When the freedom they wished for most was freedom from responsibility, then Athens ceased to be free and was never free again. — Edith Hamilton

Barbarossa - George Upton



Barbarossa was one of the greatest of the Holy Roman Emperors, and one of the most famous of the Crusaders. The Holy Roman Empire was in disarray, but Barbarossa did much to consolidate power and form alliances. He campaigned in Italy as well as Germany, and did much to rebuild the Empire to its former prestige. After much conflict with the Pope and his Italian allies, Barbarossa agreed to lead a Crusade but died enroute to the holy land.

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[Book Cover] from Barbarossa by George Upton
Barbarossa the Crusader
THE RETURN OF THE CRUSADERS.


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Translator's Preface

From whatever point of view we consider Frederick I,—more familiarly known as "Barbarossa," because of his red beard,—whether as the greatest of the sovereigns of the Holy Roman Empire, or as one of the most gallant of the famous crusade leaders, the story of his life is one of absorbing interest. This little volume includes a sketch of the events which led up to his accession to the throne of Germany, of his various campaigns in Italy after he had received the imperial crown, and of the disastrous third Crusade, in which he took part with Richard the Lion-hearted of England and Philip Augustus of France. The young reader will probably feel most interested in Barbarossa as a Crusader, particularly because in this connection appear the two young knights, Raymond and Conrad, who became the protégés of Barbarossa after the death of their gallant father, Conrad of Feuchtwangen, on the battlefield. Their brave exploits in battle, the adventurous ride of Raymond when he carried to the Emperor the news of the danger of his father and his little band in the valley, the capture of the brothers by the fleeing Turks at Iconium, and the exciting description of the test to which the Sultan exposed them, will appeal to the young from the romantic side, while their noble qualities as Christian knights and their high manly character should make an equally forcible appeal, in these days when knighthood can hardly be said to be in flower.

In making this translation I have endeavored to retain the vigorous descriptions as well as the healthy sentiment and charming simplicity of the author's moralizing by keeping as closely to the original as possible. The only liberty I have taken with the text is the omission of passages here and there,—without marring the context, however,—so as to make the volume nearly uniform in size with the others in the series. I have invariably characterized Frederick as Emperor, referring to him thus as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire rather than as King of Germany.

G. P. U.

CHICAGO, July 1, 1906.


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Appendix

The following is a chronological statement of the most important events in the life of Barbarossa:



1123    Birth.
1147    Married Adelaide; succeeded his father as Duke of Swabia;
1147    Accompanied the second Crusade.
1152    Received the Crown of Germany. .
1153    Divorced Adelaide.
1154    First Italian Campaign.
1155    Crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1156    Restored the Duchy of Bavaria to Henry the Lion;
1156    Married Beatrice, daughter of the Count of Burgundy.
1157    Secured allegiance of Poland and Hungary.
1158    Second Italian Campaign.
1160    Excommunicated by Pope Alexander III.
1164-74    Italian Campaigns.
1176    Defeated at Legnano.
1177    Made truce for six years with the Italian cities.
1183    Treaty of Constance.
1183    Led the third Crusade with Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip Augustus.
1190    Death in Asia Minor by drowning.