibrahim Bey. The Turks were utterly routed, with a loss of several thousand men, while the French only lost about 300 killed and wounded.
  
1800  
Siege of Valetta (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
The capital of Malta, held by a French garrison, 60,000 strong, under General Vaubois, was besieged September, 1798, by a force of British and Maltese, under Sir Alexander Ball. Vaubois held out for two years, but on September 5, 1800, was compelled by famine to surrender. The Maltese lost during the siege 20,000 men.
  
1801  
Battle of Aboukir (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
Fought March 8, 1801, when 5,000 British under Sir Ralph Abercromby disembarked on the beach at Aboukir, in the face of a force of 2,000 French under General Friant. The landing was effected under a heavy musketry and artillery fire, which cost the assailants 1,100 killed and wounded, and the French were driven from their positions with a loss of 500 men.
  
1801  
Battle of Alexandria (Italian Campaign-1st ) British victory
Fought March 21, 1801, between the French under General Menou, and the British expeditionary force under Sir Ralph Abercromby. The French cavalry charged the British right, but were repulsed, and after hard fighting the French were defeated and driven under the walls of Alexandria. Among those who fell was Sir Ralph Abercromby, mortally wounded.
  
1794  
Battle of Ushant (Naval ) British victory
This action, generally known as the "Glorious First of June," was fought June 1, 1794, between a British fleet of 25 sail of the line, under Lord Howe, and 26 French ships, under Villaret. After four hours' fighting the French were defeated, with a loss of 6 ships captured, and one, the Vengeur, sunk. The sinking of this ship was elaborated by the French into a fable, to the effect that she refused to surrender, and went down with all hands and colours flying. She had, however, undoubtedly struck her colours, and her captain and over 200 of her crew were rescued by the boats of the British fleet. The French admitted a loss of 3,000 men, besides prisoners, while the British lost 922 killed and wounded.
  
1795  
Battle of Genoa (Naval ) British victory
Fought March 13, 1795, between a British fleet of 14 sail of the line under Admiral Hotham, and a French fleet of 15 sail. The action lasted throughout the day, and on the following morning the French retired, leaving two line-of-battle ships in the hands of the British. The British lost 74 killed and 284 wounded.
  
1795  
Battle of Belle Isle (Naval ) British victory
Fought June 23, 1795, between a British fleet of 17 battleships under Lord Bridport, and a French squadron. The French endeavoured to escape, but the British gave chase, and captured three ships, with a loss of 3 killed and 113 wounded. The French lost about 700.
  
1797  
Battle of Cape St. Vincent (Naval ) British victory
Fought February 14, 1797, between a British fleet of 15 ships of the line and 5 frigates under Sir John Jervis, and a Spanish fleet of 26 sail of the line and 12 frigates. In spite of their superior numbers, the Spaniards were totally defeated, losing 4 ships and over 3,000 prisoners, in addition to heavy losses in killed and wounded. The British lost 74 killed and 227 wounded. For this signal victory, Jervis was created Lord St. Vincent.
  
1797  
Battle of Camperdown (Naval ) British victory
Fought between the British fleet, 16 line of battle ships, under Admiral Duncan, and the Dutch, in equal force, under Admiral de Winter, October 1797. The Dutch fleet was on its way to co-operate with the French in a landing in Ireland, and was intercepted by Duncan, who at once gave battle. The British fleet, in two lines, broke through the Dutch line, and, in the general action which followed, captured eight ships, including the flagship, the Vrijheid. The British lost 1,040 killed and wounded, the Dutch 1,160 and 6,000 prisoners.
  
1801  
Battle of Copenhagen (Naval ) British victory
Fought April 2, 1801, between the British fleet of 20 sail of the line, besides frigates, under Admirals Hyde Parker and Nelson, and the Danish fleet of to line of battleships, aided by the shore batteries. Nelson attacked with 12 ships, Parker remaining in reserve, but three of Nelson's vessels running aground, he met the Danish line with 9 only. The Danes offered a strenuous resistance, and Parker hoisted the signal to retire, but Nelson put the telescope to his blind eye, and refused to see the signal. The action continued until the Danish fire was silenced. The British lost 1,200 men, and had six vessels seriously damaged. The Danes had one ship destroyed, and the rest of their fleet completely disabled. The result of this victory was the dissolution of the league of the Northern Powers.
  
1801  
Battle of Algeciras Bay (OP GBOKBBLKBJBBKNBVVGVV VVVVVVVVVBVVV VHBGBHHHU ) British victory
Fought July 8, 1801, between a British squadron of 7 ships of the line, 1 frigate and 1 brig, under Sir James Saumarez, and a French squadron of 3 line-of-battle ships and 1 frigate, under Admiral Linois. The French were aided by the Spanish gun-boats and the shore batteries, and Saumarez lost the Hannibal, which ran ashore, and was captured by the French. The British lost 121 killed and 240 wounded. The French lost 306 killed. On July 12, the French squadron, which had been reinforced meanwhile by 5 Spanish ships of the line, was again attacked by Sir James Saumarez, who succeeded in capturing the St. Antoine and blowing up the Hermenegilda. The British lost only 17 killed and 100 wounded; the allies, 2,000, chiefly in the Hermenegilda.
  

French Campaign in Italy—1796 to 1801

Napoleon conquers Northern Italy for the French Revolutionary Government


     Napoleon's First Campaign in Italy, 1796-97
1796  
Battle of Montenotte (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought April 10 and 11, 1796, when d'Argentian, with the central division of the Austro-Sardinian army, attacked the French position at Montenotte, held by Cervoni's division. Cervoni was driven back, but the key to the position was held throughout the day by Tampon, with 1,500 men, and on the 12th d'Argentian found himself out-flanked by Augereau and Massena, and was compelled to fall back, with a loss of 1,000 killed, 2,000 prisoners, and some guns. This was Napoleon's first victory.
  
1796  
Battle of Millesimo (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought April 13, 1796, when the divisions of Augereau, Massena and La Harpe attacked the Austrians, strongly entrenched, under General Colli, and after severe fighting, drove them back, thus cutting Colli's communications with General Beaulieu, the Austrian Commander-in-Chief. The Austro-Sardinians lost about 6,000 men and 30 guns, and all effective co-operation between the two wings was at an end. Also called the Battle of Monte Lezino.
  
1796  
Battle of Bridge of Lodi (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought May 10, 1796, during Napoleon's pursuit of the retiring Austro-Sardinian army, under Beaulieu. The bridge over the Adda was defended by the Austrian rear-guard, with some 20 guns, commanding passage. Napoleon sent a force of cavalry round by a ford to take the defenders in rear, and then rushed the bridge, the stormers being led by Berthier and Massena, while Napoleon himself was in the thick of the fighting. The French loss is said not to have exceeded 400, while the Austrians lost in the action and subsequent pursuit, 2,000 killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners, and 20 guns.
  
1796  
Battle of Borghetto (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought May 30, 1796, in the course of Napoleon's pursuit of Beaulieu. The French crossed the Mincio at Borghetto, having previously repaired the bridge under a heavy fire, and forced the Austrians to evacuate Feschiera, with a loss of 500 prisoners, besides killed and wounded.
  
1796  
Siege of Mantua (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
This city was invested by Napoleon June 4, 1796, and was defended by 14,000 Austrians, under General Canto d'Irles. The siege was vigorously prosecuted, but the approach of Wurmser with a large Austrian army forced Napoleon to concentrate his forces, and he raised the siege July 31, After a brief campaign, which resulted in the dispersal of Wurmser's army, that general, with the remnant of his forces, was shut up in the city, which was again closely invested September 19. Wurmser held out till his provisions were exhausted, when, on February 2, 1997, he surrendered, with 20,000 men, of whom only 10,000 were, fit for service. It is computed that 27,000 perished during the siege.
  
1796  
Battle of Castiglione (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought August 3, 1796, between the French under Napoleon, and the Imperialists under Wurmser. Napoleon, with 25,000 men, advanced upon Lonato, while Augereau moved upon Castiglione. Lonato was carried by assault, and the Austrian army cut in two. One part under General Bazalitch effected a retreat to the Mincio, but the other section was cut up by a French division under Guyeaux and Junot's dragoons, near Salo, losing 3,000 prisoners and 20 guns. In the portion of the action fought near Castiglione, the Austrians were defeated with a loss of 2,000 men, after a desperate encounter, and driven back upon Mantua. On the 4th, Napoleon at Lonato, with only 12,000 men, was summoned to surrender by a portion of Bazalitch's force, 4,000 strong. Napoleon, however, succeeded in making the messenger think that he was in the middle of the main French army, and consequently the whole Austrian detachment laid down their arms.
  
1796  
Battle of Medola (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought August 5, 1796, between the French, 23,000 strong, under Napoleon, and 25,000 Austrians, under Wurmser. The Austrians were totally defeated, and driven back to Roveredo, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners and 20 guns. Prior to this defeat Wurmser had succeeded in revictualling Mantua, but at very heavy cost, the Austrian losses during the three days' fighting, from the 3rd to the 5th, amounting to 20,000 men and 60 guns.
  
1796  
Battle of Roveredo (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought September 4, 1796, between 25,000 Austrians, under Davidowich, and the main body of Napoleon's army. Napoleon attacked the Austrian entrenched position, and in spite of a determined defense, carried it, driving the enemy out of Roveredo with heavy loss, including 7,000 prisoners and 15 guns. This victory enabled Massena to occupy Trent, and the remnants of the Austrian army were driven headlong into the Tyrol.
  
1796  
Battle of Primolano (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought September 7, 1796, when Napoleon surprised and totally routed the vanguard of Wurmser's army. The Austrians lost over 4,000 killed, wounded and prisoners.
  
1796  
Battle of Bassano (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought September 8, 1796, when Napoleon, who had on the previous day destroyed the Austrian vanguard at Primolano, fell upon the main body of Wurmser's army. The assault on the town of Bassano was delivered by Augereau's division on the right, and Massena's on the left, and the French utterly routed the Austrians, Wurmser narrowly escaping capture. Six thousand men laid down their arms, and when Wurmser collected his scattered forces, he had but 16,000 left out of the 60,000 with which he had commenced the campaign.
  
1796  
Battle of Caldiero (Italian Campaign-1st ) Austrians victory
Fought November 11, 1796, between the French under Napoleon and the Austrians under Alvinzi. Napoleon attacked the Austrian position, and, for the first time in the campaign, suffered a reverse, being unable to carry the enemy's lines, and eventually, after severe fighting, retiring with a loss of 3,000. Within the week, however, this defeat was avenged by the victory of Arcola.
  
1796  
Battle of Arcola (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought November 15, 16, and 17, 1796, between the main Austrian army under Alvinzi, and the French under Napoleon. Napoleon's object was to drive back Alvinzi before he could effect a junction with Davidowich, who was descending from the Tyrol. The village of Arcola was occupied on the 15th, after severe fighting, in which Napoleon was in great personal danger on the bridge, but it was evacuated during the night. On the 16th Napoleon again attacked the village, but the Austrians held their ground. On the 17th he turned the position, and Davidowich still remaining inactive, Alvinzi was driven back, with losses variously estimated at from 8,000 to 18,000. The French also lost heavily.
  
1797  
Battle of Rivoli (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought January 14, 1797, when the Austrians, with five divisions, under Alvinzi, attacked Napoleon's position on the heights of Rivoli. The position proved too strong to be carried, and Napoleon's superb handling of his troops resulted in the total defeat of the assailants. The fifth Austrian division, which had not taken part in the frontal attack, appeared in the rear of the French position after the battle was over, and being forced by overwhelming numbers, laid down its arms. Massena, who had specially distinguished himself, took his title from this battle when later ennobled by Napoleon.
  
1797  
Battle of La Favorita (Italian Campaign-1st ) French victory
Fought January 16, 1797, between the French, under Napoleon, and the Austrians, under Provera. Provera moved upon Mantua to succour the beleaguered garrison, and was aided by a sortie in force. Napoleon, making a forced march from the field of Rivoli, fell upon Provera and totally routed him, while the sortie was repulsed by the French besieging force at the point of the bayonet. Provera surrendered, with 5,000 men.
  
1797  
Battle of Imola (Italian Campaign-2nd ) French victory
Fought February 3, 1797, when 8,000 French and Italians, under Victor, defeated the Papal troops, 7,000 strong, under General Colli. Victor took the Papal army in the rear, and routed them with a loss of a few hundred only, as no stand was made.
  
     Russian/Austrian Offensive of 1799
1799  
Battle of San Giovanni (Italian Campaign-2nd ) Russians victory
Fought June 17, 1799, between the French, under Macdonald, and the Russians, under Suwaroff. After three days' hard fighting, the French were forced to retreat, having suffered a loss of 6,000 killed and wounded and 9,000 prisoners. The Russian losses were about 6,000.
  
1799  
Battle of Trebbia (Italian Campaign-2nd ) Russians victory
Fought June 19 to 21, 1799, between the French, under Macdonald, and the Russians, under Suwaroff. After a severe conflict the French were totally defeated and driven beyond the Apennines, being obliged shortly afterwards to evacuate Italy.
  
1799  
Battle of Novi (Italian Campaign-2nd ) Russians victory
Fought August 15, 1799, between the French, under Joubert, and the Russians and Austrians, under Suwaroff. Early in the action Joubert fell, Moreau succeeding to the command. The result was disastrous to the French, who were defeated with a loss of 7,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 prisoners, and 37 guns. The allies lost 6,000 killed and wounded and 1,200 prisoners.
  
     Napoleon Returns to Italy, 1800
1800  
Siege of Genoa (Naval ) Austrians victory
In April, 1800, Genoa, held by the French, under Massena, was besieged by the Austrians under General Melas, and later in the siege under General Ott. The city had for some time been blockaded on the seaward side by the British fleet, under Lord Keith. Provisions were consequently scarce, and notwithstanding some successful sorties, Massena was forced to capitulate, June 5, the garrison marching out without laying down their arms.
  
1800  
Battle of Montebello (Italian Campaign-2nd ) French victory
Fought June 9, 1800, between the French, under Napoleon, and the Austrians, under General Ott. Napoleon, being ignorant of the fall of Genoa, was marching to the relief of that city, when his advanced guard, under Lannes, was attacked by Ott, who was endeavoring to effect a junction with Melas. Lannes held his ground until reinforcements arrived, when he assumed the offensive, and drove the Austrians from the field with heavy loss, capturing 5,000 prisoners.
  
1800  
Battle of Marengo (Italian Campaign-2nd ) French victory
Fought June 14, 1800, between 30,000 French, under Napoleon, and 40,000 Austrians, under Melas. The Austrians attacked, and drove back in disorder the first line under Victor, and, following up their success, a serious defeat for Napoleon seemed inevitable, when the arrival of the reserve corps under Desaix turned the scale. Under cover of his attack, the broken divisions reformed, and the Austrians were finally repulsed at all points, and fled in disorder. Desaix was killed at the head of his troops.
  
1800  
Battle of Caldiero (Italian Campaign-2nd ) French victory
On November 30, 1800, Massena, with 50,000 French, encountered the Austrians, 80,000 strong, under the Archduke Charles, strongly posted in the village and on the heights of Caldiero. Massena attacked and carried the heights, but the village held out until nightfall. During the night the Archduke removed his baggage and artillery, leaving a corps of 5,000 men, under General Hillinger, to protect his retreat, which force was on the following day captured en bloc. The Austrians lost 3,000 killed and wounded, and, including Hillinger's corps, 8,000 prisoners; the French about 4,000 killed and wounded. Thus, though the battle was indecisive, Massena gained a considerable strategic victory.
  

Napoleonic Wars — 1801 to 1814

Rise and fall of Napoleon's French Empire in Europe.


1805  
Battle of Wertingen (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October, 1805, between the cavalry of Murat's corps, and nine Austrian battalions, strongly posted in and round Wertingen. The Austrians were defeated, losing 2,000 prisoners and several guns, and had the French infantry been nearer at hand, it is probable that the whole force would have been captured.
  
1805  
Battle of Gunzburg (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October 9, 1805, when Ney's corps carried the three bridges over the Danube, at or near this town, driving off the Austrians with a loss of 300 killed and wounded, and 1,000 prisoners.
  
1805  
Battle of Haslach (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October 11, 1805, when General Dupont, with 6,000 French, marching upon Ulm, was suddenly confronted with an army of Austrians, 60,000 strong, strongly posted on the Michelberg. Dupont at once seized and entrenched the village of Hanau, which he held until dark against 25,000 Austrians, under the Archduke Ferdinand. After nightfall he withdrew, carrying off 4,000 prisoners.
  
1805  
Battle of Elchingen (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October 14, 1805, when Ney's corps, after repairing the bridge of Elchingen under fire, stormed and captured the convent and village, driving out 20,000 Austrians, and taking 3,000 prisoners and a number of guns.
  
1805  
Battle of Michelberg (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October 16, 1805. Ney's corps stormed the heights of the Michelberg at the same time that Lannes carried the Frauenberg, driving the Austrians back into Ulm, where on the 17th General Mack capitulated with 30,000 men.
  
1805  
Battle of Trafalgar (Naval Wars-4th ) British victory
Fought October 21, 1805, between the British fleet of 27 sail of the line and 4 frigates, under Nelson, with Collingwood second in command, and the combined French and Spanish fleets, numbering 33 sail of the line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Villeneuve. Nelson attacked in two lines, and destroying the enemy's formation, completely defeated them, 20 ships striking their colours. Nelson fell in the moment of victory, while the Spanish Admiral was killed, and Villeneuve captured. Most of the prizes were lost in a heavy gale which sprang up after the battle, but the destruction of Villeneuve's fleet put an end to Napoleon's scheme for an invasion of England. The British lost 1,587 killed and wounded, the losses of the allies being far heavier.
  
1805  
Battle of Amstetten (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought November 5, 1805, when the Russians retiring on Vienna fought a rear-guard action against Murat's cavalry and a portion of Lannes' corps, in which they were defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners.
  
1805  
Battle of Maria Zell (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought November 8, 1805, during the French advance on Vienna, between Davoust's corps, and the Austrian corps, under General von Meerfeld. The Austrians were defeated and driven off in disorder, leaving 4,000 prisoners in the hands of the French.
  
1805  
Battle of Dürenstein (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought November 11, 1805, during Napoleon's advance on Vienna, when Mortier, with one French division, was attacked by 30,000 Russians, and would have been overwhelmed but for the timely arrival of another division. The French lost 3,000; the Russians about the same number.
  
1805  
Battle of Hollabrunn (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
A rearguard action to protect the retreat of the main Russian army, under Kutusoff, November 16, 1805, between 7,000 Russians, under Prince Bagration, and the French, under Lannes. Bagration did not retire until he had lost half his force.
  
1805  
Battle of Austerlitz (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought December 2, 1805, between 50,000 Russians and 25,000 Austrians under Kutusoff, and 75,000 French under Napoleon. An attempt to turn the French flank failed, and led to the left of the allies being entirely cut off from their centre. Their left and centre were thus beaten in detail, and the right, which had at first held its own, was surrounded, and driven in disorder across a partially frozen lake, where many perished. The allies lost 20,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, and a large number of guns. The French lost about 5,000. The battle is called the Battle of the Three Emperors, those of Russia, Austria, and France being all present with their respective armies.
  
1806  
Battle of Saalfeld (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought October 10, 1806, between 7,000 Prussians, under Prince Louis of Prussia, and a division of Lannes' corps, under the Marshal himself. The Prussian infantry was broken and driven under the walls of Saalfield, whereupon the prince put himself at the head of his cavalry, and charged the advancing French. The charge was repulsed, and the Prince refusing to surrender was cut down and killed. The Prussians lost in this action 400 killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners, and 20 guns.
  
1806  
Battle of Jena (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
This name is generally given to the two battles fought October 14, 1806, by the two wings of the French army under Napoleon, at Auerstadt and Jena. At Auerstadt the Prussian left, 70,000 strong, under the Duke of Brunswick, was encountered by the French right, under Davoust, with slightly inferior numbers, and after very severe fighting, were defeated, the Duke of Brunswick being killed. Napoleon, on the left, with 100,000 men, attacked the Prince of Hohenlohe with 70,000 Prussians, and after a sternly fought engagement, drove him from the field. The two defeated armies, retiring by converging routes upon Weimar, the retreat became a rout, and Napoleon's pursuing cavalry caused them further heavy losses. The Prussians in the two actions lost 22,000 killed and wounded, 18,000 prisoners and 300 guns. Twenty generals were killed, wounded or captured. The French lost 11,000 killed and wounded, 7,000 of whom fell at Auerstadt.
  
1806  
Battle of Czarnovo (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought December 24, 1806, between the French under Napoleon, and the Russians, about 15,000 strong, under Count Tolstoy. Napoleon, with Dayoust's corps, crossed the Ukra, and made a night attack upon the Russians, driving them out of Czarnovo with a loss of 1,600 and several guns. The French lost 700.
  
1806  
Battle of Pultusk (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought December 26, 1806, between 43,000 Russians, under Bennigsen, and 18,000 French, under Lannes. Lannes endeavoured to pierce the Russian left and cut them off from the town, but he did not succeed in getting through, and in this part of the field the action was indecisive. On the left the French did little more than hold their own, but the Russians retired during the night, having lost 3,000 killed and wounded, 2,000 prisoners, and a large number of guns. The French admitted a loss of 1,500 only, but this is probably an understatement, Russian accounts estimating the French losses at 8,000.
  
1807  
Battle of Mohrungen (Campaign of Friedland ) Russians victory
Fought January 25, 1807, between 10,000 French, under Bernadotte, and 14,000 Russians, under General Marhof. The French were defeated with a loss of about 1,000 killed and wounded.
  
1807  
Battle of Bergfried (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought February 3, 1807, when Leval's division of Soult's corps forced the bridge of Burgfried, and carried the village, driving out the Russians after a short and sharp encounter, with a loss of about 1,200 men. The French lost 700.
  
1807  
Battle of Waltersdorf (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought February 5, 1807, between the French, under Ney, and the Prussian corps of Lestocq. The Prussians were defeated with a loss of about 3,000 killed, wounded and missing.
  
1807  
Battle of Eylau (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought February 8, 1807, between 90,000 French under Napoleon, and 80,000 Russians under Bennigsen. Napoleon attacked at daybreak, all along the line, but could at first make no impression on the Russian infantry. Later in the day Davoust all but succeeded in turning the Russian left, but the opportune arrival of a Prussian corps under l'Estocq enabled the Russians to repulse him, and after a sanguinary engagement, which lasted till ten p.m., both armies retained their original positions, On the following day the Russians retired unmolested. The French lost about 30,000; the Russians about 20,000 killed and wounded.
  
1807  
Siege of Dantzig (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
On March 19, 1807, Marshal Lefebvre, with 18,000 French, laid siege to the city, which was defended by a garrison of 14,000 Prussians, and 4,000 Russians under Marshal Kalkreuth. For complete investment it was necessary for Lefebvre to encompass a circuit of about 17 leagues, for which purpose his numbers were too few, and he made little progress. Receiving reinforcements, however, he opened his first parallel April 1, while on the 12th an important outwork was carried. On the 23rd the batteries opened fire, and on May 15 a determined effort to relieve the place was made by a force of 8,000 Russians, who were repulsed with a loss of 2,000, the French losing 400 only. From this point the city was left to its fate, and an assault was ordered for the 21st. Before this date however, Marshal Kalkreuth signified his readiness to parley, and on May 26 the place was surrendered, the garrison being then reduced to 7,000 effectives.
  
1807  
Battle of Heilsberg (Campaign of Friedland ) French victory
Fought June 10, 1807, between 30,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and 80,000 Russians, under General Bennigsen. The Russians occupied the heights on both sides of the Alle, and the plains below, being in greater force on the left bank. The French attacked and drove the Russians into the entrenchments, but could make no further progress, and night put an end to an obstinate but inconclusive conflict, in which the Russians lost about 10,000, the French, 8,000 killed and wounded.
  
1809  
Battle of Sacile (Campaign of Wagram ) Austrians victory
Fought April 16, 1809, between 45,000 Austrians, under the Archduke John, and 36,000 French and Italians, under Eugene Beauharnais, Regent of Italy. After hard fighting, in which little generalship was shown on either side, a flank movement of the Austrians, which menaced the French line of retreat, forced Eugene to retire, victory thus resting with the Austrians. The losses were about equal on the two sides.
  
1809  
Battle of Raszyn (Campaign of Wagram ) Austrians victory
Fought April 19, 1809, between 30,000 Austrians, under the Archduke Ferdinand, and about 20,000 French and Poles, under Poniatowski. The Archduke was marching on Warsaw when Poniatowski, to whom the defense of that city had been entrusted, came out to meet him, and after a stubborn fight in the woods and marshes round Raszyn, was driven back upon Warsaw, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded. A few days later he surrendered the city to the Austrians to save it from a bombardment.
  
1809  
Battle of Abensberg (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought April 20, 1809, between the French and Bavarians under Napoleon, about 90,000 strong, and the Austrians, 80,000 in number, under the Archduke Charles. On the French left, Lanne's corps drove back the Austrians, after a feeble resistance. In the centre the Bavarians were hard pressed, but eventually Napoleon succeeded in turning the Austrian flank, left exposed by the defeat of their right, and Charles was forced to retreat. The Austrians lost 7,000, the French and Bavarians about 3,000 killed and wounded.
  
1809  
Battle of Eckmühl (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought April 22, 1809, between 90,000 French, under Napoleon, and 76,000 Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. The Austrians occupied a position on the high ground above Eckmühl, from which they were dislodged after severe fighting, but the approach of night enabled the Archduke to draw off his troops in tolerable order towards Ratisbon, with a loss of about 5,000 killed and wounded, and 3,000 prisoners. The French loss is stated at 2,500. By this victory Napoleon cut the main Austrian army in two.
  
1809  
Battle of Ebersberg (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought May 3, 1809, when Massena's corps stormed the bridge and castle of Ebersberg, which was held by about 30,000 Austrians under the Archduke Charles. After the bridge was captured, a terrible conflict followed in the streets of Ebersberg, and finally the Austrians were driven out, with a loss of about 3,000 killed and wounded, 4,000 prisoners and many guns. The French admit a loss of 1,700 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Aspern (Campaign of Wagram ) Austrians victory
Fought May 21 and 22, 1809, between 36,000 French under Napoleon, and 70,000 Austrians under the Archduke Charles. The battle commenced about four p.m. on the 21st by an attack on the French position at Aspern, and at nightfall the Austrians had established a lodgment in the village. On the 22nd, both armies having been reinforced during the night, the combat was renewed round Aspern, which was taken and retaken ten times, while Essling was the scene of an equally desperate conflict. Towards evening the bridge by which Napoleon had crossed the Danube was swept away, and Napoleon was compelled to retire. Each side lost about 20,000 men, and both claimed the victory. Among the French who fell were Marshal Lannes and General St. Hilaire.
  
1809  
Battle of Raab (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought June 14, 1809, between. 44,000 French, under Eugene Beauharnais, and about 40,000 Austrians, under the Archduke John. The French attacked the Austrian position, and driving them successively from the villages of Kismegyer and Szabadhegy, totally defeated them. Under cover of night, however, the Archduke was able to make an orderly retirement, with a loss of about 3,000 killed and wounded and 2,500 prisoners. The French lost something over 2,000.
  
1809  
Battle of Wagram (Campaign of Wagram ) French victory
Fought July 6, 1809, between 150,000 French, under Napoleon, and 140,000 Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. Napoleon crossed the lesser arm of the Danube from the Island of Lobau, on the night of the 4th and 5th July, and driving the Austrian advanced posts before him, prepared to attack their main position. An attack upon them on the evening of the 5th was repulsed. On the 6th the Austrians attacked the French right, under Davoust, but were unsuccessful; later, however, the French centre and left were compelled to give ground, but Napoleon bringing up the artillery of the Guard and Macdonald's corps, checked the Austrian advance, while Davoust carried the heights on the Austrian left, outflanking them, and rendering their position untenable. By three o'clock they were in full retreat, having lost about 24,000 killed and wounded, 9,000 prisoners, including 12 generals, and 20 guns. The French lost 18,000 killed and wounded.
  
1809  
Battle of Znaim (Campaign of Walcheren ) French victory
Fought July 14, 1809, when Massena, with 8,000 French, attacked 30,000 Austrians, under the Prince of Reuss, and drove them into Znaim with considerable loss, including 800 prisoners.
  
1812  
Battle of Mohilev (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought July 23, 1812, between 28,000 French, under Davoust, and 60,000 Russians, under Prince Bagration. Bagration attacked Davoust in a strong position, which counter-balanced the great disparity of numbers, and the Russians were repulsed with a loss of about 4,000. The French lost barely 1,000.
  
1812  
Battle of Polotsk (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought August 18, 1812, between 33,000 French and Bavarians, under General Saint Cyr, and 30,000 Russians, under Count Wittgenstein. The Russians were taken by surprise, and after an action which lasted two hours only, were driven back with a loss of 3,000 killed, 1,500 prisoners and 14 guns. The French lost a little over 1,000 killed and wounded.
  
1812  
Battle of Valutinagora (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought August 19, 1812, between Ney's corps, about 30,000 strong, and a strong rear-guard of Barclay de Tolly's army, about 40,000 strong, under Barclay de Tolly in person. The Russians were strongly posted in marshy ground, protected by a small stream. The French, attacking resolutely, carried the Russian position in the face of enormous natural difficulties. Each side lost about 7,000 men.
  
1812  
Battle of Borodino (Moscow Campaign ) drawn battle victory
Fought September 5, 1812, between 120,000 Russians under Kutusoff, and the French in equal force under Napoleon. The Russians, who were entrenched in a very strong position, were attacked soon after daybreak, and their first line of redoubts was carried and held by the French till the end of the day, but the victory was far from decisive, as at nightfall Napoleon retired to his original position, leaving the Russians in possession of the field. The French lost 10,000 killed, including 8 generals, and 20,000 wounded, including 30 generals. The Russians lost about 45,000. This battle is also called the Battle of the Moskowa.
  
1812  
Battle of Polotsk (Moscow Campaign ) Russians victory
Fought October 18, 1812, when General Saint-Cyr, with 30,000 French and Bavarians, was attacked and defeated by the Russians, in slightly superior force, under Count Wittgenstein, and forced to evacuate Polotsk.
  
1812  
Battle of Winkovo (Moscow Campaign ) Russians victory
Fought October 18, 1812, when Murat, with 30,000 men, forming the advance-guard of the retiring French army, was attacked by the Russians, under Count Orloff Dennizoff, and driven from his position, with a loss of 2,000 killed, 1,500 prisoners, and all his baggage and artillery.
  
1812  
Battle of Malo-Jaroslawetz (Moscow Campaign ) drawn battle victory
Fought October 24, 1812, between 24,000 Russians, under General Doctoroff, and a portion of Eugene Beauharnais' corps, 15,000 strong, under General Delzons. After a sanguinary engagement, in which Malo-Jaroslawetz was taken and retaken seven times, the action ended in a drawn battle, but the strategical success lay with the Russians, who obliged Napoleon to abandon the southerly line of retreat he had projected. The French lost 5,000, including General Delzons killed, the Russians about 6,000.
  
1812  
Battle of Wiazma (Moscow Campaign ) Russians victory
Fought November 3, 1812, when the corps of Eugene Beauharnais and Davoust were attacked during the retreat from Moscow, by the Russians, under Kutusoff, and suffered a loss of 4,000 men.
  
1812  
Battle of Krasnaoi (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought November 17, 1812, when the Russians, 50,000 strong, under Kutusoff, after a series of combats on the two preceding days, during which they had inflicted heavy losses on the retreating French army, were defeated by the corps of Davoust and the Young Guard. The French losses amounted to 5,000 killed and wounded, and about 8,000 missing.
  
1812  
Battle of Beresina (Moscow Campaign ) Russians victory
On November 28, 1812, the French Grande Armee, in retreat from Moscow, was attacked by the Russians under Tchitchakoff and Wittgenstein. The former on the right bank, assailed Napoleon, who had already crossed the river, while Wittgenstein attacked Victor's corps, which formed the French rear-guard. The attack on Napoleon was repulsed, but on the other side of the river the Russian onslaught caused a panic among those who were waiting to cross, and though the rear-guard made a brave resistance, the losses among the stragglers and others were enormous. The official Russian report says that 36,000 bodies were recovered from the Beresina after the thaw.
  
1812  
Battle of Ostrowno (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought July 25 and 26, 1812, between the French corps of Ney and Prince Eugene, with Murat's cavalry, and the Russian corps of Count Osterman and General Konownitzyn. The Russians were defeated and driven back on both days, with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, 600 prisoners and 8 guns. The French loss was about the same.
  
1812  
Battle of Gorodeczno (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought August 12, 1812, between 36,000 French and Austrians, under General Reynier and the Prince of Schwartzemberg, and the Russians, in equal force, under General Tormazoff. The Russians were defeated and driven from their positions, with a loss of 4,000 men. The French and Austrians lost about 2,000.
  
1812  
Battle of Smolensko (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French, under Napoleon, and 130,000 Russians, under Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000 respectively were actually engaged. Bagration's corps occupied the town of Smolensko, which Napoleon attacked, carrying two of the suburbs. During the night the Russians set fire to the place, and evacuated it, having lost in the action about 10,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 9,000.
  
1813  
Siege of Dantzig (Naval Wars-3rd ) Allies victory
After the Moscow retreat, General Rapp, with 30,000 French, mostly survivors of the Moscow campaign, was besieged in Dantzig, January 1813, by the allies, 30,000 in number, under the Duke of Wurtemberg. Rapp made a strenuous defense, but his works were mastered one by one, and, finding his garrison dwindling rapidly from starvation and exposure, he surrendered November 29, 1813, by which date the defenders numbered only 18,000 men.
  
1813  
Battle of Lützen (Campaign of Leipsic ) French victory
Fought May 2, 1813, between the French, 70,000 strong, under Napoleon, and the Russians and Prussians, 65,000 strong, under Wittgenstein and Blucher. The King of Prussia and the Russian Emperor were present on the field. Napoleon held five villages in front of Lützen, round which the battle centered. They were taken and retaken several times during the day, but at 8 p.m., in spite of the remonstrances of Blucher, the two sovereigns ordered a retreat, and the honours of the day rested with the French. The allies lost about 20,000; the French about 18,000.
  
1813  
Battle of Koenigswartha (Campaign of Leipsic ) Russians victory
Fought May 19, 1813, when General Peyri's Italian division, about 8,000 strong, was attacked and defeated by 15,000 Russians, under Barclay de Tolly, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded. The opportune arrival of the cavalry of Ney's corps saved the division from destruction.
  
1813  
Battle of Bautzen (Campaign of Leipsic ) French victory
Fought May 20 and 21, 1813, between 150,000 French under Napoleon, and the Prussians and Russians, 100,000 strong, under Blucher and Count Wittgenstein. The allies were strongly posted in and around Bautzen, while their front was protected by the Spree. On the 10th Napoleon forced the passage of the Spree, and seized Bautzen after severe fighting, driving the allies from their first line of defense. On the 22nd he attacked the second line, while a flank march of Ney's corps drove in their right flank, and captured all their positions. The allies retired in good order, lack of cavalry preventing Napoleon from pushing his advantage. The allies lost 15,000 killed and wounded in the two days; the French, 1,300.
  
1813  
Battle of Löwenberg (Campaign of Leipsic ) French victory
Fought August 21, 1813, between 130,000 French, under Napoleon, and 80,000 Prussians, under Blucher. Blucher being vigorously attacked, retired behind the Haynau without offering any serious resistance to the French advance. The Prussians lost 2,000 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Katzbach (Campaign of Leipsic ) French victory
Fought August 22, 1813, between 130,000 French, under Napoleon, and 100,000 Prussians, under Blucher. Blucher, who had on the previous day retired behind the Haynau, was pressed hard by Napoleon, and driven across the Katzbach, with considerable loss.
  
1813  
Battle of Gross-Beeren (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought August 23, 1813, between the French army of the north, under Oudinot, and the allies, 80,000 strong, under the Crown Prince of Sweden, who was covering the road to Berlin. Regnier, whose corps formed the centre of Oudinot's army, captured Gross-Beeren, which was retaken by the Prussians under von Bulow, and again recovered by Fournier's and Guilleminot's divisions, but Oudinot was not sufficiently strong to press his advantage, and retired with a loss of 1,500 men, and 8 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Katzbach (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought August 26, 1813, between the French, under Macdonald, and the Prussians, under Blucher. Macdonald crossed the Katzbach, and while waiting for his left wing and cavalry under Souham, was attacked by Blucher, and driven back. As Macdonald was retiring Souham appeared on the field, but before he could deploy he was attacked and routed with great slaughter, while the centre under Lauriston also suffered severely in recrossing the river. The French lost 15,000 killed and wounded, and over 100 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Dresden (Campaign of Leipsic ) French victory
Fought August 27, 1813, between 130,000 French under Napoleon, and 200,000 Russians, Prussians and Austrians, under Count Wittgenstein, Kleist, and Prince Schwartzemberg, respectively. The Emperors of Russia and Austria, and the King of Prussia., were present on the field. Napoleon, who was in possession of Dresden, made his main attack upon the Austrian left, which was separated from the centre by the ravine of Planen. This attack, which was entrusted to Murat, was completely successful, and the Austrians were driven with heavy loss into the ravine. Meanwhile, the centre and right of the allies had been attacked with equal success, and finally they were driven from the field with a loss of 10,000 killed and wounded. 15,000 prisoners, and 40 guns, The French lost about 10,000.
  
1813  
Battle of Leitskau (Campaign of Leipsic ) Prussians victory
Fought August 27, 1813, between 5,000 French, under General Girard, and a Prussian division, under General Hirschberg, aided by some Cossacks, under Czernitcheff. Girard was defeated, losing heavily in killed and wounded, besides 1,500 prisoners and 6 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Kuhn (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought August 29 and 30, 1813, between the French, under Vandamme, and the Austrians, and Russians, with a small force of Prussians, under the Prince of Schwartzenberg, who were retreating after their defeat at Dresden. To check the pursuit they occupied Kulm, from which they were driven by Vandamme on the 29th. On the 30th, however, not having received his expected reinforcements, Vandamme was compelled to remain on the defensive, and being attacked in front by the Austrians and Russians, and in the rear by the Prussians, he was totally routed, with a loss of 6,000 killed, 7,000 prisoners, and 48 guns, being himself wounded and captured. The allies lost about 5,000.
  
1813  
Battle of Dennewitz (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought September 6, 1813, between the French army of the north under Ney, and the allies under the Crown Prince of Sweden. Ney had detached Bertrand's division to mask Dennewitz, while his main body marched past the position on the road to Berlin, but Bertrand delayed so long before Dennewitz, that what was intended for a demonstration became a serious action, in which the full force of both sides was engaged. The French were defeated with a loss of l0,000 men and 43 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Wartemberg (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought October 3, 1813, when Blucher, with 60,000 Prussians, defeated 16,000 French, under Bertrand, posted in a very strong position, protected by a dyke and a swamp. Aided by the ground, the French withstood the Prussian attack for over four hours, but finally Blucher turned their right flank and drove them from their position. The Prussians lost about 5,000. The French admit a loss of 500 only.
  
1813  
Battle of Leipsic (Campaign of Leipsic ) Allies victory
Fought October 16, 17, and 18, 1813, between the French, under Napoleon, and the forces of the Great Coalition. Napoleon, who held Leipsic with 155,000 men, was faced by 160,000 Austrians and Russians, under the Prince of Schwartzemberg, and 60,000 Prussians, under Blucher. On the 16th Schwartzemberg attacked, being faced by Napoleon with 115,000 men, and, after an obstinate engagement, which lasted till nightfall, the French had gained a little ground. At the same time Blucher attacked Marmont, who, with 24,000 men, held his own throughout the day. The French lost 27,000; the allies about 35,000. Both sides receiving reinforcements during the night, Napoleon on the morning of the 17th was at the head of 150,000 troops, while the allies numbered nearly 300,000, including the Swedes under Bernadotte. Little was done on the 17th, but on the 18th Napoleon moved out to drive back the allies, and leave a road of retreat open. He was repulsed at all points, and driven back into Leipsic, whence during the night of the 18th to 19th, the French retired by the only serviceable bridge. The corps under Poniatowski left to cover the retreat was almost annihilated, and Poniatowski killed. The French lost in the three days over 60,000 men, while the losses of the allies were also enormous.
  
1813  
Battle of Hanau (Campaign of the Danube ) French victory
Fought October 30 and 31, 1813, between 80,000 French, the survivors of Leipsic, under Napoleon, and 45,000 Austrians and Bavarians, under General Wrede, who had occupied a position at Hanau, barring Napoleon's retreat to France. On the 30th, Napoleon attacked Wrede's left, which was astride of the road, and driving it back continued his retreat with the main body, leaving three divisions, under Marmont, to secure his rearguard. On the 31st, the rearguard, under Mortier, attacked Hanau, and Wrede being dangerously wounded, his successor, Fresnel, drew off, leaving the road clear. The French lost 6,000, the allies 10,000 men in the two days.
  
1814  
Battle of Brienne (Allied Campaign in France ) French victory
Fought January 29, 1814, between 18,000 French under Napoleon, and about 30,000 Russians and Prussians under Blucher. The allies were driven from their positions, and the Chateau de Brienne taken. After nightfall a determined attempt to retake the chateau was made by the Russians under Sachen, but they failed to dislodge the French. The allies lost about 4,000; the French 3,000 killed and wounded.
  
1814  
Battle of La Rothière (Allied Campaign in France ) Allies victory
Fought February 1, 1814, between 32,000 French, under Napoleon, and 100,000 Prussians, Russians, and Würtembergers, under Blucher. Napoleon held a strong position, where he was attacked by Blucher, whom he succeeded in holding at bay till late in the afternoon, when Blucher captured the village of La Rothière. Napoleon with the Young Guard retook the village, and the battle ended with the French in possession of the field. The French lost 5,000, the allies about 8,000, and Napoleon was enabled to continue his retirement without molestation.
  
1814  
Battle of Champ-Aubert (Allied Campaign in France ) French victory
Fought February l0, 1814, when Napoleon with his main army, by an extraordinary forced march through a difficult country, fell upon Blucher's army marching upon Paris, via Chalons. Blucher was advancing in three divisions, and Napoleon attacked the second of these, under Alsusieff, and completely dispersed it, taking 2,000 prisoners and all the guns. On the following day he encountered Sachen, who with 20,000 men formed the advance guard, and defeated him at Montmirail, with a loss of 6,000, forcing him to abandon the main road and retire on Chateau Thierry. On the 13th he encountered General d'York, with 30,000 Russians and Prussians at Château Thierry, driving him out with heavy loss, including 3,000 prisoners, while finally on the 14th he turned on the main body under Blucher himself, who, not being sufficiently strong to face the main French army, was compelled to retire, which he did in good order, after losing 3,000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners. This flank march is considered one of Napoleon's most brilliant achievements.
  
1814  
Battle of Mortmant (Allied Campaign in France ) French victory
Fought February 17, 1814, between the Russian advance-guard, under the Count de Pahlen, and the French rear-guard, under Victor. The Russians were repulsed with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and 11 guns.
  
1814  
Battle of Montereau (Allied Campaign in France ) French victory
Fought February 18, 1814, between the rearguard of the French army, under Napoleon, and the Würtembergers, under Prince Eugene of Würtemberg. Eugene attacked Napoleon's position, but was repulsed with a loss of about 2,000 killed and wounded and 4,000 prisoners.
  
1814  
Battle of Craonne (Allied Campaign in France ) French victory
Fought March 7, 1814, between 55,000 French under Napoleon, and about 90,000 of the allies under Blucher. Blucher occupied a very strong position on the heights about Craonne, which was attacked and carried by Victor's and Ney's corps at the point of the bayonet. The French lost 9,000, the allies 7,000 killed and wounded.
  
1814  
Battle of Laon (Campaign of Friedland ) Allies victory
This fortress, held by the allies under Blucher, was attacked March 9, 1814, by the French under Ney and Marmont. Ney seized two of the suburbs, but Marmont, failing to support him as promised, he could not make good his footing. During the night the allies attacked and routed Marmont, and on the 10th Ney, after hard fighting, was forced to yield the ground he had gained. The French lost about 6,000 men; the allies 5,000.
  
1814  
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (Allied Campaign in France ) Allies victory
Fought March 21, 1814, between 23,000 French under Napoleon, and 60,000 allies under Schwartzenberg. The French made a gallant stand against superior numbers, and in the end effected an orderly retreat, with a loss of about 2,000. The allies' losses were considerably heavier.
  
1814  
Battle of La Fere Champenoise (Allied Campaign in France ) Allies victory
Fought March 25, 1814, between Marmont's and Mortier's corps, 30,000 strong, and the allied army marching on Paris. The French were defeated and forced to retire, with a loss of about 5,000 men and many guns. This was the last action fought in the north before the first abdication of Napoleon.
  
1814  
Siege of Paris (Allied Campaign in France ) Allies victory
On March 30, 1814, Paris, which was defended only by 20,000 regulars and National Guard, under Marmont, was attacked by the Grand Army of the allies, under Schwartzemberg. Three columns assaulted the French positions at Vincennes, Belleville and Montmartre, while a fourth attacked the extreme left of the French line in order to turn the heights of Montmartre. The two first positions were carried, and Montmartre turned, whereupon Joseph having fled, Marmont surrendered. The French lost over 4,000 men; the allies about 8,000.
  
1815  
Battle of Ferrara (Hundred Days ) Austrians victory
Fought April 12, 1815, when Murat, with 50,000 Italians, endeavoured to force the passage of the Po in the face of an Austrian army, under General Bianchi. He was repulsed with heavy loss, and forced to retreat southward.
  
1815  
Battle of Tolentino (Hundred Days ) Austrians victory
Fought May 2, 1815, between 50,000 Italians, under Murat, and 60,000 Austrians, under General Bianchi. The Italians were routed and dispersed, and Murat compelled to flee from Italy.
  
1815  
Battle of Quatre Bras (Hundred Days ) British victory
Fought June 16, 1815, between the advance guard of the British army, under Wellington, and the left wing of the French army, 16,000 strong, under Ney. Napoleon's object was to prevent the junction of the British and the Prussians, and Ney's orders were to drive back the British, while Napoleon, with his main body, engaged the Prussians. Ney attacked at 3 p.m., but the British held their own till evening, when Ney, not receiving the reinforcements he expected, began to fall back. Wellington then attacked vigorously all along the line, retaking all the positions occupied by the French during the day.
  
1815  
Battle of Ligny (Hundred Days ) French victory
Fought June 16, 1815, between 84,000 Prussians under Blucher and 60,000 French under Napoleon. The French attacked Blucher's position, and met with a stout resistance, especially at the village of Ligny, but by sundown the Prussians had exhausted their last resources, and Napoleon, bringing up the Guard, and a division of heavy cavalry, drove them from their positions, with a loss of about 12,000. The French lost 8,000 killed and wounded.
  
1815  
Battle of Waterloo (Hundred Days ) Allies victory
Fought June 18, 1815, between 24,000 British, and 43,500 Dutch, Belgians and Nassauers, in all 67,655 men, with 156 guns, under the Duke of Wellington, and the French, 71,947 strong, with 246 guns, under Napoleon. Wellington posted his troops along the line of heights covering the road to Brussels, with advanced posts at the farms of Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. Napoleon attacked this position with the utmost resolution, but the British squares held their ground against the French cavalry and artillery throughout the day, and though the French captured La Haye Sainte, and obtained a footing in Hougoumont, the arrival of Blucher, with the Prussian army, on the French right, enabled Wellington at last to assume the offensive, and drive the enemy headlong from the field, utterly routed. The British lost about 15,000, the Prussians 7,000 in the battle. The losses of the Dutch and Belgians were very small, as they left the field early in the day. The French loss was never officially stated, but it was doubtless enormous, and the army practically ceased to exist as an organized force.
  
1815  
Battle of Wavre (Moscow Campaign ) French victory
Fought June 18, 1815, between the French, under Grouchy, and the Prussians, 27,000 strong, under Thielmann, who had been entrusted by Blucher with the task of containing Grouchy, while the main Prussian army marched on Waterloo. Grouchy, who was anxiously expected at Waterloo, mistook his instructions, and wasted the day in attacking Thielmann, whom he defeated, but uselessly.
  

Peninsular War — 1808 to 1814

Napoleonic Wars on the Iberian Peninsula. Britain helps Spain drive out the French.


1808  
Battle of Rio Seco (Stealth War ) French victory
Fought July 14, 1808, when Marshal Bessieres, with about 14,000 French, defeated 26,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards lost about 6,000, while the French loss was only 370 killed and wounded. Following upon this victory, Joseph entered Madrid.
  
1808  
Battle of Baylen (Babylonian Revolt ) Spanish victory
Fought July 19, 1808, between 15,000 Spaniards under Castaflos, and 20,000 French under Dupont. The French were totally defeated with a loss of over 2,000 men, and Dupont surrendered with his whole army.
  
1808  
Battle of Rolica (First British ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 17, 1808, when Wellington, with 14,000 British and Portuguese, of whom only 4,000 came into action, attacked the French, 3,000 strong, under Laborde, and after a half-hearted resistance drove them from their position, with a loss of 500 men. The allies lost about 400.
  
1808  
Battle of Vimiera (French Invasion ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 21, 1808, between 18,000 British and Portuguese, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 14,000 French, under Junot. The French were signally defeated, losing 2,000 men and 13 guns, but the victory was not followed up by Sir Harry Burrard, who was in supreme command, and the French were allowed to evacuate Portugal unmolested, under the Convention of Cintra. The British lost 720 killed and wounded.
  
1808  
Battle of Espinosa (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 10, 1808, between 18,000 French under Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards under Blake. The Spaniards were routed, and Blake's army scattered. The French lost about 1,100 men.
  
1808  
Battle of Tudela (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 23, 1808, between 30,000 French, under Lannes, and 45,000 Spaniards, under Castanos and Palafox. The Spaniards were totally defeated, with a loss of about 9,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 prisoners and 30 guns. The French losses were small.
  
1808  
Battle of Moline del Rey (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought December 21, 1808, between 26,000 French, under General St. Cyr, and the Spaniards, about equal in strength, under Reding. The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 10,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 50 guns, at very slight cost to the victors.
  
1808  
Siege of Saragossa (French Invasion ) French victory
In June, 1808, siege was laid to this city by the French, under Marshal Lefebvre. A successful defense was made, and the marshal's forces being insufficient to effect a prompt capture, he raised the siege in August. In December of the same year it was again besieged by the French, under Moncey and Mortier, and defended by a Spanish garrison, under Palafox. A most heroic defense was made, notable for the bravery of Agostina, the maid of Saragossa, who took the place of her wounded lover on the ramparts, and helped to serve the guns, but despite all the efforts of Palafox, the place was stormed, and, after very severe house to house fighting, captured, February 21, 1809.
  
1809  
Battle of Coruna (French Invasion ) British victory
Fought January 16, 1809, between 14,000 British under Sir John Moore, and 20,000 French under Soult, who was endeavoring to prevent the British from embarking. The French attacks were uniformly repulsed, and the troops safely embarked, with a loss of about 800, including Sir John Moore. The French lost about 2,000.
  
1809  
Battle of Medellin (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, between the French, under Marshal Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards soon gave way, and were mercilessly sabred in the pursuit by the French cavalry, losing, it is said, 18,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 300 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Oporto (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, when the French, under Soult, completely defeated the Portuguese under Lima and Pareiras, outside the city of Oporto. Soult followed up his success by storming Oporto, with horrible slaughter, it being computed that 10,000 of the inhabitants perished. The French lost 500 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Douro (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought May 12, 1809, when 12,000 British under Wellesley (the Duke of Wellington) crossed the Douro and drove the French under Soult out of Oporto. The French numbered about 24,000, of whom 5,000 were killed, wounded or captured, mainly during the pursuit. In the action itself, the French lost 500, the British, 116.
  
1809  
Siege of Gerona (French Invasion ) French victory
This fortress, held by 3,000 Spanish regulars, under Mariano Alvarez, was besieged, June 4, 1809, by General Verdier, with 18,000 French. Though ill-provided with food, medicines, and money, and receiving but little assistance from outside, Alvarez held out gallantly till December 10, when he capitulated, and the garrison marched out with the honours of war.
  
1809  
Battle of Talavera (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought July 28, 1809, between 19,000 British and 34,000 Spaniards, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 50,000 French, under Marshals Jourdan and Victor, with Joseph Buonaparte in nominal command. The British repulsed all the attacks on their position, at a cost of 6,200 killed and wounded. The Spanish losses were returned at 1,200, but the figures are doubtful, as they took practically no part in the fighting. The French lost 7,389 killed, wounded and missing, and 17 guns.
  
1809  
Battle of Ocana (Spainish Resistance ) French victory
Fought November 19, 1809. In this action, at which Joseph Buonaparte was present, Soult, with 30,000 French, defeated 53,000 Spaniards, under Areizaga, with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 26,000 prisoners, including 3 generals, 45 guns, and all their baggage and transport. The French only lost 1,700 men.
  
1810  
Battle of Busaco (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought by Wellington, September 29, 1810, to secure his retreat to Torres Vedras. He occupied the heights of Busaco with 25,000 men and was attacked by 40,000 French under Massena. The actual assault was delivered by the corps of Ney and Reynier, but they could make no impression, and were repulsed with a loss of about 4,500. The British lost 1,300 killed and wounded.
  
1811  
Battle of Gebora (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
Fought February 19, 1811, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and 12,000 Spaniards, under Mendizabal, The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, 5,000 prisoners and all their guns.
  
1811  
Battle of Barosa (British Second ) Allies victory
In the course of the operations for the relief of Cadiz, General Graham, with 4,000 British troops, defeated Marshal Victor with 9,000 French, March 5, 1811. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded, including two generals, 6 guns, 2 eagles, and 400 prisoners. The British losses amounted to 50 officers and 1,160 rank and file. A large Spanish force under La Pena stood idly by, and took no part in the action.
  
1811  
Battle of Sabugal (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 3, 1811, between three British divisions, under Wellington, and the French, consisting of Reynier's corps. Reynier held the salient angle of the French position on the Coa, and was driven back after less than an hour's fighting, with a loss of about 1,500. The British lost 200 only.
  
1811  
Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 5, 1811, in the course of Massena's attempt to relieve Almeida. Wellington, with 34,000 men, occupied a position behind Fuentes d'Oiloro, which was attacked by Massena with 34,000 troops and 36 guns. He failed to capture the position, and finally retired, in good order. The British lost 1,200 killed and wounded, and 300 prisoners. The French losses are variously estimated, but were certainly heavier.
  
1811  
Battle of Albuera (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 16, 1811, between the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish forces, numbering 46,000, of whom 7,000 only were British infantry, the whole army being under the command of Marshal Beresford, and 33,000 French under Marshal Soult. The French attacked Beresford's position, and the Spaniards offering but a poor resistance, defeat was only averted by the extraordinary valour of the British troops, especially of the Fusilier Brigade, which came into action when the day seemed lost, and drove the French from the field. Of the 7,000 British, but 1,800 were left standing. The French lost over 8,000, including five generals.
  
1811  
Siege of Sagunto (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
This fortress, held by a Spanish garrison, was besieged by the French, 22,000 strong, under Soult, September 23, 1811. Built on the heights above Murviedro, the place was accessible on one side only, and an attempt to escalade this was repulsed September 28. A regular siege was then commenced, and a second unsuccessful assault was made on October 18. On the 25th General Blake, with 30,000 Spaniards, made an attempt to relieve the place, but was defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and wounded and 4,000 prisoners. the victory costing the French about 800 men. On the following day the garrison surrendered.
  
1812  
Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (British Second ) Allies victory
This town was invested by Wellington January 8, 1812, and carried by assault twelve days later. The besiegers lost during the siege 1,290 killed and wounded, of whom 710, including Generals Craufurd and Mackinnon, fell in the storm. The French lost 300 killed and wounded, 1,500 prisoners, and 150 guns.
  
1812  
Siege of Badajos (British Second ) Allies victory
On March 17, 1812, this fortress, held by a garrison of French, Hessians and Spaniards, 5,000 strong, under Phillipon, was invested by Wellington. The breaches were declared to be practicable on April 5, and an assault was ordered. After terrible slaughter, the town was taken, with a loss to the assailants of 3,500, the total British losses during the siege exceeding 5,000. Fearful excesses were committed after the assault, and for two days the troops were completely out of hand.
  
1812  
Battle of Salamanca (First British ) Allies victory
Fought July 22, 1812, when Wellington, with 46,000 British and Spanish troops, encountered 42,000 French, under Marmont. The battle was forced on by Marmont, who was endeavoring to interrupt Wellington's retreat, but the Marshal was severely wounded early in the day, and the conduct of the action was in the hands of General Bonnet. The result was a signal victory for the British, the French losing 12,500 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 12 guns. The British and Spanish loss amounted to about 6,000. These figures include the skirmishes of the days preceding the battle, during which the armies were in touch.
  
1813  
Battle of Castalla (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought April 13, 1813, between 17,000 allied troops under Sir John Murray, and 15,000 French under Suchet. The French were defeated. The allies lost 600 killed and wounded; the French, according to Suchet, 800 according to Murray, 3,000, but the former figure is probably nearer to the truth.
  
1813  
Battle of Vittoria (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought June 21, 1813, between 80,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish troops, under Wellington, and about 70,000 French, under Joseph Buonaparte. After severe fighting the French were defeated at all points and made a somewhat disorderly retreat, losing 6,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, 143 guns, and almost all their baggage and treasure. The allies lost 5,000. This battle finally closed the era of French domination in Spain, and opened to Wellington the road to the Pyrenees.
  
1813  
Siege of San Sebastian (British Offensive ) Allies victory
This town was besieged July 10, 1813, by the British, under General Graham, and was defended by a French garrison, under General Rey. An assault on July 25 was repulsed, and pending the arrival of heavy guns from England, the siege resolved itself into a blockade. Active operations were resumed, and on the 31st the town was taken by storm. Rey, however, still held out in the citadel, and it was only after further bombardment that he surrendered on September 9. The besiegers' losses amounted to over 2,500 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Maya (British Offensive ) French victory
Fought July 25, 1813, between a British division, under General Stewart, and the French divisions of d'Armagnac, Abbe and Maransin. The French, at a cost of 1,500 men, forced the pass of Maya, driving back the British with a loss of 1,400 men and 4 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Roncesvalles (British Offensive ) Allies victory
One of the actions known as the "Battles of the Pyrenees," fought July 25, 1813. Soult, at the head of Clauset's division, attacked the British, consisting of three brigades, under General Byng, but was unable to carry their position, and after severe fighting was repulsed with a loss of 400. The British lost 181 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Pyrenees (British Offensive ) Allies victory
The engagements fought between Wellington's lieutenants and Soult's army, which was endeavoring to relieve San Sebastian, are known as the Battles of the Pyrenees. They include the fighting from July 25 to August 2, 1813, and specially the actions of Roncesvalles, Maya, Santarem and Buenzas. The British loss in these battles amounted to 7,300, while the French lost fully double that number.
  
1813  
Battle of Nivelle (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought November 10, 1813, when the French, under Soult, were driven from a very strong position by the British, under Wellington, and forced to retire behind the Nivelle. The French lost 4,265, including about 1,200 prisoners, 51 guns, and all their field magazines. The British lost 2,694 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Nive (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought December 13, 1813 between 35,000 French, under Soult, and 14,000 British and Portuguese, under Wellington. Having crossed the Nive on the 10th, Wellington took up a strong position on the heights near the village of St. Pierre. Here he was attacked by Soult, but repulsed him, and occupied the French position in front of the Adour. The French losses in this battle and the combats which preceded it, amounted to 10,000 men. The British lost 5,019 killed and wounded.
  
1814  
Battle of Orthez (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought February 27, 1814, between the British under Wellington, and the French, under Soult. The French were driven out of Orthez and across the Luy de Warn, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 6 guns.
  
1814  
Battle of Toulouse (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 10, 1814, between 38,000 French, under Soult, and 24,000 British and Spaniards, under Wellington. The French entrenchments in front of Toulouse were attacked by the British, who after severe fighting captured some of the outworks. The victory, however, was incomplete, and was in effect of no value, as Napoleon had on this date already surrendered to the allies in Paris. The French lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, the allies, 4,659, of whom 2,000 were Spaniards.
  

Italian Unification — 1848 to 1867

Wars to Unite Italy under a single government involved various states of Italy, Austria, Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Naples.


     Carbonari Uprising in Naples.
1821  
Battle of Rieti (Jacobite Rising ) Austrians victory
Fought March 21, 1821, between 12,000 Neapolitans, under General Pepe, and the Austrian invading army, 80,000 strong, As long as he was opposing only the advance guard, Pepe made a most resolute resistance, but on their being reinforced from the main body, the Neapolitans were overpowered by superior numbers, and finally driven in confusion from the field. Two days' later the Austrians entered Naples, and reinstated Ferdinand on the throne.
  
     Charles Albert's campaign in Lombardy.
1848  
Battle of Milan Rebellion (1st Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Five Days of Milan was an uprising
  
1848  
Battle of Goits (1st Italian Unity ) Patriots victory
Fought May 30, 1848, between the Piedmontese under Charles Albert of Savoy, and the Austrians under General Radetsky. The Austrians were completely defeated, and Radetsky compelled to take refuge behind the line of the Adige.
  
1849  
Battle of Mortara (1st Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Fought March 21, 1849, between the Piedmontese, under the Duke of Savoy (Victor Emmanuel) and General Darando, and the main Austrian army, under Radetsky. No steps had been taken by the Piedmontese to render Mortara defensible, and little guard was kept, with the result that they were surprised by Radetsky, and driven out of the town in confusion, with a loss of 500 killed and wounded, 2,000 prisoners and 5 guns. The Austrians lost 300 only.
  
1849  
Battle of Novara (1st Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Fought March 23, 1849, between 50,000 Piedmontese, under Chrzanowski, and three Austrian army corps, under Radetsky. After hard fighting, the Piedmontese were completely defeated and driven from the field in disorder.
  
1849  
Battle of Brescia (2nd Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
This city, where the populace had risen and shut up the small Austrian garrison in the citadel, was carried by assault by Genera Haynau, with about 4,000 Austrians, March 31, 1849. Carrying the Porta Torrelunga, he fought his way from barricade to barricade, till, by the evening of April 1, the resistance of the citizens was overcome. The Austrians lost 480 killed, including General Nugent, and many wounded. The wholesale executions ordered by Haynau after the capture earned for him the sobriquet of the Hyna.
  
1848  
Battle of Custozza (1st Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Fought July 24, 1848, between 22,000 troops from Sardinia-Piedmont under Charles Albert, and 33,000 Austrians under Radezky. The Austrians overwhelmed the Piedmont troops and drove them out of Lombardy.
  
     Garibaldi's defense of Rome
1848  
Battle of Morazzone (Defense of Rome 1849 ) Austrians victory
Fought 1848 between 1,500 Garibaldian volunteers, under Garibaldi, and 5,000 Austrians, under General d'Aspre. After a resistance lasting eleven hours, Garibaldi, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew his force from the town, and executed a masterly retreat to Arona.
  
1849  
Battle of Palestrina (Defense of Rome 1849 ) Patriots victory
Fought May 9, 1849, between 4,000 Italian Patriots, under Garibaldi, and 7,000 Neapolitans, under King Ferdinand. After three hours' fighting, the Neapolitans were totally routed. Garibaldi was wounded in the action.
  
1849  
Battle of Velletri (Defense of Rome 1849 ) Patriots victory
Fought May 19, 1849, between 10,000 Garibaldians, under Roselli, and the Neapolitans, 10,000 strong, under Ferdinand, King of Naples. The advance guard, under Garibaldi, attacked the town of Velletri, which made a poor defense, and was evacuated during the night. The losses of the Garibaldians were small.
  
1850  
Battle of Garigliano (Neapolitan Rising ) Patriots victory
Fought October, 1850, between the Italian patriots under Cialdini, and the Neapolitans under Francis II of Naples. The patriots were victorious.
  
1849  
Battle of Rome (Defense of Rome 1849 ) French victory
After the proclamation of a Roman republic by Garibaldi and his adherents in 1848, a French army, under General Oudinot, was sent to restore the papal rule. On April 30, 1849, the French, 7,000 strong, attacked the Porta San Pancrazio, where they were encountered by the Republicans, under Garibaldi, and repulsed, with a loss of 300 killed and wounded and 500 prisoners. The Garibaldians lost 100. On June 3 of the same year the French, under Oudinot, 20,000 strong, made a night attack upon the Garibaldians, who brought up about 8,000 men to oppose them. The Garibaldians were repulsed, with a loss of over 2,000, including 200 officers. Oudinot then laid siege to the city, which, after a terrible bombardment, surrendered July 2, 1849.
  
     Second War of Italian Unity
1859  
Battle of Montebello (2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought May 20, 1859, between the Austrians, under General Stadion, and about 7,000 French, under General Forey. The Austrians were defeated and driven back to Stradella, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and 200 prisoners.
  
1859  
Battle of Varese (2nd Italian Unity ) Patriots victory
Fought May 25, 1859, between 3,000 Garibaklians, under Garibaldi, and 5,000 Austrians, under General Urban. The Austrians were repulsed after hard fighting, and suffered considerable loss. This action is also known as the Battle of Malnate.
  
1859  
Battle of Palestro (2nd Italian Unity ) Sardinians victory
Fought May 30, 1859, between the Sardinians, under General Cialdini, and the Austrians, under General Stadion. The Austrians attacked the Sardinians while they were crossing the Sesia, but were repulsed, and Cialdini effected the passage successfully and drove the Austrians out of Palestro with considerable loss.
  
1859  
Battle of Turbigo (2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 3, 1859, when the advance guard of Marshal Macmahon's corps, under the Marshal in person, was attacked by a portion of the Austrian division of Clam-Gallas, while simultaneously 4,000 Austrians assailed the bridge over the canal near the Ticino, which the French main body was crossing. After severe fighting both attacks were repulsed with considerable loss.
  
1859  
Battle of Magenta (2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 4, 1859, between the 2nd French Corps d'Armee, under Macmahon, and the main Austrian army, under Marshal Giulay, about 100,000 strong. Macmahon attacked the Austrian position, and, after hard fighting, drove them out of Magenta, and totally defeated them with a loss of about 6,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 4,400.
  
1859  
Battle of Malegnano (2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 8, 1859, between three French divisions, under Marshal Baraguay d'Hilhers, and the Austrians, in about equal force. After three hours' hard fighting, the Austrians were defeated and driven out of Malegnano, with heavy loss, including 1,000 prisoners. The French lost 850 killed and wounded.
  
1859  
Battle of Solferino (Expedition of the Thousand ) French victory
Fought June 24, 1859, between 150,000 Austrians, under the Emperor Francis Joseph, with Generals Wimpffen and Scholick in actual command. and the French and Piedmontese, under Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel. The French attacked the Austrian position on the heights round Solferino, which were held by Scholick, and after very hard fighting, they were captured by the corps of Macmahon and Baraguay d'Hilliers. Meanwhile Wimpffen, with three Army Corps, attacked the French left, but was held at bay throughout the day by Marshal Niel's corps, and when night fell, the Austrian centre being broken, Francis Joseph had no option but to retreat, and consequently recrossed the Mincio. The Austrians lost 22,000 killed, wounded and missing. The allies' losses were 18,000, of which number the Piedmontese corps of 25,000 lost 4,000.
  
1860  
Battle of Calatafimi (Expedition of the Thousand ) Redshirts victory
Fought May 15, 1860, between Garibaldi's "Thousand Volunteers," with a few thousand Sicilian "Picciotti" and 4,000 Neapolitans under General Landi. The Neapolitans were driven back with heavy loss, and retreated in disorder to Palermo. Garibaldi lost, of his thousand, 18 killed and 128 wounded.
  
1860  
Battle of Palermo (Expedition of the Thousand ) Redshirts victory
Fought May 26 and 27, 1848, when Garibaldi, with 750 of his "Thousand Volunteers," and about 3,000 Sicilian "Picciotti," succeeded in surprising one of the gates of Palermo, which was garrisoned by 18,000 Neapolitans, under General Lanza. The "Picciotti" fled at the first shot, but Garibaldi penetrated into the city, where, being joined by the citizens, he erected barricades, and after some severe fighting, in which the Neapolitans suffered heavily, General Lanza surrendered. The last of the Neapolitan troops were withdrawn on June 20.
  
1860  
Battle of Milazzo (Expedition of the Thousand ) Redshirts victory
Fought July 18, 1860, between the Italian Volunteers, under Garibaldi, and the Neapolitans, under General Bosco. The Neapolitans occupied a strongly entrenched position, which Garibaldi succeeded in turning, the Neapolitans, after a severe struggle, being totally defeated and driven out.
  
1860  
Battle of Castelfidardo (Expedition of the Thousand ) Sardinians victory
Fought September 18, 1860, between the Papal troops under General La Moriciere, about 8,000 strong, and the Sardinians, 40,000 strong, under General Cialdini. The Papal army was totally routed, and, after the action, La Moriciere was only able to assemble about 300 infantry, with which remnant he made his way to Ancona.
  
1860  
Siege of Ancona (Garibaldi's Rising ) Sardinians victory
This place was attacked, September, 1860, by the Piedmontese fleet of 13 warships under Admiral Persano, and the army of General Cialdini. It was defended by a small Papal garrison under La Moricière, and after a resistance of over a week, at the end of which time Persano forced the boom guarding the harbour, La Moricière capitulated.
  
1860  
Battle of Volturno (Expedition of the Thousand ) Redshirts victory
Fought October 1, 1860, between 20,000 Italians, under Garibaldi, and 40,000 Neapolitans, under Alan de Riva. Garibaldi's position in front of Capua was attacked by the Neapolitans, who, after hard fighting, were repulsed all along the line, with heavy loss. The Garibaldian casualties were 2,023 killed and wounded. The Neapolitans lost 2,070 prisoners, but their losses in killed and wounded are unknown. In consequence of this victory, Garibaldi almost immediately captured Capua.
  
1860  
Siege of Gaeta (Expedition of the Thousand ) Sardinians victory
Gaeta was the capital of Francis II after he was driven out of Naples and it was strongly defended by the Neopolitan army. It was besieged by Sardinians under Colonel Cialdini on November 3, 1860. Gaeta capitulated on February 13, and Francis II abdicated and went into exile.
  
1866  
Battle of Custozza (3rd Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Fought June 24, 1866, between 60,000 Austrians under the Archduke Albert, and 140,000 Italians under General La Marmora. La Marmora crossed the Mincio, and advanced against the Archduke, who was covering Verona. The Italians having to pass through a hilly country, the columns were much broken up, and as they debouched into the plain of Custozza, they were beaten in detail, and driven back by the Austrians, who gained a signal victory. The Austrians lost 4,650 killed and wounded; the Italians, 720 killed, 3,112 wounded, and 4,315 prisoners. La Marmora was compelled to recross the Mincio.
  
1866  
Battle of Lissa (3rd Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
The only naval action between ironclads in European waters, fought July 20, 1866, between the Austrian fleet of 7 armoured ships and some obsolete wooden vessels, under Admiral Tegethoff, and the Italian fleet of to armour-clads, under Admiral Persano. Tegethoff attacked in wedge formation, with his flagship as the apex, and broke the line of the Italian fleet, which was steaming, line ahead, across his bows. He rammed and sank the Italian flagship, and the rest of the action was a melee in which the Italians were defeated and driven off, with a loss of 3 ships and over 1,000 men. This defeat forced the Italians to raise the siege of Lissa.
  
1862  
Battle of Aspromonte (Garibaldi's Rising ) Austrians victory
Fought August 29, 1862, between a small force of "Red Shirts" under Garibaldi, and the royal troops under General Pallavicini. After a short engagement, in which Garibaldi was wounded, the "Red Shirts," largely outnumbered and surrounded, laid down their arms.
  
1867  
Battle of Mentana (Defense of Rome 1849 ) French victory
Fought November 3, 1867, between 10,000 Garibaldians, under Garibaldi, and the French and Papal troops, 5,000 strong, under General Kanzler. Garibaldi was totally defeated, a result largely due to the brilliant work of 1,500 Papal Zouaves, who drove them out of position after position. The Garibaldians lost 1,100 killed and wounded, and 1000 prisoners. The allies' losses were only 182 killed and wounded, of which the Papal troops lost 144.
  

Hungarian Rising — 1849 to 1849

Failed Hungarian revolution to gain independence from Austria.


1848  
Battle of Veleneze   drawn victory
Fought September 29, 1848, between the Hungarians, under General Móga, and the Croats, under the Ban, Jellachich. The battle was indecisive, and was followed by a three days' armistice.
  
1848  
Battle of Schwechat   Austrians victory
Fought October 30, 1848, between the Austrians, under Prince Windischgratz, and the Hungarians, under General Moga. The Hungarian militia made a very feeble stand against the Austrian regulars, and were driven back all along the line with considerable loss.
  
1849  
Battle of Kapolna   Austrians victory
Fought February 26 and 27, 1849, between four Hungarian divisions, under Dembinski, and the Austrians, under Windischgratz, of whom only Schlick's corps, 15,000 strong, was seriously engaged. The Hungarians held their own on the 26th, but on the evening of the 27th Schlick captured the key of the position at Kapolna, whereupon the Hungarians retired, though unpursued.
  
1849  
Battle of Hatvan   Hungarians victory
Fought April 2, 1849, when the Austrians, 15,000 strong under Marshal Schlick, attacked the 7th Hungarian corps, of about equal strength, and after a severe engagement, were totally defeated.
  
1849  
Battle of Isaszcq   Hungarians victory
Fought April 6, 1849, between the Hungarians, 42,000 strong, under Gorgey, and the Croats, under Jellachich. The Hungarian First Corps, under Klapka, was put to flight, but the rest stood their ground, and repulsed the Croat attack. Both armies bivouacked for the night on the ground they held, but early on the following morning Jellachich retired, the Hungarians thus being entitled to claim a victory.
  
1849  
Battle of Waizan   Hungarians victory
Fought April 10, 1849, between the 3rd Hungarian corps, under Damjanics, about 7,000 strong, and two Austrian brigades, under Gotz and Jablonowski. Damjanics attacked the Austrians and drove them out of Waizan with heavy loss, among those who fell being General Götz.
  
1849  
Battle of Nagy-Sarló   Hungarians victory
Fought April 19, 1849, between the Hungarians, 25,000 strong, under Gorgey, and the Austrians, who endeavoured to prevent Gorgey constructing bridges over the Gran. The Austrians were signally defeated, and the river successfully bridged,
  
1849  
Siege of Komorn   Hungarians victory
An action fought by Gorgey, April 26, 1849, for the relief of Komorn, which was besieged by the Austrians. In the early morning two Hungarian corps, under Klapka and Damjanics, surprised the Austrian entrenched camp, taking 6 guns and 200 prisoners. The Austrians retired, though not energetically pursued, and the fortress was relieved.
  
1849  
Siege of Ofen   Hungarians victory
This fortress, held by an Austrian garrison, under General Hentzi, was besieged by the Hungarians, under Görgey, May 4, 1849. After an unsuccessful assault, a siege in due form was commenced, and several further assaults having also failed, the place was finally taken by storm on the 21st. General Hentzi was mortally wounded.
  
1849  
Battle of Pered   Russo-Austrians victory
Fought June 21, 1849, between the Hungarians, 16,000 strong, under Gorgey, and the Austrians and Russians, under Prince Windischgratz. The allies attacked the Hungarian position, and after severe fighting, drove them out, with a loss of about 3,000.
  
1849  
Battle of Acs   Russo-Austrians victory
Fought July 2, 1849, between 25,000 Hungarians, under Görgey, and the Russo-Austrian army, greatly superior in numbers, under Prince Windischgratz. The allies attacked the entrenched camp of the Hungarians, outside Komorn, while the Hungarians made an attempt to turn the allied left. Both attacks were repulsed, and the battle was undecided.
  
1849  
Battle of Segeswár   Hungarians victory
Fought July 31, 1849, between the Hungarians, under General Bern, and the Russians, under General Luders. The Russians, after a severe engagement, were totally defeated.
  
1849  
Battle of Temesvar   Austrians victory
Fought August 9, 1849, between the Austrians, under Haynau, and the Hungarians, under Dembinski. The latter was totally routed, and his army dispersed, this being the last stand made by the Hungarians in the war. On the 13th, Gorgey and his army surrendered to the Russians at Villagos.
  

Franco Mexican War — 1862 to 1867

French attempts to establish a Mexican Empire with the cooperation of the conservative party.


1862  
Battle of Acultzingo   French victory
Fought April 28, 1862, between the French, 7, 500 strong, under General Lorencez, and the main Mexican army, about 10,000 in number, under General Zaragoça. The Mexicans held a strong position in the Cumbres Pass, from which they were driven by the French, and forced to retire upon La Puebla.
  
1862  
Battle of La Puebla   Mexicans victory
Fought May 5, 1862, between the French, 7,500 strong, under General Lorencez, and about 12,000 Mexicans, under General Zaragoca. The French endeavoured to carry the ridge of the Cerro de Guadalupe, commanding the town, but were repulsed by General Negreti, with 1,200 men, losing 456 killed and wounded, and forced to retire from La Puebla, The Mexicans lost 215 only.
  
1863  
Siege of La Puebla   French victory
On May 4, 1863, the French army, 25,000 strong, under General Forey, laid siege to La Puebla, which was held by a Mexican garrison under General Ortega. Forey's force was too small for a complete investment, and he began operations against the Fort of San Xavier. On the 29th this post was taken by storm, the French losing 230, the defenders 600 men. From this point the French obtained foothold in the town, and then proceeded to capture the houses block by block. So determined was the resistance, however, that their progress was very slow, and by April 7 they had made next to no advance, though they had lost a further 600 men. Later in the month an attack on the Convent of Santa Cruz was repulsed with a. loss of 480. On May 8 a relieving force of 10,500 men, under General Comonfort, was defeated by a small French column under Bazaine, losing 8 guns and 1,000 prisoners, and from this point further resistance was useless. Ortega, therefore, after a most gallant defense, surrendered with 1,455 officers and 11,000 men, May 17, 1863.
  
1867  
Battle of San Jacinto   Republicans victory
Fought February 12, 1867, between the adherents of the Emperor Maximilian, under Miramon, and the Mexican Constitutionalists, under Escobedo. Miramon was defeated, and his army surrendered, he himself escaping with difficulty from the field.
  

Schleswig-Holstein War — 1848 to 1864

Prussia strips three principalities from the King of Denmark, then annexes them to Prussia.


1864  
Battle of Düppel   Prussians victory
This fortress, protected by an outer chain of ten redoubts, was invested by the Prussians, 16,000 strong, under Prince Frederick Charles, and the first parallel opened, March 30, 1864. The Danish garrison numbered 22,000. On April 17, after a heavy bombardment, the Prussians were launched at the first six of the chain of redoubts, and, after a brief resistance, they were captured and the place was immediately afterwards surrendered. The Prussians lost 70 officers and 1,331 men, the Danes, including prisoners, 5,500.
  
1864  
Battle of Alsen (Border Raids ) Prussians victory
This island, in which the Danish garrison of Duppel had taken refuge, was captured by the Prussians, who crossed from the mainland in boats on the night of June 29, 1864, and under a heavy fire carried the Danish entrenchments, and compelled them to surrender. This was the last engagement of the war.
  

Austro Prussian War — 1866 to 0

Prussia defeated Austrian and gained predominance over the German States.


1866  
Battle of Custozza (3rd Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
Fought June 24, 1866, between 60,000 Austrians under the Archduke Albert, and 140,000 Italians under General La Marmora. La Marmora crossed the Mincio, and advanced against the Archduke, who was covering Verona. The Italians having to pass through a hilly country, the columns were much broken up, and as they debouched into the plain of Custozza, they were beaten in detail, and driven back by the Austrians, who gained a signal victory. The Austrians lost 4,650 killed and wounded; the Italians, 720 killed, 3,112 wounded, and 4,315 prisoners. La Marmora was compelled to recross the Mincio.
  
1866  
Battle of Lissa (3rd Italian Unity ) Austrians victory
The only naval action between ironclads in European waters, fought July 20, 1866, between the Austrian fleet of 7 armoured ships and some obsolete wooden vessels, under Admiral Tegethoff, and the Italian fleet of to armour-clads, under Admiral Persano. Tegethoff attacked in wedge formation, with his flagship as the apex, and broke the line of the Italian fleet, which was steaming, line ahead, across his bows. He rammed and sank the Italian flagship, and the rest of the action was a melee in which the Italians were defeated and driven off, with a loss of 3 ships and over 1,000 men. This defeat forced the Italians to raise the siege of Lissa.
  
1866  
Battle of Podol   Prussians victory
Fought June 26, 1866, between the advance-guard of Prince Frederick Charles' army, and the Austrians, under General Clam-Gallas. The Austrians were defeated and driven out of Podol, after severe fighting, in which they lost heavily. The Prussians took 500 prisoners.
  
1866  
Battle of Langensalza   Prussians victory
Fought June 27, 1866, between 12,000 Prussians, under General Flies, and the Hanoverians, in about equal strength, under George, King of Hanover. The Prussians attacked the Hanoverian position, and after severe fighting were repulsed with a loss of about 1,400 killed and wounded, and 900 prisoners. The Hanoverians lost 1,392. The victory, however, was fruitless, as the Prussians in the neighbourhood were in overwhelming numbers, and the King was compelled to surrender on the 29th. This is the last appearance of Hanover in history as an independent state.
  
1866  
Battle of Nachod   Prussians victory
Fought June 27, 1866, between the 5th Prussian Corps, under General Steinmetz, and the Austrians, under General Ramming. The Austrian cavalry, which was considerably superior in number, was defeated by the Prussian Uhlans, and the action resulted in the retreat of the Austrians, with a considerable loss in killed and wounded. The Prussians, who lost 900, captured 2,000 prisoners and 5 guns.
  
1866  
Battle of Trautenau   Austrians victory
Fought June 27, 1866, between the First Prussian Army Corps, under General von Bonin, and the 10th Austrian corps, under General Gablenz. The Prussians at first drove back the Austrians, but General Gablenz advancing in force, fell upon the Prussians, wearied with a long march, and compelled them to retreat, with a loss of 1,277 killed and wounded. Owing to the superiority of the needle-gun, the Austrians, though victorious, suffered a loss of 5,732.
  
1866  
Battle of Münchengratz   Prussians victory
Fought June 28, 1866, between the advance-guard of Prince Frederick Charles' army, and the Austrians, under Count Clam-Gallas. The Austrians were defeated with a loss of about 300 killed and wounded, and 1,000 prisoners. The Prussian losses were very small.
  
1866  
Battle of Skalitz   Prussians victory
Fought June 28, 1866, between the 5th Prussian Army Corps, under General Steinmetz, and the 6th and 8th Austrian Corps, under General Ramming. The Austrians were defeated, and Skalitz occupied by the Prussians, who captured 4,000 prisoners and 8 guns.
  
1866  
Battle of Gitschin   Prussians victory
Fought June 29 and 30, 1866, between the Prussians, 16,000 strong, under Prince Frederick Charles, and the Austrians and Saxons, 30,000 strong, under Count Clam Gallas. The Austrians were defeated, and driven from all their positions with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and 7,000 prisoners.
  
1866  
Battle of Koeniggratz   Prussians victory
Fought July 3, 1866, between 200,000 Austrians, with 600 guns, under Marshal Benedek, and the Prussian armies of Prince Frederick Charles and the Crown Prince, together about equal to the Austrians in number, The Austrians, who occupied a very strong position, were attacked in the early morning by Prince Frederick Charles, who, however, made little impression upon them, and it was not till the arrival of the Crown Prince on their right flank at 2 p.m. that any advantage was obtained. Then, however, the Prussians succeeded in piercing the Austrian lines, and seized the key of the position, after which further resistance being hopeless, the Austrians retired, with a loss of 20,000 killed and wounded, 20,000 prisoners, and 174 guns. The Prussians lost 10,000.
  
1866  
Battle of Kissingen   Prussians victory
Fought July 10, 1866, between the Prussians, under General Falkenstein, and the Bavarians, under General Zoller. The Bavarians were defeated and driven out of Kissingen with heavy loss.
  

Franco Prussian War — 1870 to 1870

Prussia defeats France; brings down its republic and reclaims territory along the Rhine.


1870  
Battle of Weissenburg   Prussians victory
The opening engagement of the campaign, fought August 4, 1870, between the advance-guard of the Third German Army, under the Crown Prince of Prussia, and a portion of Marshal Macmahon's army, under General Abel Donay, who fell in the battle. The Germans carried the French position, and captured the town of Weissenburg, at a cost of 91 officers and 1,460 men. The French lost 2,300 killed, wounded and prisoners.
  
1870  
Battle of Spicheren   Prussians victory
Fought August 6, 1870, between the Germans, under Von Alvensleben, and a superior French force, under General Frossard. After an obstinate encounter, the French were driven from all their positions with heavy loss, and compelled to retreat on Metz. The Germans lost 223 officers and 4,648 men. The battle is remarkable for the storming of the Rote Berg by 1 company of the 39th Regiment and 4 companies of the 74th Regiment, under General von Francois, who was killed. These 5 companies maintained their position throughout the afternoon, in face of a vastly superior force. This action is also known as the Battle of Forbach.
  
1870  
Battle of Worth   Prussians victory
Fought August 6, 1870, between the Third German Army, under the Crown Prince of Prussia, and the French, under Marshal Macmahon. After a closely contested engagement, the French were driven from all their positions, and made a hasty retreat beyond the Vosges. The Cuirassier division of General Bonnemain was completely cut to pieces in charging the German infantry, near Elsasshausen. The German losses amounted to 489 officers, and 10,153 men, while the French lost 10,000 killed and wounded, 6,000 prisoners, 28 guns and 5 mitrailleuses.
  
1870  
Battle of Colombey   drawn victory
Fought August 11, 1870, between the retiring French army, and the advance guard of the First German Army Corps under von Steinmetz. The French maintained most of their positions, but two of their divisions were overthrown, and Bazaine's retreat on Verdun was seriously delayed. The French lost about 7,000; the Germans 222 officers and 5,000 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Mars-la-Tour   Prussians victory
Fought August 18, 1870, between the French, under Marshal Bazaine, and the 3rd and 10th German Army corps, under Von Alvensleben. The Germans, though at times very hard pressed, succeeded in holding their ground, and prevented the French breaking through to the westward. The battle is chiefly remarkable for the desperate charges of the German cavalry, and especially of Von Bredow's brigade, against the French infantry, under cover of which the shattered German infantry was enabled to reform. The losses were about equal, amounting to about 16,000 killed and wounded on each side. The action is also known as the Battle of Vionville.
  
1870  
Battle of Gravelotte   Prussians victory
Fought August 18, 1870, between the French, under Bazaine, and the combined German army under the supreme command of William of Prussia. The battle was most hotly contested, but while the French held their ground in the neighbourhood of Gravelotte, the Germans turned their right flank at St. Privat, and they were eventually obliged to abandon all their positions, and retire into Metz, where they were subsequently blockaded. The German losses amounted to 899 officers and 19,260 men killed, and wounded. The French losses were somewhat less. This battle is also known as the battle of St. Privat.
  
1870  
Battle of Metz   Prussians victory
This fortress was invested by the Germans after the defeat of Bazaine at Gravelotte in August 18, 1870, and after several fruitless attempts to break through the German lines had been repulsed, Bazaine surrendered to Prince Frederick Charles on October 26, with 3 marshals, 6,000 officers, and 173,000 men. The Germans took 56 eagles, 622 field guns, 72 mitrailleuses, 876 pieces of fortress artillery, and about 300,000 rifles.
  
1870  
Battle of Beaumont   Prussians victory
Fought August 30, 1870, between the Fifth French Corps d'Armee under General de Failly, and the Fourth and Twelfth German Army Corps under the Crown Prince of Saxony. The French were surprised in their cantonments, and were driven back upon Monzon, with a loss of 4,800 men and 42 guns. The Germans lost about 3,500.
  
1870  
Battle of Noisseville   Prussians victory
A sortie of the French, under Bazaine, from Metz, August 31, 1870, in the endeavor to break through the investing line of the Germans, under Prince Frederick Charles. The French had some slight success at first, and maintained the ground they had won during the day, but on September 1, their further efforts to advance were fruitless, and they were driven back into Metz with a loss of 145 officers and 3,379 men. The Germans lost 126 officers and 2,850 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Sedan   Prussians victory
This battle, the most decisive of the war, was fought September 1, 1870. The French, under Marshal Macmahon, who was wounded early in the action, were driven from all their positions by the Germans, under the King of Prussia, and compelled to retire into Sedan, where they laid down their arms. The Emperor Napoleon III was among the prisoners, and one of the results of the surrender was his dethronement and the proclamation of a republic in Paris. The battle is remarkable for the charge of the Chasseurs d'Afrique, under General Margueritte, in the neighbourhood of Floing. The brigade was cut to pieces and the general killed. The Germans lost in the action 460 officers and 8, 500 men; the French 3,000 killed, 14,000 wounded, and 21,000 prisoners, while 83,000 subsequently surrendered in Sedan. The Germans took 419 guns, 139 fortress guns and 66,000 rifles.
  
1870  
Battle of Paris   Prussians victory
Paris was invested by the main German army, under the King of Prussia and von Moltke, September 19, 1870. The garrison, under the command of General Trochu, made a gallant defense, many serious sorties taking place, but the Germans gradually mastered the outer defenses, and finally, being much straitened by famine, the city surrendered January 28, 1871.
  
1870  
Battle of Chevilly   Prussians victory
Fought September 30, 1870, when a sortie from Paris under General Vinoy was repulsed by the Sixth German Corps under Von Tümpling, with a loss of 74 officers and 2,046 men. The Germans lost 28 officers and 413 men killed and wounded.
  
1870  
Battle of Bellevue   Prussians victory
Fought October 7, 1870, when Marshal Bazaine attempted to break through the lines of the Germans investing Metz. He was unsuccessful, and was driven back into the city with a loss of 64 officers and 1,193 men. The Germans lost 75 officers and 1,703 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Le Bourget   Prussians victory
A determined sortie by the French from Paris, October 27, 1870, in which they carried the village of Le Bourget. They held their ground there until October 30, when they were driven out by the Prussian Guard Corps, leaving 1,200 prisoners in the hands of the Germans, who lost 34 officers and 344 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Coulmiers   French victory
Fought November 9, 1870, between 20,000 Germans under Von der Tann, and a largely superior French force under General d'Aurelle de Paladines, After maintaining their position for the greater part of the day, the Germans were driven back, having lost 576 killed and wounded, 800 prisoners, an ammunition column and 2 guns. The French losses were about 1,500.
  
1870  
Battle of Amiens   drawn victory
Fought November 27, 1870, between the French under General Faure, and the Germans under Manteuffel, The French were compelled to abandon the city, but the Germans failed to secure a decisive victory. The French lost 1,383 killed and wounded, and 1,000 missing; the Germans, 76 officers and 1,216 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Beaune-la-Rolande   Prussians victory
Fought November 28, 1870, between 9,000 Germans under the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, and 60,000 French under General Crouzat. The French assailed the German position, but, notwithstanding the disparity of numbers, the Germans succeeded in maintaining their ground, after a desperate encounter, driving off their assailants with a loss of 8,000 men. The Germans lost 37 officers and 817 men only.
  
1870  
Battle of Villiers   Prussians victory
A determined sortie from Paris, under General Ducrot, on November 30, 1870, directed against the Wurtembergers. The operations lasted till December 3. The French, who had at first gained some successes, were finally repulsed, with a loss of 424 officers and 9,053 men. The Germans lost 156 officers and 3,373 men.
  
1870  
Battle of Loigny-Pouprey   Prussians victory
Fought December 1, 1870, between the Germans, 34,000 strong, under the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, and about 90,000 French, forming the army of the Loire, under General d'Aurelle de Paladines. The Germans gained a signal victory, completely breaking the aggressive power of the Army of the Loire. The French lost 18,000 killed and wounded and 9 guns, the Germans 4,200.
  
1870  
Battle of Hallue   drawn victory
Fought December 23 and 24, 1870, between 40,000 French, under General Faidherbe, and 22,500 Germans, under Manteuffel. The French lost heavily in the village lying in front of their position, but the Germans were unable to carry the entrenchments on the heights. After their attack had been repulsed, the French assumed the offensive, but with no decisive result. The Germans lost 927 killed and wounded; the French over 1,000, besides 1,300 prisoners.
  
1871  
Battle of Bapaume   drawn victory
Fought January 3, 1871, between the French under General Faidherbe, and the Germans under Von Goeben. The result was indecisive, and though the French gained some tactical successes, the result strategically was an advantage to the Germans, as General Faidherbe was compelled to desist from his attempt to raise the siege of Peronne. The Germans lost 52 officers and 698 men; the French 53 officers and 1516 men killed and wounded, and 550 prisoners.
  
1870  
Battle of Le Mans   Prussians victory
Fought January 10, 11, and 12, between the Germans, 50,000 strong, under Prince Frederick Charles, and the French, numbering about 150,000, under General Chanzy. The French army was completely routed, and the whole force so completely demoralised as to be no longer an effective fighting unit. The Germans took 20,000 prisoners, 17 guns, and great quantities of war material, at a cost to themselves of 200 officers and 3,200 men.
  
1871  
Battle of Buzenval   Prussians victory
A sortie from Paris under General Trochu on January 19, 1871. The French, advancing under cover of a fog, established themselves in the Park of Buzenval, and occupied St. Cloud, where they maintained their position throughout the day. At other points, however, they were less successful, and, on the morning of the loth, the force at St. Cloud, finding itself unsupported, was obliged to retire, and all the captured positions were abandoned. The Germans lost 40 officers and 570 men; the French 189 officers and 3,881 men. This sortie is also known as the Battle of Mont Valerien.
  
1871  
Battle of St. Quentin (War of the Fronde ) Prussians victory
Fought January 19, 1871, between the French, 40,000 strong, under General Faidherbe, and 33,000 Germans, under Von Goben. The French were decisively defeated, with a loss of 3,500 killed and wounded, 9,000 prisoners, and 6 guns. The Germans lost 96 officers and 2,304 men.
  

Servo-Bulgarian Wars — 1885 to 1885

Wars resulting from the struggle for power after the Ottoman Empire withdrew from the Balkans.


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The Great War — 1914 to 1918

First World War ended in defeat of Germany after cataclysmic losses on both sides.


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Introduction to the Great French Wars

The French Wars, beginning in 1792 and ending in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, can be seen as the first European "Great War". They were fought on a scale unprecedented in western history, with modern artillery and universal conscription employed at levels never before seen.

Because the French Wars they are typicallly divided into three divisions. The French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) cover the battles fought by the French Republic from the time of the French Revolution to the First Consulship of Napoleon. The the Napoleonic Wars (1804-1814) refer to the battles fought after Napoleon became Emperor of France, and the Peninsular War (1809-1814) in Spain and Portugal was the front on which Britain fought most of her land battles. Because the Peninsular War involved no coalitions, and was fought on an isolated peninsula it is easily confined to its own section.

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