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Ancient Rome—Age of the Caesars

60 B. C. to 14 A.D.
First Triumvirate to Death of Augustus

Era Summary       Characters       Timeline       Reading Assignments      

Era Summary—Age of the Caesars

p4u„åE„åE‚Œtion, and the final division on American Indian history are optional."), 'hh_me_2014_1'=>array ( "Modern Europe - Level I", "This introductory course covers European history from the 18th century \"Enlightenment\" to the Great Wars of the 20th century. It focuses mainly on Revolutionary France and the Rise of Prussia but also covers the Unification of Italy, the Revolutions of 1848, the Franco Prussian War, and the early years of the German Empire.", "Students should read at least six introductory level books and earn at least 400 reading credits. The following books are recommended, but students are free to add or substitute other books from the Modern Europe library.", "The Modern Europe question bank includes 350 Level I study questions. The final two divisions on the Russian Empire and the Great War are optional, and not recommended for younger students."), 'hh_me_2014_2'=>array ( "Modern Europe - Level II", "This intermediate course covers European history from the 18th century \"Enlightenment\" to the Great Wars of the 20th century. It focuses mainly on Revolutionary France and the Rise of Prussia, but also covers the Unification of Italy, the revolutions of 1848, the Franco Prussian War, and the early years of the German Empire. Most of the test questions associated with intermediate course are based on the core reading, but intermediate students should be reading biographies and .", "Students should read at least six intermediate level books and earn at least 600 reading credits. The following books are recommended, but students are free to add or substitute other books from the Modern Europe library.", "The Modern Europe question bank includes 650 Level I study questions. The final two divisions on the Russian Empire and the Great War are optional."), 'hh_be_2014_1'=>array ( "British Empire - Level I", "British Empire I - Class Description", "British Empire I - Reading Requirements", "British Empire I - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_be_2014_2'=>array ( "British Empire - Level II", "British Empire II - Class Description", "British Empire II - Reading Requirements", "British Empire II - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_ee_2014_1'=>array ( "Eastern Empires - Level I", "Eastern Empires I - Class Description", "Eastern Empires I - Reading Requirements", "Eastern Empires I - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_ee_2014_2'=>array ( "Eastern Empires - Level II", "Eastern Empires II - Class Description", "Eastern Empires II - Reading Requirements", "Eastern Empires II - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_se_2014_1'=>array ( "Spanish Empire - Level I", "Spanish Empire I - Class Description", "Spanish Empire I - Reading Requirements", "Spanish Empire I - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_se_2014_2'=>array ( "Spanish Empire - Level II", "Spanish Empire II - Class Description", "Spanish Empire II - Reading Requirements", "Spanish Empire II - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_ce_2014_1'=>array ( "Christian Europe - Level I", "Christian Europe I - Class Description", "Christian Europe I - Reading Requirements", "Christian Europe I - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_ce_2014_2'=>array ( "Christian Europe II - Level II", "Christian Europe II - Class Description", "Christian Europe II - Reading Requirements", "Christian Europe II - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_bk_2014_1'=>array ( "Biblical Kingdoms - Level I", "Biblical Kingdoms I - Class Description", "Biblical Kingdoms I - Reading Requirements", "Biblical Kingdoms I - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_bk_2014_2'=>array ( "Biblical Kingdoms II - Level II", "Biblical Kingdoms II - Class Description", "Biblical Kingdoms II - Reading Requirements", "Biblical Kingdoms II - Testing Requirements"), 'hh_is_2014_1'=>array ( "Independent Study", "This course does not have a fixed curriculum. Its ten 'study units' correspond to the ten historical periods into which the Heritage History library has been divided. These divisions provide an overview of the study resources offered by the Heritage History Academy. They are not intended as an introduction, not an organized program of study. Independent Study students can access any book on the Heritage History website and design their own study program. ", "Most of the books assigned to the Independent Study Library Books feature stories from many periods in history instead of focusing on a single civilization. These books cover a broad range of historical topics and e-book versions are available, to all students. Independent Study students can also select books from any of our civilization-specific libraries to read online, but they will not be able to download e-books unless they purchase a course or library pass.", "A sampling of 25 to 40 study review questions are provided for each of the ten historical divisions of the Independent Study program. Each question bank is composed of randomly selected questions from one of our world civilization courses. These review questions are provided to demonstrate how the Study Review method used by the Heritage Academy works rather than as actual review of specific reading assignments. "), 'hh_yr_2013_1'=>array ( "Young Readers - Level I", "This introductory course features short, easy-to-read selections from American, European, Ancient, and Biblical history. It is intended to introduce students to a broad range of events and characters from world history in order to enhance their cultural literacy and lay a foundation for future studies. The course assumes a broad range of reading ability and allows students to work at their own pace. Novice readers may take several years to progress through the collection, while older students may master much of the material in a single year. ", "We recommend that students read as many books as possible from the Young Readers collection, but there are no \"required\" selections and no minimum number of reading credits. The books listed below are recommended because they contain a rich variety of popular historical stories, but they are more appropriate for older students than novice readers. Families are free to substitute other books from the Young Readers library as desired.", "A question bank of over 300 questions, covering a wide variety of historical topics is provided for Young Reader, but we do not recommend Study Review for students younger than fifth grade.") ); if ($hclassid === "") { return false; } $hh_title = $hclass_stuff[$hclassid][0]; $hh_description = $hclass_stuff[$hclassid][1]; $hh_readinfo = $hclass_stuff[$hclassid][2]; $hh_testinfo = $hclass_stuff[$hclassid][3]; getTeacherId($hclassid,$hh_teacher); if ($hh_title == "") { return false; } else { return true; } } function GetPayPalButtons($name,$libraryid,$price,$tooltip=false) { $userid = getUserId($override,$guestmode); // guest mode is true if USERID is null if ($guestmode) { $data = "\n"; return $data; } $data = ""; if($tooltip==false) $data .= "
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"; } return $data; } function HS_LibraryInfo($libraryid) { getlibraryName($libraryid, $libname, $libshortid); $description = GetProductDescription ($libraryid); GetProductLinks ($libraryid, $cdlink, $courselink); $pic = $libshortid."100"; $data = "
\n"; $data .= "\n"; $data .= " \n"; $data .= "
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\n"; $data .= " \n"; $data .= "
"; return $data; } function HS_ListEbooksInLibrary($libraryid) { getlibraryName($libraryid, $libname, $libshortid); $userid = getUserId($override,$guestname); $ignorepass = false; GetUserValidLibraries ($userid,$user_library_list,$ignorepass); $library_enabled = ($userid != GUEST_ACCOUNT) and (libraryinliblist($libraryid,$user_library_list)); $pic = $libshortid."100"; $data =""; $data .= "
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E-Books included in the ".$libname." Library

\n"; $data .= "\n"; $data .= "\n"; // When book db gets updated add version, orderable, price $sql = "SELECT authorid, bookid, title, author_name, reading_level FROM books WHERE (((clib1 = '$libraryid') OR (clib2 = '$libraryid')) AND (book_status = 'y')) ORDER by reading_level, authorid"; $result =@mysql_query($sql)or die(mysql_error()); while ($row =mysql_fetch_array($result)) { $format = "ebook"; // Hard coded $authorid =$row ['authorid']; $bookid =$row ['bookid']; $title =$row ['title']; if ($library_enabled) { $price = "--"; } else { $price = "$1.99"; } $author_name =$row ['author_name']; $reading_level = $row ['reading_level']; $link_to_ebook = HH_PHP."?c=products&s=ebook-list&author=".$authorid."&book=".$bookid; $data .= "\n"; } $data .= "
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You are already enrolled in the ".$libname." Academy Course.
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Purchase the ".$libname." Academy Course
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Characters—Age of the Caesars


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Colored stars indicate texts of special interest or importance.
Red Stars indicate comprehensive histories. Most study questions are based on these texts.
Gold Stars indicate recommended books of exceptional interest and quality.
Green Stars are assigned to high quality, but easy-to-read books for younger readers.
Black Stars indicate that only selected chapters pertain to the subject civilization.

Click on Title Link to add Book to Reading List.         \n"; $data .= "Reading credits indicate book length.
 
CharacterDate Short Biography

First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar100–44 BC Conquered Gaul, prevailed in civil war. Mastermind of Roman empire. Killed by senators.
Pompey 106–48 BC Very renowned general. Defeated pirates. Led opposition to Caesar in civil war.
Crassus110–53 BC Very wealthy general. Fought Spartacus. Formed triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar.
Cicero106–43 BC Orator. Leader of aristocratic party. Put down Catiline conspiracy. Well known writer.
Catiline108–62 BC Led conspiracy to overthrow Senate; discovered and put down by Cicero.
Cato (the younger) 95–46 BC Highly principled republican who opposed Caesar, killed self after defeat of Pompey.
Clodius93–52 BC Violent enemy of Cicero. Populist rabble-rouser and demagogue.

Second Triumvirate

Augustus Caesar63–14 First emperor. Reigned for over fifty years. Established the Imperial system.
Cassiusd. 42 BC Mastermind of conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Committed suicide at Philippi.
Marcus Brutus84–42 Leader of conspirators to assassinate Caesar. Committed suicide at Philippi.
Antony83–30 BC With Octavius, led empire after Caesar's death. Liaison with Cleopatra caused downfall.
Fulvia77–40 BC Wealthy and scheming Roman matron. Married to Clodius, then to Mark Antony. Enemy of Cicero.
Cleopatra70–20 BC Queen of Egypt. Lover of both Caesar and Mark Antony.

Augustan Age

Maecenas70–8 BC Advisor and ambassador of Augustus. Patron of art and literature.
Virgil70–19 BC Great epic poet of the Augustan age. Wrote The Aeneid.
Horace65–8 BC Great lyric poet and satirist of the Augustan age.
Agrippa63–12 BC Most trusted general and advisor of Augustus Caesar. Married Augustus's daughter Julia.
Livia58–29 Wife of Augustus Caesar. Empress of Rome for over fifty years.
Livy59–17 Roman historian. Wrote History of Rome from its Founding.
Julia Caesara39–14 Profligate daughter of Augustus Caesar. Fell from grace and was banished from Rome.
Hermann16–21 Hero of Germany. Annihilated three Roman legions at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest.


Timeline—Age of the Caesars


BC YearEvent
63 Cicero discovers and puts down the Catiline Conspiracy.
60 Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar form the First Triumvirate.
58-51 Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul
57 Caesar annihilates the rebellious Nervii at the Battle of Sabis River.
54 Caesar invades Britain for a second time.
52 Caesar wins a great victory over Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.
54 Death of Caesar's daughter, the wife of Pompey, strains the alliance between the two.
53 Death of Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae brings and end to the First Triumvirate.
49-44 Caesar plunges Rome into Civil War when he refuses to surrender his command.
49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon with his army and marches on Rome unopposed.
48 Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalia.
48 Caesar puts Cleopatra on throne of Egypt at Battle of Alexandria.
46 Suicide of Cato (the younger) after the Republican cause is defeated at the Thapsus.
44 Assassination of Julius Caesar
43 Octavius and Antony form Second Triumvirate and agree to the murder of Cicero.
42 Defeat of Republican army at Battle of Philippi.
40 Octavius marries his sister to Antony to strengthen their political alliance.
36 Antony renews his relationship with Cleopatra and moves to Alexandria.
31 Octavio defeats Antony at the Battle of Actium.
27 Octavius appointed imperator for life and becomes Augustus Caesar.
27 Gates of Janus shut. Beginning of Pax Romana.
0 AD Birth of Christ.
9 AD German chieftain Hermann Annihilates 3 Roman Legions at the Battle of Teutoberg Forest.
14 AD Tiberius, the eldest son of Livia becomes emperor on the death of Augustus, .


Recommended Reading—Age of the Caesars

Read chapters from "core" texts before reviewing study questions.


Level
Book Title
Selected Chapters (# chapters)

Core Reading Assignments

I
Haaren - Famous Men of Rome   Julius Cæsar to Augustus (3)
I
Guerber - Story of the Romans   Conspiracy of Catiline to Death of Augustus (11)
II
Macgregor - The Story of Rome   Cicero Discovers Conspiracy to Emperor Augustus (23)

Supplemental Recommendations

Dalkeith - Stories from Roman History   Of Julius Caesar: Soldier to Of Julius Caesar: Dead (4)
I
Gould - Children's Plutarch - Romans   Caesar and His Fortune to Caesar's Friend and Enemy (5)
Harding - City of the Seven Hills   Cicero, the Orator to Rome in the Time of Augustus (4)
Tappan - Story of the Roman People   Caesar and Triumvirates to The Reign of Augustus (2)
II
Weston - Plutarch's Lives   Julius Caesar to Brutus (2)
Lansing - Barbarian and Noble   The Story of Drusus (1)
Lansing - Patriots and Tyrants   Three Teuton Boys to Hermann the Deliverer (3)
II
Russell - Julius Caesar    entire book
C
Francis - Augustus Caesar    entire book
Upton - Herman and Thusnelda    entire book
II
Morris - Historical Tales - Roman   Caesar and the Pirates to Antony and Cleopatra (4)
Church - Roman Life and Story   A Child of Fortune to The Empress-Mother (6)
C
Abbott - Cleopatra    entire book
Abbott - Julius Caesar    entire book
Church - In the Days of Cicero    entire book

Also Recommended

Tappan - Old World Hero Stories   Julius Caesar to Augustus and his Age (3)
Gilman - The Story of Rome   Progress of the Pompey to Serious and Gay (6)
Kaufman - Young Folks Plutarch   Cicero to Antony (5)

I: Introductory, II: Intermediate, C: College Prep