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Wars and Battles of Ancient Greece

Click on red links to see detailed descriptions of Greek wars.
Click on light blue links for lists of battles. Key battles are indicated in blue.
Most of the battle summaries listed below are taken from
Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1904.
 
Wars of Ancient Greece (Dates BC)
Trojan War 1010-1000     Battles       Rise of Sparta 743-471     Battles      
Persian Wars of Conquest 547-512     Battles       Sicilian Wars 492-340     Battles      
Greco Persian Wars 499-450     Battles       Peloponnesian War 459-404     Battles      
Retreat of the Ten Thousand 401-399     Battles       Corinthian War 395-394     Battles      
Boeotian Wars 373-362     Battles       Athenian Social War 357-356     Battles      
Sacred War 355-352     Battles       Lucanian War 338-331     Battles      

Macedonian Wars (Dates BC)
Greek Rebellions Against Macedonia 338-322     Battles      
Macedonian Conquest of Persia334-327     Battles      
Wars of the Diadochi 321-280     Battles      
Pyrrhic Wars in Italy282-275     Battles      
Syrian Wars 244-198     Battles      
Wars of the Achaean League 226-146     Battles      
Wars of Antiochus the Great 198-168     Battles      
Roman Macedonian Wars108-106     Battles      

Trojan War — 1010 to 1000 B.C.

Legendary war between the Mycenaean Greeks and Trojans.


1100 BC  
Siege of Troy (Uruguayan Civil War ) Hellenes victory
The siege and destruction of this city by the Hellenes, though all the details are legendary, may be accepted as a historical fact, and the date may be put approximately at 1100 B.C.
  

Rise of Sparta — 743 to 471 B.C.

Wars of Sparta with Messenia, Argos, and Arcadia for domination of the Peloponnese.


743 BC  
Battle of Caprysema (First Messenian War ) Messenians victory
Fought B.C. 743, between the Spartans and Corinthians, and the Messenians with their allies from other Peloponnesian states under Cristomenes. The Spartans were routed, and, but for the eloquence of Tyrtaeus, would have abandoned the struggle.
  
740 BC  
Battle of Megaletaphrus   Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 740, between the Messenians, under Aristomenes, and the Spartans. The Messenians were surrounded and cut to pieces, Aristomenes escaping with a few followers.
  
668 BC  
Battle of Hysiae (Argive War ) Argos victory
Fought, approximately, 668 B.C., between the Spartans and the Argives. The former were totally defeated, and Argos was left in undisputed possession of the supremacy of the Peloponnesus.
  
494 BC  
Battle of Sepeia (First Messenian War ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 494, between the Spartans, under Cleomenes, and the Argives. The Spartans, by a ruse, succeeded in surprising the Argives while the soldiers were dining, and totally routed them. This defeat deprived Argos of the paramountcy in the Peloponnesus.
  
473 BC  
Battle of Tegea (Arcadian War ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 473, when the Spartans defeated the combined forces of the Arcadian League and the Argives, under the walls of Tegea. Though victorious, the Spartans were too much reduced in numbers to venture upon the attack of Tegea, which had been the object of the expedition.
  
471 BC  
Battle of Dipma (Argive War ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 471, between the Spartans and the Arcadian League. The Arcadians were totally defeated, and Tegea, the head of the League, shortly afterwards submitted to Sparta.
  

Persian Wars of Conquest — 547 to 512 B.C.

Wars of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses which created the Persian Empire


547 BC  
Battle of Pteria (Conquest of Lydia ) drawn battle victory
In B.C. 547 Croesus marched into Median territory to met Cyrus the Great in an inconclusive Battle. He retreated to Sardis to prepare a greater army, but Cyrus pursued.
  
546 BC  
Siege of Sardis (First Invasion of Scythia ) Persians victory
In B.C. 546 Croesus returned to Sardis after an inconclusive battle with Cyrus in order to gather a larger army. Cyrus however, pursued him to his own city, and besieged it. Although Sardis was a strongly fortified city, the Perians found a breach and stormed the city.
  
539 BC  
Siege of Babylon (Conquest of Egypt ) Persians victory
In B.C. 539, Cyrus the Great conquered the great city Babylon, under the last Babylonian King, Belshazzar, by diverting the flow of the Euphrates River into irrigation channels. He was then able to lower the level of the river flowing into the city enough so that his armies could storm the city from the river bank
  
529 BC  
Battle of Massagetae (Second Invasion of Scythia ) Scythians victory
In B.C. 529 Cyrus crossed the Bosporus and led an army against Scythia. He was subsequently killed during a battle with the Massagetae, under Queen Tomyris.
  
525 BC  
Battle of Pelusium (Conquest of Lydia ) Persians victory
Fought 525 B.C., between the Persians, under Cambyses, and the Egyptians, under Psammeticus. The Egyptians were totally defeated, and this victory was followed by the complete subjugation of Egypt, which became a Persian, satrapy.
  
520 BC  
Siege of Babylon (Conquest of Babylon ) Persians victory
Babylon revolted in B.C. 520, soon after Darius came to the throne, and was retaken by an elaborate ruse. A general of Darius mutilated himself and fled to Babylon for protection. After fighting for the Babylonians for some time, and gaining their trust, he turned traitor, and gave the city to Darius.
  
512 BC  
Battle of Scythia (Great Northern War ) Scythians victory
In B.C. 512, Darius invaded Thrace and crossed the Danube, leaving his boats near the river with instructions to wait 60 days for his return. The Scythians, unwilling to meet the Persians in battle, retreated, razing the land before them, and attacking Darius's supply
  

Sicilian Wars — 492 to 340 B.C.

Greek Sicilians repel Carthaginian invasions and win their independence.


492 BC  
Battle of Helorus (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Gela victory
Fought B.C. 492, between Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela, and the Syracusans, The Syracusans were totally routed, and were so weakened by this defeat, that Syracuse fell an easy prey to Gelon, Hippocrates' successor, in the following year.
  
480 BC  
Battle of Himera (Liberation of Syracuse ) Syracuse victory
Fought 480 B.C., between the Syracusans and Agrigentines, 557,000 strong, under Gelon, Tyrant of Syracuse, and the Carthagians, said to number 300,000, under Hamilcar. The Carthagians were totally routed and Hamilcar was slain.
  
474 BC  
Battle of Cumae (First Carthaginian Invasion ) Syracuse victory
Fought B.C. 474, between the fleet of Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, and the Etruscan fleet, which was investing the Greek colony of Cumae. The Etruscans were routed, and from this defeat dates the rapid decline of the Etruscan power.
  
409 BC  
Siege of Himera (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Carthagians victory
This place was besieged by the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, B.C. 409. A first assault was repulsed, and Diocles arriving in the harbour with 25 ships, rescued half the inhabitants. Three days later he returned for the remainder, but too late, for before he could reach the harbour the breach was stormed. The town was sacked, and 3,000 prisoners were sacrificed to appease the shade of Hamilcar, who had fallen in the battle of 480.
  
409 BC  
Siege of Selinus (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Carthagians victory
This city was besieged by the Carthaginians, 100,000 strong, under Hannibal, B.C. 409. An attempt by the Syracusans, under Diocles, to relieve came too late, for after resisting stubbornly for nine days, the garrison, hopelessly outnumbered, were overpowered; and the place stormed and sacked, all the survivors being carried off into captivity.
  
406 BC  
Siege of Acragas (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Carthagians victory
This fortress was besieged B.C. 406 by the Carthaginians under Hannibal, the garrison being commanded by Dexippus the Spartan. Early in the siege a pestilence in the Carthaginian camp carried off Hannibal, who was succeeded by his cousin, Himilco. A relieving army of 35,000 Syracusans, under Daphnaeus fought a pitched battle with the Carthaginians under the walls of the city, and succeeded in seizing and holding one of their camps, but shortly afterwards dissensions broke out in the garrison, and many of the foreign mercenaries deserting, the citizens, after a siege of eight months, left the place en masse. The Carthaginians at once occupied the fortress.
  
398 BC  
Siege of Motya (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Syracuse victory
This city, the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in Sicily, was besieged by Dionysius of Syracuse, with 83,000 men, B.C. 398. Having built a mole to connect the mainland and the island on which Motya stood, he erected thereon his new engines of war, the catapults, used for the first time in this siege. He also built large moving towers to enable him to cope with the lofty defenses of the place, and by these devices succeeded in effecting an entrance. Every house, however, was in itself a small fortress, and after days of street fighting, which cost the assailants a heavy price, the city was still unsubdued. At last by a night surprise he mastered the quarter which still held out, and the inhabitants were massacred or sold as slaves.
  
396 BC  
Siege of Rhegium (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Syracuse victory
This city was besieged in 396 B.C. by a Syracusian force under Dionysius I. The tyrant of Syracuse took the city, and sold its inhabitants into slavery.
  
389 BC  
Battle of Elleporus (Third Carthaginian Invasion ) Syracuse victory
Fought B.C. 389, between the Sicilians, 23,000 strong, under Dionysius of Syracuse, and the Italiots, 17,000 strong, under Heloris. Dionysius attacked the Italiot vanguard, under Heloris himself, on the march, and the Italiot army, coming into action in detachments, was beaten piecemeal, and finally routed with heavy loss. The survivors, 10,000 in number, surrendered, and were allowed to go free. Heloris was slain.
  
387 BC  
Battle of Catana (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Carthagians victory
Fought B.C. 387 between 200 Syracusan galleys under Leptines, and a vastly superior Carthaginian fleet. The Syracusans were utterly routed, partly owing to their inferior numbers, but also in part to the bad generalship of Leptines, who dispersed his ships too widely, allowing them to be overwhelmed in detail. The victors at once entered upon the siege of Syracuse.
  
415 BC  
Siege of Syracuse (Thirty Year Truce ) Syracuse victory
Siege was laid to this city by the Athenians, under Alcibiades, Lamachus and Nicias, who with a fleet of 134 galleys, took possession of the harbour and effected a landing in the autumn of 415 B.C. Alcibiades was soon recalled, and Lamachas killed in a skirmish, while Nicias proved weak and incompetent. The siege works were not pressed and in the following year, Gylippus of Sparta succeeded in getting through the Athenian lines, and bringing a considerable force to the aid of the Syracusans, capturing at the same time the advanced positions of the besiegers. Early in 413, Demosthenes arrived from Athens, with a fleet of 93 triremes, and made a desperate attempt to recover the lost ground. He was, however, totally defeated, and in a series of sea-fights which followed, the Athenian fleet was completely destroyed. This disaster forced the Athenians to raise the siege, and was, in addition, a death-blow to the naval supremacy of Athens.
  
379 BC  
Battle of Cabala (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Sicilian Greeks victory
Fought B.C. 379, between the Syracusans under Dionysius, and the Carthaginians under Mago. The latter were totally defeated and Mago slain.
  
379 BC  
Battle of Cronion (Second Carthaginian Invasion ) Carthagians victory
Fought B.C. 379 between the Syracusans under Dionysius, and the Carthaginians. The Syracusans were defeated, with enormous loss, and Dionysius forced to accept unfavourable terms of peace.
  
344 BC  
Battle of Hadranum (Rise of Gelon ) Timoleon victory
Fought B.C. 344, between Timoleon, the deliverer of Sicily, with 2,000 followers, and Hicetas, Tyrant of Leontini, with 10,000 men. The two had been summoned to the assistance of the rival factions in Hadranum, and Hicetas, who arrived first, was resting his men under the walls, when he was surprised by Timoleon, and totally routed. This was Timoleon's first exploit, and Hadranum became his headquarters.
  
340 BC  
Battle of Crimisus (First ) Timoleon victory
Fought June B.C. 340, between 10,000 Sicilians under Timoleon, and 70,000 Carthaginians, including the "Sacred Band" of 2,500 Carthaginian citizens of good birth, under Hamilcar and Hasdrubal. Timoleon attacked the Carthaginians while they were crossing the Crimisus, and routed and dispersed the Sacred Band before the main army had crossed. A heavy storm of rain in the faces of the Carthaginians came to the aid of the Sicilians, and after a severe struggle, they gained a signal victory, and the Carthaginians fled, leaving 10,000 dead in the field, and 15,000 prisoners. Many more were drowned in their endeavour to recross the river.
  

Greco Persian Wars — 499 to 450 B.C.

Greeks repel Persia's invasion of Greece and win freedom for Ionian colonies.


499 BC  
Battle of Ephesus (Ionian Revolt ) Persians victory
Fought 499 B.C., between the Athenians and Ionians, under Aristagorus, and the Persians, under Artaphernes. The Greeks who were retreating to the coast after burning Sardis, were overtaken by the pursuing Persians, under the walls of Ephesus, and signally defeated. The Athenians thereupon withdrew their fleet, and took no further part in the war.
  
499 BC  
Battle of Sardis (Ionian Revolt ) Ionian Greeks victory
In 498 the Greek cities of Asia minor revolted from Persia, and burned Sardis, the regional capital, to the ground.
  
494 BC  
Battle of Lade (Second Invasion ) Persians victory
Fought B.C. 494, between a Persian fleet of 600 sail, which was blockading Miletus under Artaphernes, and 353 Lesbian, Chian and Samian ships, which attempted to raise the siege. The Samians, bribed by the Persians, deserted at the beginning of the action, with the exception of 11 vessels, and the Greeks were totally defeated, with heavy loss. The Chians made a specially gallant fight.
  
490 BC  
Siege of Eretria (Second Invasion ) Persians victory
This town was besieged 490 B.C. when a large Persian force landed on the Island of Euboea and besieged its largest town. The Eretrians appealed to the Athenians for help, but before they could respond, traitors inside the town aided the invaders, and it fell after a short resistance.
  
490 BC  
Battle of Marathon (Third Invasion ) Athenians victory
Fought September 490 B.C., between the Athenians and Plataeans, 10,000 and 1,000 strong respectively, under Miltiades, and the army of Darius Hystaspes, about 100,000 in number, under Datis. Being greatly outnumbered, Miltiades altered the usual arrangement of the Greek line, so as to extend his wings across the whole width of the valley in which the battle was fought, and thus escape being outflanked. To effect this he was forced to weaken his centre, which was repulsed, but both his wings drove back the invaders, and then fell upon and routed the victorious Persian centre. The Persians fled in confusion to their ships, which they succeeded in launching, and escaped with a loss of 6,400. The Athenians lost 192 only.
  
480 BC  
Battle of Salamis (Third Invasion ) Greeks victory
Fought 480 B.C. between the Greek fleet of 370 sail, under Themistocles, and the Persian fleet, of over 1,000 galleys. The Greeks at first hesitated to attack in face of the overwhelming numbers of the Persian ships, but an Athenian trireme, commanded by Aminias, dashed in, and being followed by the rest of the Athenians and the Aeginetans in good order, the Persians were, after a hard struggle, totally defeated, with the loss of more than half their fleet. Xerxes and his army witnessed the rout from the shores of Salamis.
  
480 BC  
Battle of Thermopylae (Third Invasion ) Persians victory
Fought 480 B.C., when 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, under Leonidas, defended the pass of Thermopylae, leading southwards out of Thessaly, against the Persian host, under Xerxes. They kept the Persians at bay until a considerable force having passed the mountains by another part, they were attacked in the rear. They then retired to a hillock, and fought till the last man fell.
  
479 BC  
Battle of Mycale (Third Invasion ) Greeks victory
Fought August, 479 B.C., between the Greeks, under Leotychides the Spartan, and a large Persian army. The Greeks effected a landing near Cape Mycale, and drove the Persians back upon their entrenchments, which they then carried by storm, whereupon the Persian auxiliaries fled. The fugitives were slaughtered in detail by the revolted Ionians, and the whole army destroyed.
  
479 BC  
Battle of Plataea (Greco-Turkish War ) Greeks victory
Fought B.C. 479, between the Greeks, about 100,000 strong, under Pausanias the Spartan, and 300,000 Persians, with 50,000 Greek auxiliaries, under Mardonius. The Persians fought bravely, but were overborne by the superior discipline and heavier armour of the Greeks, and Mardonius falling, a panic ensued, and they fled to their entrenched camp. This was stormed by the Athenians, and no quarter was given, with the result, it is said, that with the exception of a body of 40,000 which left the field early in the battle, only 3,000 Persians escaped.
  
470 BC  
Battle of the Eurymedon (Aftermath ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 470, between the Persian fleet and army, and the Athenians and Delians, under Cimon. The Greeks were victorious both by land and sea, defeating the Persian fleet with a loss of 200 ships, and routing the land army with great slaughter. This victory secured the adhesion of the south of Asia Minor to the Athenian Confederacy.
  
459 BC  
Siege of Memphis (Aftermath ) Persians victory
This city was captured B.C. 459 by an Athenian fleet of 200 ships, which sailed up the Nile to the assistance of Inaros, who had raised the standard of revolt against Persia. The citadel, however, held out until B.C. 456, when a Persian army, under Megabyzus defeated the Athenians and drove them out of Memphis.
  
450 BC  
Battle of Salamis (Cyprus) (Ionian Revolt ) Athenians victory
Cimon led an Athenian force against the Persians to Cyprus to fight the Persians. The Athenians defeated the Persians in the Battle of Salamis (the city in Cyprus, not the island off Attica). The Athenians besieged the Persians at Citium, but Cimon died of disease (449). Lack of supplies forced the Athenians to return home.
  

Peloponnesian War — 459 to 404 B.C.

Civil war in Greece between the allies of Sparta and Athens


459 BC  
Battle of Halieis (First Peloponnesian ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 459 between the Athenians, and the combined forces of Corinth and Epidamnus. The Athenians were victorious.
  
458 BC  
Battle of Aegina (First Peloponnesian ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 458, between the Athenian fleet, and that of Aegina, aided by the Peloponnesian States. The Athenians were victorious, capturing 70 ships, and landing they invested Aegina, which fell into their hands after a siege of a little less than two years.
  
458 BC  
Battle of Cecryphalea (First Peloponnesian ) Athenians victory
A naval action, fought B.C. 458 between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, in which the latter were victorious.
  
457 BC  
Battle of Oenophyta (First Peloponnesian ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 457, between the Athenians, under Myronides, and the Thebans and other Boeotian states. The Boeotians were totally defeated, and were in consequence compelled to acknowledge the headship of Athens, and to contribute men to her armies.
  
457 BC  
Battle of Tanagra (First Peloponnesian ) Spartans victory
Fought 457 B.C., between the Spartans, and their Peloponnesian allies, and about 14,000 Athenians and others, including a body of Thessalian cavalry. The battle was stubbornly contested, both sides losing heavily, but the desertion during the action of the Thessalians turned the scale, and the Spartans were victorious, though at a cost which deterred them from their intended attack upon Athens.
  
447 BC  
Battle of Coronea (Ionion War ) Boeotian victory
Fought B.C. 447, when an Athenian army under Tolmides, which had entered Boeotia to reduce certain of the Boeotian towns which had thrown off their allegiance to Athens, was encountered and totally defeated by a largely superior force of Boeotians. Almost all the surviving Athenians were captured, and, to secure their release, Athens resigned her claims over Boeotia.
  
435 BC  
Battle of Ambracian Gulf (Thirty Year Truce ) Corcyrea victory
Fought 435 B.C. when a Corinthian fleet of 75 ships attempted the relief of Epidamnus, which was besieged by the Corcyreans and was defeated with heavy loss by 80 Corcyrean triremes.
  
433 BC  
Battle of Sybota (Thirty Year Truce ) drawn battle victory
Fought 433 B.C., between a Corinthian fleet of 150 sail, and a Corcyrean fleet of 150 sail, aided by 10 Athenian triremes. The Corcyrean right wing was defeated, and would have been destroyed, but for the assistance of the Athenians, and the arrival of a reinforcement of 20 Athenian ships caused the Corinthians to retire. The Corcyreans offered battle on the following day, but the Corinthians declined. Both sides claimed the victory, but the advantage lay with the Corinthians, who captured several ships.
  
432 BC  
Siege of Potidaea (British Offensive ) Athenians victory
This city was besieged by a force of about 3,000 Athenians, B.C. 432, and was defended by a small garrison of Corinthians, under Aristaeus. The town held out until the winter of 429, when the garrison surrendered, and were permitted to go free.
  
429 BC  
Battle of Corinth (Archidamian War ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 429, between 47 Peloponnesian ships under Cnemus, and 20 Athenian triremes under Phormio. Phormio, who was blockading the Gulf of Corinth, allowed Cneaus to pass into the open sea, and when disordered by the heavy weather prevailing, he attacked and completely defeated the Peloponnesians, capturing 12 ships.
  
429 BC  
Battle of Naupactus (Archidamian War ) Athenians victory
Fought 429 B.C. between 20 Athenian ships, under Phormio, and 77 Peloponnesian ships, under Cnemas. The Athenians were entrapped by Cnemas at the entrance to the Bay of Naupactus, and 9 of his vessels driven ashore. The remaining 11 fled towards Naupactus, closely pursued by the Peloponnesians, when the rearmost of the flying Athenians suddenly turned, and rammed the leading ship of Cnemas' squadron. The pursuers hesitated, and the rest of the Athenians then returned, and gained a complete victory, taking 6 ships, and recovering 8 of the 9 which had run ashore.
  
429 BC  
Siege of Plataea (Archidamian War ) Spartans victory
In 429 B.C., this city, held by a garrison of 400 Plataeans and 80 Athenians, was besieged by the Spartans, under Archidamus. All the useless mouths were sent out of the place, only 110 women being retained to bake bread. The garrison repulsed numerous assaults, and the siege soon resolved itself into a blockade, but provisions becoming scarce, an attempt was made to break through the enemy's lines, which half the garrison succeeded in doing, with the loss of one man. The remainder held out till 427, when being on the verge of starvation, they surrendered. The survivors were tried for having deserted Boeotia for Athens, at the outbreak of the war, and 200 Platroans, and 25 Athenians were put to death.
  
428 BC  
Siege of Mytilene (Archidamian War ) Athenians victory
This city, which had revolted against Athens, was invested in the autumn of 428 B.C. by the Athenians, under Paches, with 1,000 hoplites and a fleet of triremes. A feeble attempt at relief by a Peloponnesian squadron, under Alcidas, was unsuccessful, and in May, 427, the city surrendered, and all the male inhabitants were condemned to death. In the end, however, only the leaders of the revolt were executed.
  
426 BC  
Battle of Olpae (Archidamian War ) Athenians victory
Fought 426 B.C., between a small Athenian force, under Demosthenes, and a force of Ambraciots, with 3,000 Spartan hoplites, under Eurylochus. Demosthenes gained a complete victory, by means of an ambuscade, and Eurylochus was slain.
  
425 BC  
Battle of Pylos and Sphacteria (Archidamian War ) Athenians victory
The promontory of Pylos, which is separated by a narrow channel from the island of Sphacteria, was seized and fortified by an Athenian force under Demosthenes, B.C. 425. Here he was besieged by the Spartans under Thrasymelidas, with a land force and a fleet of 43 ships, the crews of which occupied Sphacteria. Demosthenes repulsed an attack on Pylos, and Eurymedon, arriving with 50 Athenian vessels, defeated the Spartan fleet, and blockaded Sphacteria. After a protracted siege, the arrival of reinforcements, under Cleon, enabled the Athenians to land 14,000 men in the island, and the garrison, reduced from 420 to 292, surrendered.
  
424 BC  
Battle of Delium (Archidamian War ) Thebes victory
Fought B.C. 424 between the Athenians under Hippocrates. 17,000 strong, and the Boeotians under Pagondas, 18,000 strong. The armies met on a plain before Delium, and after an obstinate encounter, in which the Thebans on the right overpowered the Athenians, while their left attack was repulsed, the appearance of a large body of cavalry on their flank alarmed the Athenians, who broke and fled. Hippocrates fell in the battle.
  
422 BC  
Battle of Amphipolis (Fifty Year Truce ) Spartans victory
Fought March 422 B.C. between 1,500 Athenians, with a contingent of allies under Cleon, and the Spartans, 2,000 hoplites, besides light armed troops, under Brasidas. Cleon advanced to attack Amphipolis, but finding the garrison preparing for a sortie, wheeled about and commenced to retreat. He was at once assailed by Brasidas, and his left fled without striking a blow. The Athenian right and centre offered some resistance, but in the end were routed with heavy loss. Both Brasidas and Cleon fell, the latter while fleeing from the field.
  
418 BC  
Battle of Mantinea (First Peloponnesian ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 418, between 10,000 Spartans and Tegeans, under Agis, and an equal force of Athenians, under Lathes and Nicostratus. The Spartan left was completely routed, but the Athenian centre and left failed to withstand the Spartan attack, and but for the defeat of Agis' left wing, would have been surrounded and captured. In the end the Spartans gained a signal victory. Larches and Nicostratus both fell in the action.
  
415 BC  
Siege of Syracuse (Thirty Year Truce ) Syracuse victory
Siege was laid to this city by the Athenians, under Alcibiades, Lamachus and Nicias, who with a fleet of 134 galleys, took possession of the harbour and effected a landing in the autumn of 415 B.C. Alcibiades was soon recalled, and Lamachas killed in a skirmish, while Nicias proved weak and incompetent. The siege works were not pressed and in the following year, Gylippus of Sparta succeeded in getting through the Athenian lines, and bringing a considerable force to the aid of the Syracusans, capturing at the same time the advanced positions of the besiegers. Early in 413, Demosthenes arrived from Athens, with a fleet of 93 triremes, and made a desperate attempt to recover the lost ground. He was, however, totally defeated, and in a series of sea-fights which followed, the Athenian fleet was completely destroyed. This disaster forced the Athenians to raise the siege, and was, in addition, a death-blow to the naval supremacy of Athens.
  
411 BC  
Battle of Cynossema (Ionion War ) Athenians victory
Fought 411 B.C., between 86 Peloponnesian ships under Mindarus, and 76 Athenian triremes under Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. The Athenian centre was broken, but, in the moment of victory, Thrasybulus fell upon the Peloponnesian with the right wing, and totally routed them, while Thrasyllus on the left also drove off his adversaries, after hard fighting.
  
410 BC  
Battle of Cyzicus (Ionion War ) Athenians victory
Fought 410 B.C., when Alcibiades, with 86 Athenian ships, surprised the Peloponnesian Admiral Mindarus, who was besieging Cyzicus, and, after a hard fight, totally defeated him. Mindarus was slain, 60 triremes were taken or destroyed, and the Peloponnesian fleet was practically annihilated.
  
407 BC  
Battle of Notion (Ionion War ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 407 between the Peloponnesian fleet, under Lysander, and the Athenian fleet of Alcibiades, which was lying at Notion. Alcibiades was not present during the action, which was the result of a surprise, and the Athenians were defeated with a loss of 15 ships.
  
406 BC  
Battle of Arginusa (Ionion War ) Athenians victory
Fought B.C. 406, between 150 Athenian triremes under Thrasyllus and other generals, and 120 Peloponnesian ships under Callicratidas. The Peloponnesians were routed, with a loss of 70 vessels, sunk or taken, and Callicratidas slain. The Athenians lost 25 ships with their crews, and the generals were brought to trial for not having taken proper steps to rescue the men of the disabled ships. They were convicted, and six of them, including Thrasyllus, executed. This victory temporarily restored to Athens the command of the sea.
  
406 BC  
Battle of Mytilene (Ionion War ) Spartans victory
A naval action fought B.C. 406, between 140 Peloponnesian vessels, under Callicratidas, and 70 Athenian triremes, under Conon. Conon was defeated, with the loss of 30 ships, the rest of his fleet being driven into Mytilene, where it was blockaded.
  
405 BC  
Battle of Aegospotami (Sicilian Expedition ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 405, between 180 Athenian triremes, under Conon, and 180 Peloponnesian ships under Lysander. The Athenian fleet was lying at Aegospotami, opposite Lampsacus, where Lysander was stationed. For four days in succession the Athenian admiral crossed the straits, and endeavoured, but in vain, to bring on a general action. On the fifth day Lysander waited till the Athenians had returned to their anchorage, and then, making a sudden dash across the straits, caught them unprepared, and seized all but twenty ships, putting to death all the Athenians who were captured. This disaster destroyed the naval power of Athens, and was soon followed by the end of the Peloponnesian War.
  

Retreat of the Ten Thousand — 401 to 399 B.C.

Ten thousand Greek mercenaries retreat through Persia after Battle of Cunaxa.


401 BC  
Battle of Cunaxa   Artaxerxes victory
Fought B.C. 401 between the Persians, about 400,000 strong, under Artaxerxes, and the army of his brother Cyrus, consisting of 100,000 Orientals, with 14,000 Greek mercenaries, under Clearchus. The Greeks on the right wing drove back the Persian left, and Cyrus in the centre broke the king's bodyguard, which fled in disorder. While pursuing his brother, however, he was struck down, and his Orientals at once took to flight. The Greeks refused to surrender, and were allowed to retain their arms and march to the coast. This expedition of Cyrus forms the subject of Xenophon's "Anabasis."
  

Corinthian War — 395 to 394 B.C.

Rebellion of Corinth and Thebes against Spartan Hegemony


395 BC  
Battle of Haliartus   Thebeans victory
Fought B.C. 395, when Lysander, at the head of a Spartan force, without waiting as had been arranged to effect a junction with Pausanius, attacked the town of Haliartus. The Haliartians, seeing from the battlements that a body of Thebans was approaching, made a sortie, and the Spartans, attacked simultaneously in front and rear, were routed, and Lysander slain.
  
394 BC  
Battle of Coronea   drawn battle victory
Fought August B.C. 394, between the Athenians, Argives, Thebans, and Corinthians, and the Spartans under Agesilaus. The Spartan right defeated the Argives, but their left fled before the Thebans, who then attacked the Spartan right, but, after a desperate struggle, were defeated. The Spartans, however, had suffered so severely that Agesilaus was compelled to evacuate Boeotia.
  
394 BC  
Battle of Cnidus   Persians victory
Fought B.C. 394 between 120 Spartan triremes under Pisander and a largely superior Persian fleet under Pharnabazus, and Conon the Athenian. Pisander was defeated and slain, and his fleet destroyed. Persia thus re-established her power in the Greek cities of Asia, and the maritime power of Sparta was destroyed.
  
394 BC  
Battle of Corinth   Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 394 between 14,000 Spartans, and 26,000 Athenians, Corinthians, Thebans and Argives. The allies were defeated, losing twice as many men as their opponents, but the Spartans, in spite of their victory, were obliged to retire, leaving the Isthmus in their possession.
  

Boeotian Wars — 373 to 362 B.C.

Successful Theban rebellion against Spartan Hegemony


373 BC  
Battle of Tegyra   Thebes victory
Fought B.C. 373, when Pelopidas, with the Sacred Band of 300 Thebans, routed a large force of Spartans in a narrow pass near Orchomenus, slaying 600, including their two generals.
  
371 BC  
Battle of Leuctra   Thebes victory
Fought July, 371 B.C., between 11,000 Spartans, under Cleombrotus, and 6,000 Thebans, under Epaminondas. The principal fighting took place on the Theban left, where Epaminondas had massed his best troops, and after a fierce encounter the Spartans were driven back, leaving 1,000 dead, including Cleombrotus, on the field. As a result of this defeat, the Spartans evacuated Boeotia.
  
368 BC  
Battle of The Tearless Battle   Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 368, when a force of Arcadians endeavoured to cut off a Spartan army, under Archidamus, in a narrow defile in Laconia. They were repulsed with heavy loss, and not a single Spartan was killed, whence the engagement came to be called the Tearless Battle.
  
364 BC  
Battle of Cynoscephalae   Thebes victory
Fought July 364 B.C., between the Thebans and Thessalians under Pelopidas, and the forces of Alexander, Despot of Phera. Both armies made a forced march to seize the heights of Cynoscephalae, and reached the spot almost simultaneously. The Theban cavalry drove back Alexander's horse, but lost time in the pursuit, and his infantry made good their position on the heights. However, after very hard fighting, they were dislodged, and Alexander completely routed, though Pelopidas fell in the battle.
  
362 BC  
Battle of Mantinea   Thebes victory
Fought B.C. 362, between the Boeotians, under Epaminondas, and the combined forces of Athens, Sparta, and Mantineia. Epaminondas attacked strongly with his left, holding back his right in reserve, and after the driving back of the Mantineians, routed the Spartans in the centre. The Athenians were hardly engaged, but the Boeotian victory was complete. In the pursuit Epaminondas, fell and the loss of the great leader so disheartened the Boeotians that they did not further press their victory.
  

Athenian Social War — 357 to 356 B.C.

Rebellion of its colonies disrupts an Athenian effort to rebuild its empire.


376 BC  
Battle of Naxos (numidian ) Athenians victory
Fought September, 376 B.C., between 80 Athenian triremes, under Chabrias, and 60 Spartan ships, under Pollio, who was endeavoring to waylay the Athenian grain ships from the Euxine. Pollio was totally defeated, with a loss of 49 triremes.
  
357 BC  
Battle of Chios   Chians victory
Chios having risen against Athenian rule in B.C. 357, a fleet of 60 ships under Chabrias and Chares was sent to reduce it. A force having been landed, a joint attack was made by the fleet and the army, but in attempting to enter the harbour, the galley of Chabrias, which led the way, was surrounded and overpowered, Chabrias falling. The troops were then withdrawn, and the attack abandoned.
  
356 BC  
Battle of Embata   Chians victory
Fought B.C. 356, when an Athenian fleet of 120 sail, under Chares, designed to attack the Chians, with l00 galleys, in the straits between Chios and the mainland. The day proving stormy, however, his colleagues Iphicrates and Timoleon declined the enterprise as too hazardous, and Chares attacking alone, with a third of the fleet, was defeated with heavy loss.
  

Sacred War — 355 to 352 B.C.

Greek rebels seize the temple at Delphi and stir up a war with Philip of Macedon.


355 BC  
Battle of Delphi   Phocians victory
Fought B.C. 355, between the Phocians, 5,000 strong, under Philomelus, and the Locrians. Philomelus, who had seized Delphi, attacked the Locrians on the heights above the sacred city, and routed them with heavy loss, many being driven over the precipice.
  
354 BC  
Battle of Neon   Thebes victory
Fought B.C. 354, between the Phocians and certain mercenary troops, 10,000 in all, under Philomelus, and the Thebans and Locrians. The Phocians were totally defeated, and Philomelus, driven fighting and covered with wounds to the edge of a precipice, preferred death to surrender, and sprang over the cliff.
  
352 BC  
Battle of Pagasaean Gulf   Macedonians victory
Fought B.C. 352, between the Phocians, under Onomarchus, and the Macedonians, under Philip. Philip's infantry was about equal in numbers to that of the Phocians, but he was far superior in cavalry, and in the end the Phocians were completely defeated, with the loss of a third of their number. Onomarchus was slain.
  
352 BC  
Battle of Thermopylae (Argentine ) Greeks victory
Fought B.C. 352 between the Macdeonians under Philip II and the Phocians in alliance with the Athenians, Achaeans, and Spartans. Philip had recently brought Thessaly under his control, but was stopped at Thermopylae by the united Greeks.
  

Lucanian War — 338 to 331 B.C.

Greek colonies in southern Italy resist the Italic Lucanians


338 BC  
Battle of Mandonia   Lucanians victory
Fought B.C. 338, between the Italian Greeks, under Archidamus, King of Sparta, and the Lucanians. The Greeks were defeated, and Archidamus slain.
  
331 BC  
Battle of Pandosia (Conquest of India ) Lucanians victory
Fought B.C. 331, between the Italian Greeks, under Alexander of Epirus, and the Lucanians. During the battle Alexander was stabbed by a Lucanian exile serving in the Greek army, and the Greeks were in the end defeated.
  

Greek Rebellions Against Macedonia — 338 to 322 B.C.

Macedonian conquest of Greece and subsequent revolts against Macedonian rule.


338 BC  
Battle of Chaeronea (Revolt of Athens ) Macedonians victory
Fought August B.C. 338 between the Macedonians under Philip, and the Athenians and Thebans under Chares and Theagenes respectively. Philip had 30,000 foot and 2,000 horse, the latter led by Alexander, then a lad of eighteen; the allies were slightly fewer in number. Philip reinforced his right wing, which was opposed by the Athenians, and sent his heavy cavalry against the Thebans, on the allied right. Their charge broke the Theban ranks, and they then attacked the Athenians in flank and rear. A hopeless rout ensued, the Theban "Sacred Band" dying where they stood. The Athenians lost 6,000 killed and 2,000 prisoners. The Thebans were almost annihilated.
  
336 BC  
Battle of Carts (First ) Macedonians victory
Fought in 336 B.C., between a Thracian mountain tribe and Alexander's army. The Thracians had revolted at word of Alexander's accessions, and he deemed it critical to put down the revolt immediately. The Thracians where holed up in the defiles of the mountains and had dozens of carts loaded with heavy rocks ready to roll down the mountain and crush their enemies. The macedonians side-stepped the carts when possible or laid down and covered themselves with their shields. When the force of the wagons was spent they rushed at the Thracians and conquered them.
  
335 BC  
Siege of Thebes (Revolt of Thrace ) Macedonians victory
This city was captured by the Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, in September, 335 B.C. The Thebans were blockading the Macedonian garrison, which held the citadel, and the Cadmea; Perdiccas, one of Alexander's captains, without orders, broke through the earthworks outside the city. Before the Thebans could shut the gates, Perdiccas effected an entrance into the city, and being joined by the garrison of the Cadmea, soon overcame the resistance of the Thebans. Six thousand of the inhabitants were massacred, and the city was razed to the ground.
  
331 BC  
Battle of Megalopolis (Revolt of Thebes ) Macedonians victory
Fought B.C. 331, in the attempt of the Spartans, aided by the Arcadians, Achaeans and Eleians, to shake off the Macedonian yoke, during Alexander's absence in Asia The allies, under Agis, King of Sparta, were besieging Megalopolis, which had declined to join the league, when they were attacked by the Macedonians, under Antipater, and completely routed, Agis falling in the battle.
  
322 BC  
Battle of Crannon (Revolt of Sparta ) Macedonians victory
Fought B.C. 322, between the Macedonian forces of Antipater and Craterus and rebellious Greek forces led by the Athenians, was the decisive battle of the Lamian war. A complete Macedonian victory, it marked the end of city-state freedom from Macedonian hegemony in Greece.
  

Macedonian Conquest of Persia — 334 to 327 B.C.

Alexander the Great's wars of conquest in Persia


334 BC  
Battle of Granicus (Conquest of Persia ) Macedonians victory
Fought May, 334 B.C., between 35,000 Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, and 40,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries, under Memnon of Rhodes, and various Persian satraps. Alexander crossed the Granicus in the face of the Persian army, leading the way himself at the head of the heavy cavalry, and having dispersed the Persian light horse, he brought up the phalanx, which fell upon and routed the Greek mercenaries. The Persians lost heavily, while the Macedonians' loss was very slight.
  
194  
Battle of Issus (Wars of Severans ) Severus victory
Fought in 194, after a previous engagement at Nicaea between the Imperial forces of Septimus Severus and his rival, Pescennius Niger, who was acclaimed emperor by his legions in Syria. Severus won decisively, and Niger was later killed while attempting to flee to Parthia.
  
312 BC  
Battle of Gaza (Third War ) Ptolemy victory
Fought B.C. 312, between the Syrians and Egyptians under Seleucus and Ptolemy Soter, 25,000 strong, and an equal force of Macedonians under Demetrius Poliorcetes. The Macedonians were routed, losing 5,000 killed, 8,000 wounded, and all their treasure and baggage.
  
332 BC  
Siege of Tyre (Conquest of Persia ) Macedonians victory
This strongly fortified city, built on an island separated from the mainland by a channel 1,000 yards wide, was besieged by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great, B.C., 332. Alexander at once commenced the construction of a mole across the channel but was much hampered by the Phoenician galleys, which issued from the two fortified harbours, and destroyed his military engines. He therefore collected in Sidon a fleet of 250 ships from the captured Phoenician cities, and holding the Tyrian galleys in check, completed his mole. It was some time, however, before a breach could be effected, but in August, 332, an assault was delivered, headed by Alexander in person, and the city was stormed and taken. Eight thousand Tyrians fell in the storm, and about 30,000 were sold into slavery.
  
331 BC  
Battle of Gaugamela (Conquest of Greece ) Macedonians victory
Fought October 31, 331 B.C., between 47,000 Macedonians under Alexander the Great, and the Persian army, three or four times as numerous, under Darius Codomannus. Alexander, who led the Macedonian right wing, forced a passage between the Persian left and centre, and attacked the centre on the flank. After a stubborn resistance, and though meanwhile the Macedonian left had been hard pressed, the Persians gave way, and Darius taking to flight, the whole army fled in confusion, and was routed with enormous loss, especially at the passage of the Lycas, which barred their retreat. This victory made Alexander master of Asia.
  
327 BC  
Battle of the Hydaspes (Conquest of Persia ) Macedonians victory
Fought B.C. 327, between 65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 Asiatics, under Alexander the Great, and the army of the Indian king Porus, numbering 30,000 infantry, with 200 elephants and 300 war chariots. Alexander crossed the river a few miles above Porus' entrenchments, and utterly routed him, with a loss of 12,000 killed and 9,000 prisoners, including Porus himself. The Macedonians lost 1,000 only.
  

Wars of the Diadochi — 321 to 280 B.C.

Wars of Alexander's successors for control of Macedonian Empire


321 BC  
Battle of Pelusium (First War ) Ptolemy victory
Fought B.C. 321, between the Macedonians, under the Regent, Perdiccas, and the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Lagus. Perdiccas attacked the fortress, but was driven off with heavy loss, including 1,000 drowned in the Nile. Perdiccas was later killed by a conspiracy of his generals, lead by Seleucus.
  
323  
Siege of Byzantium (Wars of Constantine ) Constantine victory
In 323 the city was besieged by Constantine the Great after his victory over Licinius at Hadrianopolis. Licinius, finding the place difficult of defense, crossed into Asia and collected an army to raise the siege. He was, however, defeated at Chrysopolis, and Byzantium surrendered in 324. Constantine was proclaimed Emperor of the united Empire, and Byzantium, under its modern name of Constantinople, was made the capital.
  
316 BC  
Battle of the Copratus (Second War ) Eumenes victory
Fought B.C. 316, between the Macedonians under Antigonus, and the Asiatics under Eumenes. Each army was about 30,000 strong, and Eumenes fell upon the Macedonians as they were crossing the Copratus, and signally defeated them, though Antigonus was able to retreat in good order.
  
316 BC  
Battle of Paraetakene Mountains (Second War ) Eumenes victory
Fought B.C. 316, between the Macedonians, 30,000 strong, under Antigonus, and an equal force of Asiatics, under Eumenes. Eumenes attacked the Macedonian camp, and after a severe engagement, in which the Asiatics held the advantage, Antigonus, by successful maneuvering, withdrew his army without serious loss, leaving Eumenes a barren victory.
  
316 BC  
Battle of Persepolis (Second War ) Antigonids victory
Fought B.C. 316, between the Macedonians, 31,000 strong, with 65 elephants, under Antigonus, and 42,000 Asiatics, with 114 elephants, under Eumenes. At the first onslaught, Antigonus' infantry was overwhelmed, but his cavalry retrieved the day, and seizing the enemy's camp, threw Eumenes' phalanx into confusion. Upon this the Macedonian infantry rallied, and gained a complete victory, Eumenes being captured.
  
312 BC  
Battle of Gaza (Third War ) Ptolemy victory
Fought B.C. 312, between the Syrians and Egyptians under Seleucus and Ptolemy Soter, 25,000 strong, and an equal force of Macedonians under Demetrius Poliorcetes. The Macedonians were routed, losing 5,000 killed, 8,000 wounded, and all their treasure and baggage.
  
307 BC  
Battle of Salamis (Fourth War ) Antigonids victory
Fought B.C. 307, between the Macedonian fleet, under Demetrius Poliorcetes, and the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Soter. The Egyptians were routed, with the loss of 100 ships captured and the rest sunk, and 30,000 prisoners.
  
302 BC  
Battle of Ipsus (Fourth War ) Seleucids victory
Fought B.C. 302, between the Syrians, 32,000 strong, under Seleucus, and the Macedonians, 30,000 in number, under Antigonus. Seleucus utterly routed the Macedonians, Antigonus being among the slain. Demetrius Poliorcetes, who now took command, only succeeded in rallying 8,000 men, after fleeing for 200 miles.
  
281 BC  
Battle of Corupedium (More War ) Seleucids victory
Fought B.C. 281, between the Macedonians under Lysimachus, and the Syrians under Seleucus. The two generals met in single combat, in front of their armies. and Seleucus, though 81 years of age, defeated and slew his ancient comrade in arms. The two armies then engaged, and the Syrians gained a complete victory.
  
280 BC  
Battle of Sardis (More War ) Pergamus victory
Fought B.C. 280, between the troops of Pergamus, under Eumenes, and the Syrians, under Antigonus Soter. Eumenes gained a signal victory, and annexed a large part of the dominions of Antigonus.
  
262 BC  
Battle of Ephesus (Gallic Invasion of Asia ) Gauls victory
Fought B.C. 262, between the Syrians, under Antigonus, and the Gallic invaders. Antigonus was disastrously defeated.
  

Pyrrhic Wars in Italy — 282 to 275 B.C.

The Greek colonies in southern Italy resist Roman domination.


282 BC  
Siege of Thurii   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 282, when a Roman consular army, under Caius Fabricius, routed the Lucanians and Bruttians, who were besieging Thurii. The siege was raised, and the Tarentine coalition temporarily broken up.
  
280 BC  
Battle of Heraclea (almohads ) Italian Greeks victory
Fought B.C. 280, between the Epirots, 30,000 strong, under Pyrrhus, and about 35,000 Romans, under P. Laverius Lavinus. The Romans crossed the Sirisin the face of the enemy, when they were attacked by Pyrrhus, and after a furious conflict, were at last broken by his elephants, and fled in disorder, losing about 7,000 men. The Epirots lost 4,000.
  
279 BC  
Siege of Asculum   Italian Greeks victory
Fought B.C. 279, between 45,000 Romans under Sulpicius Saverrio and P. Decius Mus, and the Epirots, with their Italian allies, in about equal force. The Romans fought to raise the siege of Asculum, but were finally routed by the Epirot cavalry and elephants, and driven back to their camp with a loss of 6,000. The Epirots lost 3,000.
  
275 BC  
Battle of Beneventum   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 275, when Pyrrhus with a strong force of Epirots and Italians made a night attack upon the consular army of M. Carius Dentatus, encamped in a strong position near Beneventum. Pyrrhus was repulsed with considerable loss, including eight elephants. Encouraged by this success, the Romans shortly afterwards advanced to meet Pyrrhus in the open plain, and were at first driven back by the elephants, but rallying, they drove these back through Pyrrhus' lines, and disordered the Epirot phalanx, and a charge of the legionaries completed the rout. This was Pyrrhus' last serious attack against the Roman power, and he soon afterwards left Italy.
  

Syrian Wars — 244 to 198 B.C.

Wars for Control of Syria between Seleucid and Ptolemy Empires.


244 BC  
Battle of Antioch (Third Syrian War-Ptolemy ) Ptolemy victory
Fought B.C. 244, between the Syrians under Seleucus Callinicus and the Egyptians under Ptolemy Energetes. Seleucus was routed and compelled to take refuge within the walls of Antioch.
  
242 BC  
Battle of Ancyrae (Yoshinaka's Rebellion ) Gauls victory
Fought B.C. 242, between the Syrians under Seleucus Callinicus, and the rebels under his brother Hierax, aided by a large contingent of Gauls. After a desperate struggle, in which Hierax nearly lost his life at the hands of his barbarian auxiliaries, Seleucus was utterly routed.
  
223 BC  
Battle of Raphia (Judea Campaign ) Ptolemy victory
Fought B.C. 223, between the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Philopator, and the Syrians, under Antiochus the Great. Antiochus at first held the advantage, but pressing too far in the pursuit, was overpowered and totally routed. The Syrians lost 14,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners.
  
214 BC  
Battle of the Arius (Fifth Syrian War-Rhodes ) Seleucids victory
Fought B.C. 214, between the Syrians under Antiochus the Great, and the Parthians and Bactrians under Arsaces III, and Euthydemus. Antiochus was severely wounded, but remained at the head of his troops, and completely routed the enemy with enormous loss.
  
201 BC  
Battle of Lade (Fifth Syrian War-Rhodes ) drawn battle victory
Fought B.C. 201, between the Rhodian fleet, under Theophiliscus, and the Macedonians, under Heraclides. The Macedonians had rather the better of the encounter, though both sides claimed the victory.
  
201 BC  
Battle of Chios (Fourth Syrian War-Ptolemy ) Rhodes victory
Fought B.C. 201 between the Macedonian fleet, 48 triremes and some smaller vessels under Philip, and the combined fleets of Rhodes and Pergamus under Theophiliscus and Attalus. Philip was defeated with the loss of half his ships, 3,000 killed and 5,000 prisoners. The allies lost 6 ships and 800 men.
  
198 BC  
Battle of Mount Panium (Third Syrian War-Ptolemy ) Seleucids victory
Fought B.C. 198, between the Syrians, under Antiochus the Great, and the Greeks and Egyptians, under Scopas. Scopas was routed, and Antiochus took possession of all the territory held by Egypt in Asia, up to the frontier of Egypt proper.
  

Wars of the Achaean League — 226 to 146 B.C.

Last independent coalition of Greeks fights domination by Sparta, Macedonia and Rome


226 BC  
Battle of Megalopolis (Wars of Aratus ) Spartans victory
Fought B.C. 226, between the Spartans, under Cleomenes, and the forces of the Achaean League, under Aratus. The Achaeans early gained an advantage, and the Spartans fled, pursued by the light troops. These, however, being unsupported, the Spartans turned and routed them, and then over-whelmed the Achaean hoplites in their turn with enormous slaughter.
  
222 BC  
Battle of Sellasia (Wars of Aratus ) Achaeans victory
Fought B.C. 221, between 10,000 Spartans, led by Cleomenes III and 30,000 Macedonians and Achaeans, lead by Antigonus III Doson. The Spartans were arrayed on two hills, but were overcome by the vastly superior allied forces. Of the 6000 Spartan infantry present, it was said that only 200 returned.
  
209 BC  
Battle of the Larissus (Wars of Philopoemen ) Achaeans victory
Fought B.C. 209, between the Achaeans, under Philopoemen, and the Aetolians and EIeans. The allies were defeated and cut to pieces, the Elean general being among the slain.
  
208 BC  
Battle of Mantinea (Wars of Philopoemen ) Achaeans victory
Fought B.C. 208, between the Achaeans, under Philopoemen, and the Spartans, under Machanidas. The Achaeans drove the Spartans into a ravine in great disorder, and routed them with a loss of 4,000 killed, amongst whom was Machanidas.
  
195 BC  
Battle of Argos (Wars of Philopoemen ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 195, between Nabis of Sparta, with 15,000 men, and 50,000 Romans and Macedonians under Flaminius. Nabis was totally defeated, and though allowed to retain Sparta, was compelled to restore to the Achaean league all his foreign possessions.
  
192 BC  
Battle of Barbosthenian Mountains (Wars of Philopoemen ) Achaeans victory
Fought 192 B.C. between the Spartans under Narbis, and the Achaean League under Philopoemen. Nabis was totally routed, with the loss of three-fourths of his troops.
  
146 BC  
Battle of Leucopetra (Wars against Rome ) Romans victory
Fought 146 B.C., between a Roman Consular Army, under Lucius Mummius, and the forces of the Achaean League, under Diacus. The Greeks, who were only half as strong as their opponents, were routed, and all resistance came to an end, the Greek cities, one after another, opening their gates to the Romans.
  
146 BC  
Battle of Scarpheia (Wars against Rome ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 146, between the Romans, under Matellus, and the Acheans, under Critolaus. The Greeks were totally defeated with heavy loss, Critolaus being killed.
  

Roman Macedonian Wars — 198 to 168 B.C.

Roman conquest of Greece and Macedonia


198 BC  
Battle of Avus (Second ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 198, between 20,000 Macedonians under Philip, and two Roman legions under T. Quinctius Flamininus. A force of 4,000 legionaries penetrated to the rear of Philip's camp, and when Flamininus attacked in front, they fell upon the Macedonian rear, and completely routed them, with a loss of 2,000.
  
197 BC  
Battle of Cynoscephalae (Third ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 197, between the Romans, 26,000 strong, under Flamininus, and the Macedonians, in about equal force under Philip. The Roman vanguard, coming unexpectedly upon the enemy, was repulsed, but Flamininus bringing up the legionaries, the battle became more equal. On the right Philip, with half his phalanx, drove back the Romans, but his left wing was utterly routed, and the victorious Roman right then turned and attacked the Macedonian right in flank and rear, and won a complete victory. The Macedonians lost 13,000 killed and wounded The Roman losses were small.
  
171 BC  
Battle of Larissa (Third ) Macedonians victory
Fought 171 B.C., between the Romans, 40,000 strong, under P. Licinius Crassus, and 43,000 Macedonians, under Perseus. The Romans were defeated with a loss of 2,200 killed and 600 prisoners.
  
168 BC  
Battle of Pydna (Amenian vs. Sassanid ) Romans victory
Fought June 22, 168 B.C., between the Romans, under Aemilius Paulus, and the Macedonians, under Perseus. The Macedonian phalanx attacked the Roman line, and drove them back on their camp, but becoming disordered by the uneven ground, was broken by the legionaries and cut to pieces. The result was a total defeat of the Macedonians, with a loss of 20,000 killed and 11,000 prisoners. The phalanx here fought its last fight and perished to a man.
  

Wars of Antiochus the Great — 191 to 190 B.C.

Romans repel Antiochus the Great in Asia Minor


191 BC  
Battle of Aspendus   Rhodes victory
Fought B.C. 191, between the Syrian fleet of Antiochus the Great, under Hannibal, and a Rhodian squadron under Eudamus. Though Hannibal was in superior force, he suffered a severe defeat.
  
191 BC  
Battle of Cyssus   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 191 between the Roman fleet of 105 triremes under Caius Livius, and the fleet of Antiochus, numbering 70 sail, under Polyxenides. Polyxenides sailed out of Cyssus to encounter the Romans, but was defeated with a loss of 23 ships, and forced to seek refuge at Ephesus.
  
191 BC  
Battle of Thermopylae   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 191, between 40,000 Romans, under Glabrio, and the army of Antiochus the Great, King of Asia, Antiochus was entrenched at Thermopylae, where he was attacked by the Romans, and a post held by 2,000 Aetolians being surprised, his flank was turned, and he was disastrously defeated. Antiochus escaped from the field with barely 500 men.
  
190 BC  
Battle of Magnesia   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 190, between Antiochus the Great, with 80,000 troops, and the Romans, 40,000 strong, under Cnaeus Domitius. Antiochus, leading the right wing, drove back the Roman left and penetrated to their camp, which he nearly succeeded in capturing. His left wing, however, was routed, and his elephants becoming unmanageable, broke the ranks of the phalanx, whereupon his whole army fled in confusion, with a loss, it is said, of 50,000 killed. The Romans lost 300 only.
  
190 BC  
Battle of Myonnesus   Romans victory
Fought B.C. 190, between the Roman fleet, under Caius Livius, and the fleet of Antiochus, under Polyxenides, who had an advantage of nine ships. He was, however, defeated by the superior seamanship of the Romans, with a loss of 42 vessels.