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Ancient Rome—Age of the Caesars

60 B. C. to 14 A.D.
First Triumvirate to Death of Augustus

Era Summary       Characters       Timeline       Reading Assignments      

Era Summary—Age of the Caesars

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Characters—Age of the Caesars

CharacterDate Short Biography

First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar100–44 BC Conquered Gaul, prevailed in civil war. Mastermind of Roman empire. Killed by senators.
Pompey 106–48 BC Very renowned general. Defeated pirates. Led opposition to Caesar in civil war.
Crassus110–53 BC Very wealthy general. Fought Spartacus. Formed triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar.
Cicero106–43 BC Orator. Leader of aristocratic party. Put down Catiline conspiracy. Well known writer.
Catiline108–62 BC Led conspiracy to overthrow Senate; discovered and put down by Cicero.
Cato (the younger) 95–46 BC Highly principled republican who opposed Caesar, killed self after defeat of Pompey.
Clodius93–52 BC Violent enemy of Cicero. Populist rabble-rouser and demagogue.

Second Triumvirate

Augustus Caesar63–14 First emperor. Reigned for over fifty years. Established the Imperial system.
Cassiusd. 42 BC Mastermind of conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Committed suicide at Philippi.
Marcus Brutus84–42 Leader of conspirators to assassinate Caesar. Committed suicide at Philippi.
Antony83–30 BC With Octavius, led empire after Caesar's death. Liaison with Cleopatra caused downfall.
Fulvia77–40 BC Wealthy and scheming Roman matron. Married to Clodius, then to Mark Antony. Enemy of Cicero.
Cleopatra70–20 BC Queen of Egypt. Lover of both Caesar and Mark Antony.

Augustan Age

Maecenas70–8 BC Advisor and ambassador of Augustus. Patron of art and literature.
Virgil70–19 BC Great epic poet of the Augustan age. Wrote The Aeneid.
Horace65–8 BC Great lyric poet and satirist of the Augustan age.
Agrippa63–12 BC Most trusted general and advisor of Augustus Caesar. Married Augustus's daughter Julia.
Livia58–29 Wife of Augustus Caesar. Empress of Rome for over fifty years.
Livy59–17 Roman historian. Wrote History of Rome from its Founding.
Julia Caesara39–14 Profligate daughter of Augustus Caesar. Fell from grace and was banished from Rome.
Hermann16–21 Hero of Germany. Annihilated three Roman legions at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest.

Timeline—Age of the Caesars

BC YearEvent
63 Cicero discovers and puts down the Catiline Conspiracy.
60 Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar form the First Triumvirate.
58-51 Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul
57 Caesar annihilates the rebellious Nervii at the Battle of Sabis River.
54 Caesar invades Britain for a second time.
52 Caesar wins a great victory over Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.
54 Death of Caesar's daughter, the wife of Pompey, strains the alliance between the two.
53 Death of Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae brings and end to the First Triumvirate.
49-44 Caesar plunges Rome into Civil War when he refuses to surrender his command.
49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon with his army and marches on Rome unopposed.
48 Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalia.
48 Caesar puts Cleopatra on throne of Egypt at Battle of Alexandria.
46 Suicide of Cato (the younger) after the Republican cause is defeated at the Thapsus.
44 Assassination of Julius Caesar
43 Octavius and Antony form Second Triumvirate and agree to the murder of Cicero.
42 Defeat of Republican army at Battle of Philippi.
40 Octavius marries his sister to Antony to strengthen their political alliance.
36 Antony renews his relationship with Cleopatra and moves to Alexandria.
31 Octavio defeats Antony at the Battle of Actium.
27 Octavius appointed imperator for life and becomes Augustus Caesar.
27 Gates of Janus shut. Beginning of Pax Romana.
0 AD Birth of Christ.
9 AD German chieftain Hermann Annihilates 3 Roman Legions at the Battle of Teutoberg Forest.
14 AD Tiberius, the eldest son of Livia becomes emperor on the death of Augustus, .

Recommended Reading—Age of the Caesars

Read chapters from "core" texts before reviewing study questions.

Book Title
Selected Chapters (# chapters)

Core Reading Assignments

Haaren - Famous Men of Rome   Julius Cæsar to Augustus (3)
Guerber - Story of the Romans   Conspiracy of Catiline to Death of Augustus (11)
Macgregor - The Story of Rome   Cicero Discovers Conspiracy to Emperor Augustus (23)

Supplemental Recommendations

Dalkeith - Stories from Roman History   Of Julius Caesar: Soldier to Of Julius Caesar: Dead (4)
Gould - Children's Plutarch - Romans   Caesar and His Fortune to Caesar's Friend and Enemy (5)
Harding - City of the Seven Hills   Cicero, the Orator to Rome in the Time of Augustus (4)
Tappan - Story of the Roman People   Caesar and Triumvirates to The Reign of Augustus (2)
Weston - Plutarch's Lives   Julius Caesar to Brutus (2)
Lansing - Barbarian and Noble   The Story of Drusus (1)
Lansing - Patriots and Tyrants   Three Teuton Boys to Hermann the Deliverer (3)
Russell - Julius Caesar    entire book
Francis - Augustus Caesar    entire book
Upton - Herman and Thusnelda    entire book
Morris - Historical Tales - Roman   Caesar and the Pirates to Antony and Cleopatra (4)
Church - Roman Life and Story   A Child of Fortune to The Empress-Mother (6)
Abbott - Cleopatra    entire book
Abbott - Julius Caesar    entire book
Church - In the Days of Cicero    entire book

Also Recommended

Tappan - Old World Hero Stories   Julius Caesar to Augustus and his Age (3)
Gilman - The Story of Rome   Progress of the Pompey to Serious and Gay (6)
Kaufman - Young Folks Plutarch   Cicero to Antony (5)

I: Introductory, II: Intermediate, C: College Prep