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Wars and Battles of the British Empire

Click on red links to see detailed descriptions of British Empire wars.
Click on light blue links for lists of battles. Key battles are indicated in blue.
Most of the battle summaries listed below are taken from
Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1904.
 
Wars in EuropeWars in the Americas
Jacobite Rebellion 1689-1746     Battles       French Indian Wars 1745-1762     Battles      
Austrian Succession 1740-48     Battles       American Revolution 1774-1783     Battles      
Seven Year's War 1752-62     Battles       War of 1812 1812-1814     Battles      
French Revolution 1792-1800     Battles       Wars of Canada 1837-1885     Battles      
Wars of Ireland 1795-99     Battles       Wars in Asia/Australia
Napoleonic Wars 1801-15     Battles       Carnatic Wars 1746-1763     Battles      
Peninsular War 1808-14     Battles       Mahratta Wars 1775-1818     Battles      
The Great War 1914-18     Battles       Mysore Wars 1767-1799     Battles      
Wars in Africa/Mideast British Gurkha War 1814-1816     Battles      
Kaffir Wars 1818-1852     Battles       British Burmah Wars 1823-1887     Battles      
Ashanti Wars 1823-1901     Battles       Afghan Wars 1834-1897     Battles      
Crimean War 1854-1856     Battles       Conquest of Sindh 1843     Battles      
Arabi's Rebellion 1882     Battles       Sikh Wars 1845-1849     Battles      
Soudan Campaign 1883-1898     Battles       Indian Mutiny 1857     Battles      
Zulu Wars 1838-1879     Battles       Opium Wars 1814-1816     Battles      
Boer Wars 1848-1902     Battles       Maori Wars 1864     Battles      

Jacobite Rebellion — 1689 to 1746

When the Stuart King is deposed many Scots and Irish remain loyal to the Stuart line.


1715  
Battle of Preston (Rebellion of the Forty-five ) Royalists victory
Fought November 12, 1715, between 4,000 Jacobites, under General Forster, and a small force of Royal troops, chiefly dragoons, under General Wills. The Jacobites had barricaded the approaches to the town, and held their ground throughout the day, but reinforcements arriving, Wills was able to invest the place completely; and early on the morning of the 14th Forster surrendered. Many of the rebels having left the town on the night of the 12th, the prisoners numbered 1,468. The Jacobite loss in killed and wounded was 42, that of the Royalists about 200.
  
1715  
Battle of Sheriffmuir (Rebellion of the Fifteen ) Jacobites victory
Fought November 13, 1715, between 3,500 royal troops, under the Duke of Argyle, and 9,000 Highlanders, under the Earl of Mar. Argyle's left wing was routed by the Macdonalds, and his left and centre, though at first they held their own, were in the end compelled to retire, and Argyle effected a retreat in good order to Stirling.
  
1719  
Battle of Glen Shiel (Rebellion of the Fifteen ) Royalists victory
Fought June 10, 1719 between a collection of Jacobite Spanish marines and highland clans, under Lord Murray and Rob Roy, and 800 Royal troops. The battle was originally planned as a diversionary tactic to distract attention from a Spanish fleet intended to land in Wales. The fleet hit a storm and dispersed but the fight at Glen Shiel occurred any way. The Jacobites were defeated.
  
1745  
Battle of Prestonpans (Rebellion of the Forty-five ) Jacobites victory
Fought September 21, 1745, between 2,300 Royal troops, under Sir John Cope, and a slightly superior force of Jacobites, under the Young Pretender. Cope's infantry failed to stand up against the charge of the Highlanders, and fled in confusion, losing heavily in killed and wounded, and 1,600 prisoners, including 70 officers. The Highlanders lost about 140 killed and wounded. This action is also known as the Battle of Gladsmuir.
  
1745  
Siege of Carlisle (Rebellion of the Forty-five ) Jacobites victory
This city was besieged by the Jacobites under the Young Pretender, November 9, 1745, and was defended by the Cumberland and Westmoreland Militia, with small force of regulars, under Colonel Durand. The besiegers opened fire on the 13th, and on the evening of the 14th, under pressure of the inhabitants, Durand surrendered.
  
1746  
Battle of Falkirk (Rebellion of the Forty-five ) Jacobites victory
Fought Jan 17, 1746, between the rebel Highlanders, 8,000 strong, under the Young Pretender, and a force of 8,000 British troops, with 1,000 Campbells under General Hawley. The charge of the Highlanders broke the British line, and they were driven headlong from the field, with a loss of 600 killed and wounded, 700 prisoners, 7 guns, and all tents and baggage. The rebels lost 120 only.
  
1746  
Battle of Culloden (Williamite War in Ireland ) Royalists victory
Fought April 16, 1746, between the Royal troops under the Duke of Cumberland, and the Highlanders under the Young Pretender. The rebels were completely routed by the English regulars, and in addition to heavy loss in the field, suffered terribly in the pursuit, being ruthlessly cut down by the cavalry. Cumberland's cruelty on this occasion earned for him the title of "Butcher." The Royalists lost 309 killed and wounded. This battle is sometimes called the Battle of Drummossie Moor.
  

War of the Austrian Succession — 1740 to 1748

England takes Austria's side in a European War so it can fight France in America.


1740  
Battle of Havana (Jenkin's Ear ) drawn battle victory
Fought October 12, 1748, between a British squadron of seven ships, under Admiral Knowles, and a Spanish squadron of equal strength. The action was fought with little determination, and though the British captured one ship, the result was far from decisive. The Spaniards lost 298, the British 179 killed and wounded.
  
1740  
Battle of Porto Bello (Jenkin's Ear ) British victory
This place was captured from the Spaniards, November 21, 1740, by a British fleet of 6 ships, under Admiral Vernon. The British loss was trifling.
  
1741  
Battle of Carthagena (Jenkin's Ear ) Spanish victory
This port was blockaded March 9, 1741, by a British fleet under Admiral Vernon. An unsuccessful attack was made upon the forts, and eventually Vernon, having lost 3,000 men during the operations, withdrew April 9.
  
1743  
Battle of Dettingen (Austrian allies vs. France ) British victory
Fought June 27, 1743, between the British, 40,000 strong, under George II, and 60,000 French under the Duc de Noailles. The British, who were retiring upon Hanau from Aschaffenburg, found their retreat cut off by the French, Dettingen being held by 23,000 men under de Grammont, while the main body was on the opposite bank of the Maine. De Grammont left his lines to attack the British, whereupon George II put himself at the head of his troops, and led a charge which broke the French and drove them headlong into the river. Their losses in crossing were heavy, and they left 6,000 killed and wounded on the field. This is the last occasion on which the Sovereign has led British troops in battle.
  
1744  
Battle of Toulon (Austrian allies vs. France ) French-Spanish victory
Fought February 21, 1744, between a British fleet of 27 sail of the line, and 8 frigates, under Admiral Matthews, and a combined French and Spanish fleet of 28 line-of-battle ships. The British fleet suffered a serious reverse, in consequence of which the Admiral and four captains were tried by court-martial and cashiered. The British lost 274 killed and wounded, the allies about 1,000.
  
1745  
Battle of Fontenoy (Austrian allies vs. France ) French victory
Fought May I1, 1745, between 50,000 British, Dutch and Austrian troops, under the Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The Duke endeavored to relieve Tournay, which the French were besieging, and the British troops captured the heights on which the French were posted. The Prince of Waldeck, however, who commanded the Dutch, failed to support the Duke, and the French being reinforced, the trenches were retaken, and the British beaten back. Tournay fell shortly afterwards,
  
1747  
Battle of Cape Finisterre (Austrian allies vs. France ) British victory
Fought May 3, 1747, between a British fleet of 16 sail under Admiral Anson, and a French fleet of 38 sail under Admiral de la Jonquiere. The French were completely defeated, losing 10 ships and nearly 3,000 prisoners.
  
1747  
Battle of Lawfeldt (Austrian allies vs. France ) drawn battle victory
Fought July 2, 1747, between the allied Austrians and British, under the Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The village of Lawfeldt was thrice carried by the French and thrice recaptured, but about noon the British centre was driven in, and defeat was imminent, when a cavalry charge, headed by Sir John Ligonier, saved the day, and enabled the Duke to retire in good order. The allies lost 5,620 killed and wounded, the French about 10,000.
  
1747  
Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (Austrian allies vs. France ) French victory
This fortress, held by a garrison of Dutch and English under Cronstrun, was besieged July 15, 1747, by 25,000 French under Count Lowendahl. The besieged made numerous vigorous sorties, inflicting heavy losses upon the French, but on September 17 the besiegers, by an unexpected assault, effected a lodgment, and after severe fighting captured the place. The French lost 22,000 men during the siege; the garrison 4,000. A Scottish brigade in the Dutch service specially distinguished itself, losing 1,120 out of a strength of 1,450.
  
1747  
Battle of Cape Finisterre (Austrian allies vs. France ) British victory
Fought October 14, 1747, when a British fleet of 14 ships under Admiral Hawke attacked a French fleet of 9 battleships under Admiral de Letendeur. The French were signally defeated, losing four ships. The British lost 598 killed and wounded.
  

Seven Year's War — 1752 to 1762

War between Prussia and Austria is joined by France and England.


1758  
Battle of lle d' Aix (naval ) British victory
Fought March 4, 1758, when a British squadron of seven sail, under Sir Edward Hawke, attacked a French squadron of five ships of the line and six frigates, convoying forty transports, and drove them ashore on the Ile d'Aix. This delayed the French expedition to North America, and facilitated the capture of Cape Breton.
  
1759  
Battle of Belle Isle (naval ) British victory
Fought November 20, 1759, between a British fleet of 27 ships of the line and 6 frigates under Sir Edward Hawke, and a French fleet of 20 ships of the line and 6 frigates under Admiral de Conflans. The French were completely defeated, losing 6 ships and a large number of men. The British lost 2 ships ashore, and 58 killed and 251 wounded.
  
1759  
Battle of Quiberon Bay (naval ) British victory
Fought November 20, 1759, between the British fleet, 23 sail of the line and to frigates, under Hawke, and 21 French line-of-battleships and 3 frigates, under Conflans. The action was fought in a heavy gale on a lee shore, and resulted in the French being driven to take refuge in Quiberon Bay, with a loss of 2 ships sunk and 2 captured. Notwithstanding the gale, Hawke followed up his advantage, and standing in, succeeded in capturing or destroying all but four of the ships which had taken refuge in the bay, though in so doing he lost two of his own ships, which were driven ashore and wrecked. The British lost in the action only 1 officer and 270 men killed and wounded.
  
1759  
Siege of Minorca (naval ) French victory
This place, garrisoned by 2, 800 British troops, under General Blakeney, was invested by the French, under the Due de Richelieu, May, 1756. On May 20, a British squadron of 15 line-of-battleships and 3 sloops, under Admiral Byng, attacked Richelieu's blockading squadron of 12 sail of the line and 5 frigates, with the object of throwing succours into the place. The attack, however, was conducted with so little resolution and resource, that Byng failed in his object, and allowed the French ships to escape him. Blakeney was shortly afterwards forced to surrender, and Byng was tried by court-martial, condemned and shot.
  

French Revolutionary Wars — 1785 to 1800

Wars following the French Revolution.


1794  
Battle of St. Lucia (Colonial-westindies ) British victory
This island was captured from the French, April 4, 1794,by a British squadron, under Sir John Jervis.
  
1794  
Battle of Ushant (Naval ) British victory
This action, generally known as the "Glorious First of June," was fought June 1, 1794, between a British fleet of 25 sail of the line, under Lord Howe, and 26 French ships, under Villaret. After four hours' fighting the French were defeated, with a loss of 6 ships captured, and one, the Vengeur, sunk. The sinking of this ship was elaborated by the French into a fable, to the effect that she refused to surrender, and went down with all hands and colours flying. She had, however, undoubtedly struck her colours, and her captain and over 200 of her crew were rescued by the boats of the British fleet. The French admitted a loss of 3,000 men, besides prisoners, while the British lost 922 killed and wounded.
  
1794  
Battle of Guadeloupe (Colonial-westindies ) British victory
This island was taken by a British force under Sir John Jervis, July 3, 1794, with a loss of 3 officers and 33 men killed and wounded. It was recaptured by the French, on December 10, of the same year.
  
1794  
Battle of Turcoing (Belgium ) French victory
Fought 1794 between the French, under Souham, and the British, under the Duke of York. The British were defeated and driven back upon Tournay.
  
1794  
Battle of Martinique (Colonial-westindies ) British victory
This island was captured from the French in 1794, by a combined naval and military force under Sir John Jervis and Sir George Grey, with a loss to the victors of 6 officers and 37 men killed and wounded.
  
1795  
Battle of Genoa (Naval ) British victory
Fought March 13, 1795, between a British fleet of 14 sail of the line under Admiral Hotham, and a French fleet of 15 sail. The action lasted throughout the day, and on the following morning the French retired, leaving two line-of-battle ships in the hands of the British. The British lost 74 killed and 284 wounded.
  
1795  
Battle of Belle Isle (Naval ) British victory
Fought June 23, 1795, between a British fleet of 17 battleships under Lord Bridport, and a French squadron. The French endeavoured to escape, but the British gave chase, and captured three ships, with a loss of 3 killed and 113 wounded. The French lost about 700.
  
1796  
Battle of Banda Islands (Colonial-indonesia ) British victory
These islands, forming part of the Dutch East Indian possessions, were captured March 8, 1796, by a British squadron under Admiral Peter Rainier.
  
1796  
Battle of Saldanha Bay (Colonial-westindies ) British victory
Fought August 17, 1796, when Sir Keith Elphinstone, with a British squadron, entered the bay, and after capturing a Dutch ship of war lying in the harbour, landed a force, to which the garrison surrendered after a brief resistance.
  
1796  
Siege of Colombo (Colonial-southafrica ) British victory
This town was captured from the Dutch in 1796, by a squadron of four British warships, and a small force of troops under Admiral Peter Rainier and Colonel Stuart.
  
1797  
Battle of Cape St. Vincent (Naval ) British victory
Fought February 14, 1797, between a British fleet of 15 ships of the line and 5 frigates under Sir John Jervis, and a Spanish fleet of 26 sail of the line and 12 frigates. In spite of their superior numbers, the Spaniards were totally defeated, losing 4 ships and over 3,000 prisoners, in addition to heavy losses in killed and wounded. The British lost 74 killed and 227 wounded. For this signal victory, Jervis was created Lord St. Vincent.
  
1797  
Battle of Trinidad (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
This island was captured from the French, without resistance, by a naval and military expedition under Admiral John Harvey and Sir Ralph Abercrombie, February 17, 1797.
  
1797  
Battle of Camperdown (Naval ) British victory
Fought between the British fleet, 16 line of battle ships, under Admiral Duncan, and the Dutch, in equal force, under Admiral de Winter, October 1797. The Dutch fleet was on its way to co-operate with the French in a landing in Ireland, and was intercepted by Duncan, who at once gave battle. The British fleet, in two lines, broke through the Dutch line, and, in the general action which followed, captured eight ships, including the flagship, the Vrijheid. The British lost 1,040 killed and wounded, the Dutch 1,160 and 6,000 prisoners.
  
1798  
Battle of Malta (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
On June 9, 1798 on his way to Egypt, Napoleon requested a landing of his fleet at Malta to gather provisions at the port of Valletta. Upon landing he turned his cannons on the forts and took the island.
  
1799  
Siege of Acre (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) Turks victory
The city was besieged March 17, 1799, by the French under Napoleon, and defended by the Turks under Djezzar, and a small force of British seamen under Sir Sidney Smith. An assault on the 28th was repulsed with loss, and then a threatened attack by a Syrian army forced Napoleon to withdraw a large portion of his troops. On the resumption of the siege, no less than seven more assaults were delivered, while the French had to meet eleven sallies of the besieged, but they were unable to effect a lodgment, and on May 21 Napoleon reluctantly raised the siege. The fall of Acre would have placed the whole of Syria, and possibly of the Turkish Empire, in the hands of the French.
  
1799  
Battle of Alkmaar (Rhine Valley-2nd ) British-Russian victory
Fought October 2, 1799, between 30,000 British and Russians under the Duke of York, and the French, in about equal strength, under Brune. The action began by the Russians driving in the French advanced posts. Meanwhile the Duke of York had outflanked them, and as soon as he was in position a simultaneous attack on the French left and centre forced Brune to abandon the key of his position, Alkmaar, which was at once occupied by the allies.
  
1800  
Siege of Valetta (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
The capital of Malta, held by a French garrison, 60,000 strong, under General Vaubois, was besieged September, 1798, by a force of British and Maltese, under Sir Alexander Ball. Vaubois held out for two years, but on September 5, 1800, was compelled by famine to surrender. The Maltese lost during the siege 20,000 men.
  
1801  
Battle of Aboukir (Egypt-Syria Campaign ) British victory
Fought March 8, 1801, when 5,000 British under Sir Ralph Abercromby disembarked on the beach at Aboukir, in the face of a force of 2,000 French under General Friant. The landing was effected under a heavy musketry and artillery fire, which cost the assailants 1,100 killed and wounded, and the French were driven from their positions with a loss of 500 men.
  
1801  
Battle of Alexandria (Italian Campaign-1st ) British victory
Fought March 21, 1801, between the French under General Menou, and the British expeditionary force under Sir Ralph Abercromby. The French cavalry charged the British right, but were repulsed, and after hard fighting the French were defeated and driven under the walls of Alexandria. Among those who fell was Sir Ralph Abercromby, mortally wounded.
  
1801  
Battle of Copenhagen (Naval ) British victory
Fought April 2, 1801, between the British fleet of 20 sail of the line, besides frigates, under Admirals Hyde Parker and Nelson, and the Danish fleet of to line of battleships, aided by the shore batteries. Nelson attacked with 12 ships, Parker remaining in reserve, but three of Nelson's vessels running aground, he met the Danish line with 9 only. The Danes offered a strenuous resistance, and Parker hoisted the signal to retire, but Nelson put the telescope to his blind eye, and refused to see the signal. The action continued until the Danish fire was silenced. The British lost 1,200 men, and had six vessels seriously damaged. The Danes had one ship destroyed, and the rest of their fleet completely disabled. The result of this victory was the dissolution of the league of the Northern Powers.
  
1801  
Battle of Algeciras Bay (OP GBOKBBLKBJBBKNBVVGVV VVVVVVVVVBVVV VHBGBHHHU ) British victory
Fought July 8, 1801, between a British squadron of 7 ships of the line, 1 frigate and 1 brig, under Sir James Saumarez, and a French squadron of 3 line-of-battle ships and 1 frigate, under Admiral Linois. The French were aided by the Spanish gun-boats and the shore batteries, and Saumarez lost the Hannibal, which ran ashore, and was captured by the French. The British lost 121 killed and 240 wounded. The French lost 306 killed. On July 12, the French squadron, which had been reinforced meanwhile by 5 Spanish ships of the line, was again attacked by Sir James Saumarez, who succeeded in capturing the St. Antoine and blowing up the Hermenegilda. The British lost only 17 killed and 100 wounded; the allies, 2,000, chiefly in the Hermenegilda.
  

Wars of Ireland — 1014 to 1799

Wars between Ireland and England


1795  
Battle of Diamond (Rebellion of 1798 ) Orangemen victory
A faction fight, known as the battle of Diamond which took place September 21, 1795, at a village in Co. Armagh, between the Peep o' Day Boys and the Defenders. The former were victorious, killing 48 of their opponents.
  
1798  
Battle of Gibbel Rutts (Rebellion of 1798 ) British victory
Fought May 26, 1798, when the regulars, under Sir James Duff, attacked the camp of the rebels on the Curragh, and dispersed them at the point of the bayonet, with a loss of 350 killed.
  
1798  
Battle of Ballymore (Rebellion of 1798 ) Rebels victory
Fought June 3, 1798, when Colonel Walpole, with 500 Royal troops, on the march to Enniscorthy, was surprised and over-powered by a body of rebels under Father Murphy. Walpole and the majority of his force were cut to pieces.
  
1798  
Battle of Vinegar Hill (Rebellion of 1798 ) British victory
Fought June 20, 1798, when the British regulars, under General Lake, attacked the camp of the Irish rebels, 16,000 strong, under Father Murphy. Little resistance was made, and the rebels were driven out of their camp with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 13 guns.
  
1798  
Siege of Arklow (Rebellion of 1798 ) British victory
Fought 1798, when General Needham, with about 1,400 Militia and Volunteers, defended the town from the attack of 27,000 rebels led by Father John Murphy. The rebels were beaten off with great slaughter, and their intended advance on Dublin prevented.
  
1799  
Battle of New Ross (Tudor reconquest ) British victory
Fought June 5, 1799, between 30,000 rebels, under Father Roche and Bagenal Harvey, and about 1,400 regulars, under General Johnstone. The rebels attacked the troops posted in New Ross, and penetrated into the centre of the town, but were then driven back with the bayonet, and totally routed, with a loss of 2,600 killed.
  

Napoleonic Wars — 1801 to 1814

Rise and fall of Napoleon's French Empire in Europe.


1804  
Battle of Surinam (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This place, held by a Dutch garrison, was captured, May 5, 1804, by a British squadron, under Commander Hood, together with 2,000 troops, under Sir Charles Green.
  
1805  
Battle of Trafalgar (Naval Wars-4th ) British victory
Fought October 21, 1805, between the British fleet of 27 sail of the line and 4 frigates, under Nelson, with Collingwood second in command, and the combined French and Spanish fleets, numbering 33 sail of the line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Villeneuve. Nelson attacked in two lines, and destroying the enemy's formation, completely defeated them, 20 ships striking their colours. Nelson fell in the moment of victory, while the Spanish Admiral was killed, and Villeneuve captured. Most of the prizes were lost in a heavy gale which sprang up after the battle, but the destruction of Villeneuve's fleet put an end to Napoleon's scheme for an invasion of England. The British lost 1,587 killed and wounded, the losses of the allies being far heavier.
  
1806  
Battle of Blaauwberg (Colonial-African ) British victory
On January 8, 1806, a British force 6,600 strong, under General Baird, which had just landed at Saldanha Bay, was attacked by the Dutch and French under General Janssens, issuing from Cape Town. The British gained a signal victory, in which they lost 212 killed, wounded and missing, while their opponents' losses amounted to about 300. Baird at once occupied Cape Town.
  
1806  
Siege of Buenos Ayres (Colonial-Latin America ) Spanish victory
This city was captured June 27, 1806, by a coup de main, by a British force, 1,700 strong, under General Beresford, aided by a small squadron under Sir Home Popham. Beresford, however, was not strong enough to hold the place, and before reinforcements could arrive he was defeated by the South Americans under General Liniers, with a loss of 250 killed and wounded, and compelled to surrender with his whole force.
  
1806  
Battle of Maida (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
Fought July 4, 1806, between the British expeditionary force in Calabria, 5,000 strong, under Sir John Stuart, and the French, in equal strength, under General Reynier. The British charged with the bayonet, and the French, though veterans, failing to withstand the onslaught, broke and fled, losing very heavily in the pursuit.
  
1806  
Battle of Majorca (Naval Wars-4th ) British victory
This island was captured from the Spaniards in 1706, by a small British force under Sir John Leake.
  
1807  
Siege of Montevideo (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This city was taken by assault February 3, 1807, by 3,000 British troops, under Sir Samuel Auchmuty. The capture was preceded by an action outside the town, in which the Rifle corps, now the Rifle Brigade, especially distinguished itself. The British losses amounted to about 600.
  
1807  
Battle of Buenos Ayres (Colonial-Latin America ) Spanish victory
Fought July 5, 1807 when 9,000 British troops under General Whitelocke assaulted the city. They penetrated into the streets, but suffered terrible losses from the defenders' fire from windows and roofs, and, General Whitelocke proving a most incapable leader, were forced to surrender and evacuate the whole of the River Plate region.
  
1807  
Siege of Copenhagen (Naval Wars-4th ) British victory
The city was captured September 5, 1807, by 20,000 British troops under Lord Cathcart, after a four days' bombardment of the forts and citadel by 27 ships of the line. The Danish fleet of 18 sail of the line, which was surrendered, would otherwise, under a secret clause of the Treaty of Tilsit, have been placed at the disposal of Napoleon.
  
1807  
Battle of St. Thomas (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This island was captured from the Danes, December 21, 1807, by a combined British naval and military force, under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and General Bowyer.
  
1807  
Battle of Madeira (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This island was occupied without bloodshed by a combined naval and military force, under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and General Bowyer, December 26, 1807.
  
1807  
Battle of Heligoland   British victory
This island was captured, August 31, 1807, from the Danes, by a small British squadron, under Admiral Thomas Russell.
  
1807  
Battle of Ste Croix (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This island, held by a small Danish garrison, was captured by a British naval and military force, under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and General Bowyer, December 25, 1807, but little resistance being offered.
  
1809  
Battle of Martinique (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
Having been restored to France at the Peace of Amiens, Martinique was again taken by the British, February 24, 1809, the force engaged being under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane, and Lieut-General Beckwith.
  
1809  
Battle of Senegal (Colonial-African ) British victory
The French garrison of this place surrendered, July 13, 1809, to a British force of 1 frigate and 2 brigs, with some transports-carrying troops, under Captain G. H. Columbine.
  
1809  
Siege of Flushing (Colonial-African ) British victory
This town was besieged by the British under Lord Chatham and surrendered after a feeble defense, August 16, 1809.
  
1810  
Battle of Bourbon (Colonial-Indonesia ) British victory
On July 8, 1810, this island was captured by a British squadron of five ships under Commodore Rowley, with a detachment of troops under Colonel Keatinge. The British lost 22 killed and 79 wounded.
  
1810  
Battle of Isle de France (Hundred Days ) British victory
This island, now known as Mauritius, was captured from the French, December 3, 1810, by a fleet of 19 ships, under Admiral Bertie, convoying a number of transports, carrying 10,000 troops, under General Abercromby. The British lost 167 killed wounded and missing. Seven frigates and ten sloops were taken, as well as 21 French and 3 captured British merchantmen.
  
1811  
Siege of Batavia (Colonial-Latin America ) British victory
This town (Djakarta) was captured by the British under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, with 10,000 troops, August 26, 1811. The French and Dutch garrison had abandoned the town, and occupied a strong position at Fort Cornelius, in the immediate neighbourhood. The British stormed the entrenchments, with a loss of 872 killed and wounded, whereupon the survivors of the garrison laid down their arms.
  
1814  
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (Allied Campaign in France ) Allies victory
Fought March 21, 1814, between 23,000 French under Napoleon, and 60,000 allies under Schwartzenberg. The French made a gallant stand against superior numbers, and in the end effected an orderly retreat, with a loss of about 2,000. The allies' losses were considerably heavier.
  
1815  
Battle of Quatre Bras (Hundred Days ) British victory
Fought June 16, 1815, between the advance guard of the British army, under Wellington, and the left wing of the French army, 16,000 strong, under Ney. Napoleon's object was to prevent the junction of the British and the Prussians, and Ney's orders were to drive back the British, while Napoleon, with his main body, engaged the Prussians. Ney attacked at 3 p.m., but the British held their own till evening, when Ney, not receiving the reinforcements he expected, began to fall back. Wellington then attacked vigorously all along the line, retaking all the positions occupied by the French during the day.
  
1815  
Battle of Waterloo (Hundred Days ) Allies victory
Fought June 18, 1815, between 24,000 British, and 43,500 Dutch, Belgians and Nassauers, in all 67,655 men, with 156 guns, under the Duke of Wellington, and the French, 71,947 strong, with 246 guns, under Napoleon. Wellington posted his troops along the line of heights covering the road to Brussels, with advanced posts at the farms of Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. Napoleon attacked this position with the utmost resolution, but the British squares held their ground against the French cavalry and artillery throughout the day, and though the French captured La Haye Sainte, and obtained a footing in Hougoumont, the arrival of Blucher, with the Prussian army, on the French right, enabled Wellington at last to assume the offensive, and drive the enemy headlong from the field, utterly routed. The British lost about 15,000, the Prussians 7,000 in the battle. The losses of the Dutch and Belgians were very small, as they left the field early in the day. The French loss was never officially stated, but it was doubtless enormous, and the army practically ceased to exist as an organized force.
  

Peninsular War — 1808 to 1814

Napoleonic Wars on the Iberian Peninsula. Britain helps Spain drive out the French.


1808  
Battle of Rio Seco (Stealth War ) French victory
Fought July 14, 1808, when Marshal Bessieres, with about 14,000 French, defeated 26,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards lost about 6,000, while the French loss was only 370 killed and wounded. Following upon this victory, Joseph entered Madrid.
  
1808  
Battle of Baylen (Babylonian Revolt ) Spanish victory
Fought July 19, 1808, between 15,000 Spaniards under Castaflos, and 20,000 French under Dupont. The French were totally defeated with a loss of over 2,000 men, and Dupont surrendered with his whole army.
  
1808  
Battle of Rolica (First British ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 17, 1808, when Wellington, with 14,000 British and Portuguese, of whom only 4,000 came into action, attacked the French, 3,000 strong, under Laborde, and after a half-hearted resistance drove them from their position, with a loss of 500 men. The allies lost about 400.
  
1808  
Battle of Vimiera (French Invasion ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 21, 1808, between 18,000 British and Portuguese, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 14,000 French, under Junot. The French were signally defeated, losing 2,000 men and 13 guns, but the victory was not followed up by Sir Harry Burrard, who was in supreme command, and the French were allowed to evacuate Portugal unmolested, under the Convention of Cintra. The British lost 720 killed and wounded.
  
1808  
Battle of Espinosa (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 10, 1808, between 18,000 French under Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards under Blake. The Spaniards were routed, and Blake's army scattered. The French lost about 1,100 men.
  
1808  
Battle of Tudela (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 23, 1808, between 30,000 French, under Lannes, and 45,000 Spaniards, under Castanos and Palafox. The Spaniards were totally defeated, with a loss of about 9,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 prisoners and 30 guns. The French losses were small.
  
1808  
Battle of Moline del Rey (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought December 21, 1808, between 26,000 French, under General St. Cyr, and the Spaniards, about equal in strength, under Reding. The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 10,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 50 guns, at very slight cost to the victors.
  
1710  
Battle of Saragossa (Spain ) Allies victory
Fought August 20, 1710, between 25,000 Spaniards, and a force of Austrians, British, Dutch and Portuguese troops, 23,000 in number, under the Archduke Charles. The Portuguese in the right wing gave way, leading a large force of Spaniards in pursuit, but the left and centre stood their ground, and finally repulsed the enemy, with a loss of 4,000 prisoners, besides killed and wounded. The Archduke at once took possession of Saragossa.
  
1809  
Battle of Coruna (French Invasion ) British victory
Fought January 16, 1809, between 14,000 British under Sir John Moore, and 20,000 French under Soult, who was endeavoring to prevent the British from embarking. The French attacks were uniformly repulsed, and the troops safely embarked, with a loss of about 800, including Sir John Moore. The French lost about 2,000.
  
1809  
Battle of Medellin (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, between the French, under Marshal Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards soon gave way, and were mercilessly sabred in the pursuit by the French cavalry, losing, it is said, 18,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 300 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Oporto (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, when the French, under Soult, completely defeated the Portuguese under Lima and Pareiras, outside the city of Oporto. Soult followed up his success by storming Oporto, with horrible slaughter, it being computed that 10,000 of the inhabitants perished. The French lost 500 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Douro (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought May 12, 1809, when 12,000 British under Wellesley (the Duke of Wellington) crossed the Douro and drove the French under Soult out of Oporto. The French numbered about 24,000, of whom 5,000 were killed, wounded or captured, mainly during the pursuit. In the action itself, the French lost 500, the British, 116.
  
1809  
Siege of Gerona (French Invasion ) French victory
This fortress, held by 3,000 Spanish regulars, under Mariano Alvarez, was besieged, June 4, 1809, by General Verdier, with 18,000 French. Though ill-provided with food, medicines, and money, and receiving but little assistance from outside, Alvarez held out gallantly till December 10, when he capitulated, and the garrison marched out with the honours of war.
  
1809  
Battle of Talavera (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought July 28, 1809, between 19,000 British and 34,000 Spaniards, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 50,000 French, under Marshals Jourdan and Victor, with Joseph Buonaparte in nominal command. The British repulsed all the attacks on their position, at a cost of 6,200 killed and wounded. The Spanish losses were returned at 1,200, but the figures are doubtful, as they took practically no part in the fighting. The French lost 7,389 killed, wounded and missing, and 17 guns.
  
1809  
Battle of Ocana (Spainish Resistance ) French victory
Fought November 19, 1809. In this action, at which Joseph Buonaparte was present, Soult, with 30,000 French, defeated 53,000 Spaniards, under Areizaga, with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 26,000 prisoners, including 3 generals, 45 guns, and all their baggage and transport. The French only lost 1,700 men.
  
1810  
Battle of Busaco (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought by Wellington, September 29, 1810, to secure his retreat to Torres Vedras. He occupied the heights of Busaco with 25,000 men and was attacked by 40,000 French under Massena. The actual assault was delivered by the corps of Ney and Reynier, but they could make no impression, and were repulsed with a loss of about 4,500. The British lost 1,300 killed and wounded.
  
1811  
Battle of Gebora (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
Fought February 19, 1811, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and 12,000 Spaniards, under Mendizabal, The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, 5,000 prisoners and all their guns.
  
1811  
Battle of Barosa (British Second ) Allies victory
In the course of the operations for the relief of Cadiz, General Graham, with 4,000 British troops, defeated Marshal Victor with 9,000 French, March 5, 1811. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded, including two generals, 6 guns, 2 eagles, and 400 prisoners. The British losses amounted to 50 officers and 1,160 rank and file. A large Spanish force under La Pena stood idly by, and took no part in the action.
  
1811  
Battle of Sabugal (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 3, 1811, between three British divisions, under Wellington, and the French, consisting of Reynier's corps. Reynier held the salient angle of the French position on the Coa, and was driven back after less than an hour's fighting, with a loss of about 1,500. The British lost 200 only.
  
1811  
Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 5, 1811, in the course of Massena's attempt to relieve Almeida. Wellington, with 34,000 men, occupied a position behind Fuentes d'Oiloro, which was attacked by Massena with 34,000 troops and 36 guns. He failed to capture the position, and finally retired, in good order. The British lost 1,200 killed and wounded, and 300 prisoners. The French losses are variously estimated, but were certainly heavier.
  
1811  
Battle of Albuera (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 16, 1811, between the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish forces, numbering 46,000, of whom 7,000 only were British infantry, the whole army being under the command of Marshal Beresford, and 33,000 French under Marshal Soult. The French attacked Beresford's position, and the Spaniards offering but a poor resistance, defeat was only averted by the extraordinary valour of the British troops, especially of the Fusilier Brigade, which came into action when the day seemed lost, and drove the French from the field. Of the 7,000 British, but 1,800 were left standing. The French lost over 8,000, including five generals.
  
1811  
Siege of Sagunto (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
This fortress, held by a Spanish garrison, was besieged by the French, 22,000 strong, under Soult, September 23, 1811. Built on the heights above Murviedro, the place was accessible on one side only, and an attempt to escalade this was repulsed September 28. A regular siege was then commenced, and a second unsuccessful assault was made on October 18. On the 25th General Blake, with 30,000 Spaniards, made an attempt to relieve the place, but was defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and wounded and 4,000 prisoners. the victory costing the French about 800 men. On the following day the garrison surrendered.
  
1811  
Siege of Tarragona (Stealth War ) French victory
This city was besieged by the French, 40,000 strong, under General Suchet, in May, 1811, and defended by a garrison but little inferior in numbers. The outer defenses were stormed one by one, and by June 21, the besiegers had effected a lodgement in the lower town. On the 28th, the upper town was taken by storm, and the survivors of the garrison, 8,000 in number, laid down their arms. The French lost about 6,000 during the siege.
  
1812  
Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (British Second ) Allies victory
This town was invested by Wellington January 8, 1812, and carried by assault twelve days later. The besiegers lost during the siege 1,290 killed and wounded, of whom 710, including Generals Craufurd and Mackinnon, fell in the storm. The French lost 300 killed and wounded, 1,500 prisoners, and 150 guns.
  
1812  
Siege of Badajos (British Second ) Allies victory
On March 17, 1812, this fortress, held by a garrison of French, Hessians and Spaniards, 5,000 strong, under Phillipon, was invested by Wellington. The breaches were declared to be practicable on April 5, and an assault was ordered. After terrible slaughter, the town was taken, with a loss to the assailants of 3,500, the total British losses during the siege exceeding 5,000. Fearful excesses were committed after the assault, and for two days the troops were completely out of hand.
  
1812  
Battle of Salamanca (First British ) Allies victory
Fought July 22, 1812, when Wellington, with 46,000 British and Spanish troops, encountered 42,000 French, under Marmont. The battle was forced on by Marmont, who was endeavoring to interrupt Wellington's retreat, but the Marshal was severely wounded early in the day, and the conduct of the action was in the hands of General Bonnet. The result was a signal victory for the British, the French losing 12,500 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 12 guns. The British and Spanish loss amounted to about 6,000. These figures include the skirmishes of the days preceding the battle, during which the armies were in touch.
  
1813  
Battle of Castalla (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought April 13, 1813, between 17,000 allied troops under Sir John Murray, and 15,000 French under Suchet. The French were defeated. The allies lost 600 killed and wounded; the French, according to Suchet, 800 according to Murray, 3,000, but the former figure is probably nearer to the truth.
  
1813  
Battle of Vittoria (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought June 21, 1813, between 80,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish troops, under Wellington, and about 70,000 French, under Joseph Buonaparte. After severe fighting the French were defeated at all points and made a somewhat disorderly retreat, losing 6,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, 143 guns, and almost all their baggage and treasure. The allies lost 5,000. This battle finally closed the era of French domination in Spain, and opened to Wellington the road to the Pyrenees.
  
1813  
Siege of San Sebastian (British Offensive ) Allies victory
This town was besieged July 10, 1813, by the British, under General Graham, and was defended by a French garrison, under General Rey. An assault on July 25 was repulsed, and pending the arrival of heavy guns from England, the siege resolved itself into a blockade. Active operations were resumed, and on the 31st the town was taken by storm. Rey, however, still held out in the citadel, and it was only after further bombardment that he surrendered on September 9. The besiegers' losses amounted to over 2,500 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Maya (British Offensive ) French victory
Fought July 25, 1813, between a British division, under General Stewart, and the French divisions of d'Armagnac, Abbe and Maransin. The French, at a cost of 1,500 men, forced the pass of Maya, driving back the British with a loss of 1,400 men and 4 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Roncesvalles (British Offensive ) Allies victory
One of the actions known as the "Battles of the Pyrenees," fought July 25, 1813. Soult, at the head of Clauset's division, attacked the British, consisting of three brigades, under General Byng, but was unable to carry their position, and after severe fighting was repulsed with a loss of 400. The British lost 181 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Pyrenees (British Offensive ) Allies victory
The engagements fought between Wellington's lieutenants and Soult's army, which was endeavoring to relieve San Sebastian, are known as the Battles of the Pyrenees. They include the fighting from July 25 to August 2, 1813, and specially the actions of Roncesvalles, Maya, Santarem and Buenzas. The British loss in these battles amounted to 7,300, while the French lost fully double that number.
  
1813  
Battle of Nivelle (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought November 10, 1813, when the French, under Soult, were driven from a very strong position by the British, under Wellington, and forced to retire behind the Nivelle. The French lost 4,265, including about 1,200 prisoners, 51 guns, and all their field magazines. The British lost 2,694 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Nive (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought December 13, 1813 between 35,000 French, under Soult, and 14,000 British and Portuguese, under Wellington. Having crossed the Nive on the 10th, Wellington took up a strong position on the heights near the village of St. Pierre. Here he was attacked by Soult, but repulsed him, and occupied the French position in front of the Adour. The French losses in this battle and the combats which preceded it, amounted to 10,000 men. The British lost 5,019 killed and wounded.
  
1814  
Battle of Orthez (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought February 27, 1814, between the British under Wellington, and the French, under Soult. The French were driven out of Orthez and across the Luy de Warn, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 6 guns.
  
1814  
Battle of Toulouse (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 10, 1814, between 38,000 French, under Soult, and 24,000 British and Spaniards, under Wellington. The French entrenchments in front of Toulouse were attacked by the British, who after severe fighting captured some of the outworks. The victory, however, was incomplete, and was in effect of no value, as Napoleon had on this date already surrendered to the allies in Paris. The French lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, the allies, 4,659, of whom 2,000 were Spaniards.
  

The Great War — 1914 to 1918

First World War ended in defeat of Germany after cataclysmic losses on both sides.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

French Indian Wars — 1745 to 1762

Colonial wars in America between the British and French with their Indian Allies.


1745  
Siege of Louisburg (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
This place, the strongest fortress in America, was captured June 16, 1745, by a force of New Englanders, under Pepperel, aided by a naval force under Commodore Warren.
  
1752  
Battle of Great Meadows (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 3, 1752, between 350 Virginians, under Washington, and 700 French, under Coulon de Villiers. The Virginians occupied a square log enclosure, known as Fort Necessity, where they resisted the French attack for nine hours, till lack of ammunition forced Washington to surrender. The Virginians lost 60 killed and wounded; the French considerably less.
  
1754  
Battle of Youghiogany (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
A skirmish of no importance in itself, but notable as being "the shot fired in America which gave the signal that set Europe in a blaze", and was in a sense the cause of the Seven Years' War. On May 27, 1754, Washington, with 40 Virginians, surprised a small French detachment, under Coulon de Jumonville, despatched probably as a reconnaissance by Contrecoeur from Fort Duquesne. The detachment, with one exception, was killed or captured.
  
1755  
Siege of Beausejour (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
This fort in Nova Scotia, held by a garrison of 460 men under Duchambon de Vergor, was invested June 4, 1755, by 2,000 Massachusetts volunteers and a small force of regulars under Colonel Monckton. On the 14th the besiegers opened fire, and on the 16th the garrison surrendered.
  
1755  
Battle of Monongahela (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 9, 1755, between 900 French and Indians, under Contrecoeur, and about 1,400 British and Virginians, under Braddock. The English were attacked shortly after crossing the river, and though the officers and the Virginians fought gallantly, the troops, ignorant of Indian warfare, gave way to panic, and after three hours' fighting, were driven across the Monongahela, with a loss of 877 killed and wounded. Of 86 officers, 63 fell, including Braddock, who was mortally wounded. The French lost 16 only; their Indian allies somewhat more heavily.
  
1755  
Battle of Lake George (Seven Years War ) Colonists victory
Fought September 8, 1755, between 1,500 French and Indians, under Baron Dieskau, and 2,500 New England militia, under Colonel William Johnson. A small force sent by Johnson to the relief of Fort Lyman was ambushed by the French and driven back to camp, but Dieskau pursuing, was repulsed in his attack upon the camp, with a loss of about 400. Dieskau himself was wounded and captured. The loss of the New England men during the day was 216 killed and 96 wounded, most of whom fell in the ambush.
  
1756  
Siege of Oswego (Seven Years War ) French victory
This place, held by a garrison of 1,400 Provincial troops, under Colonel Mercer, was besieged by the French, under Montcalm, August 11, 1756. After a bombardment of 3 days in the course of which Mercer was killed, the place surrendered. The losses on both sides were very small.
  
1757  
Siege of Fort William Henry (Seven Years War ) French victory
This fort, held by 2,200 British and Colonial troops under Colonel Monro, was besieged, August 4, 1757, by Montcalm, with 6,000 French and Canadians and 1,600 Indians. Montcalm's batteries opened on the 6th, and on the 9th, having lost 300 killed and wounded, and nearly all his guns being disabled, Monro surrendered. He was to be permitted to retire unmolested to Fort Edward, but the French were unable to control their Indian allies, who attacked the unarmed column as it retired. Before order was restored, some 50 had been killed, and 400 carried off prisoners by the Indians.
  
1758  
Battle of Louisburg (Seven Years War ) British victory
Louisburg, having been restored to the French, was invested June 3, 1758, by a force of 11,600 British troops, under General Amherst, and a fleet of of 41 ships of war, under Admiral Boscawen. It was defended by 3,800 French regulars, besides Indians and armed citizens, under the Chevalier de Drucour, while in the harbour were 12 ships of war, with crews numbering 3,000 men. Owing to heavy weather no siege guns were landed till the 18th, but by July 20 a practicable breach had been effected, whereupon the garrison surrendered. During the siege the defenders lost 1,200 men killed or died of disease, while the prisoners numbered 5,637, and 239 guns and mortars were taken. Wolfe, who commanded a brigade, specially distinguished himself.
  
1758  
Battle of Trout Brook (Seven Years War ) British victory
A small skirmish, in which the advance guard of Abercromby's army, marching on Ticonderoga, fell in with a French scouting column, 350 strong, under Langy, July 6, 1758. The French lost 150 killed and wounded and 148 prisoners, and the affair would be without importance but for the fact that Lord Howe, who was the brain of Abercromby's staff, was killed in the fight. His death was followed by the disaster of Ticonderoga, and as Parkman says (Montcalm and Wolfe, chap. xx.): "The death of one man was the ruin of fifteen thousand."
  
1758  
Battle of Ticonderoga (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 8, 1758, between Montcalm, with 3,600 French and Canadians, and the British, 15,000 strong, including 6,000 regulars, under General James Abercromby. Montcalm was strongly intrenched on a ridge in front of Fort Ticonderoga, his position being furthered strengthened by an abatis. Abercromby made no attempt to turn the position, but without waiting for his guns, ordered the regulars to take the lines by storm. Notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, who advanced six times to the assault, the position proved impregnable, and Abercromby was forced to withdraw, with a loss of 1,944 killed and wounded, the French losing 377 only. The 42nd Regiment (Black Watch) showed conspicuous bravery, losing half the rank and file, and 25 officers killed and wounded. On July 22, 1759, a British force of 11,000 men under General Amherst, arrived before Ticonderoga, which was held by about 3,500 French and Canadians, under Bourlamaquc.
On the 23rd, Bourlemaque withdrew to the Isle-aux-Noix, on Lake Champlain, leaving only 400 men, under Hébécourt, with instructions to hold Amherst before the place as long as possible. On the 26th, however, Hébécourt set fire to the magazine and retired.
  
1758  
Siege of Fort Frontenac (Seven Years War ) British victory
This place, held by about 110 French troops, under Noyan, was captured by Colonel Bradstreet with 3,000 Colonials, August 27, 1758. The capture was of extreme importance, as it robbed the French of the control of Lake Ontario, and severed their communications with their posts on the Ohio.
  
1758  
Battle of Grant's Hill (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought September 14, 1758, when Major Grant, with 800 Highlanders, and Provincials, attacked a body of Indians in the French service near Fort Duquesne. He was repulsed, and in turn attacked by the garrison of the Fort, 3,000 strong, under M. de Ligneris. Grant was totally defeated, losing 293 in killed, wounded and prisoners, and was himself captured.
  
1759  
Battle of Montmorenci (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought July 31, 1759, during the siege of Quebec, when Wolfe, with 5,000 men, attacked the entrenched camp of the French, which was defended by 12,000 men under Montcalm. As the British were landing, 13 companies of grenadiers advanced to the attack without waiting for the main body. They were repulsed with heavy loss, which so weakened Wolfe that he decided not to press the attack further, The British loss amounted to 443, almost the whole of which fell upon the grenadiers. The French losses were very small.
  
1759  
Siege of Niagara (Seven Years War ) British victory
This fort was besieged in June, 1759, by 2,500 British, with 900 Indians, under General Prideaux, the garrison consisting of 600 French, under Captain Pouchot. Prideaux was killed by the premature explosion of a shell, and Sir William Johnson succeeded to the command. On July 24, when the garrison were almost in extremis, an attempt to relieve the fort was made by 1,300 French and Indians, under Ligneris, but he was repulsed by Johnson with considerable loss, at La Belle Famille, and Pouchot at once surrendered.
  
1759  
Siege of Quebec (Seven Years War ) British victory
This city was besieged June, 1759, by 9,000 British troops, under General Wolfe, assisted by a fleet of 22 ships of war, under Admiral Holmes. The place was defended by about 16,000 French, under Montcalm. Wolfe was too weak numerically for an investment, and his object was to draw Montcalm into an engagement. On July 31 he was defeated in an attack on Montcalm's lines outside the city, but on September 13, having landed above Quebec, he met and defeated the French, who evacuated the place on the 17th. After defeating General Murray, April 27, 1760, the Chevalier de Levis laid siege to Quebec, with about 8,000 French and Canadians. The garrison consisted of no more than 2,500 effectives, but owing to the superiority of their artillery, Levis was unable to make any impression on the defenses. On May 15 a small British squadron anchored off the city, and on the following day attacked and destroyed the French ships carrying de Levis' supplies and reserve of ammunition, whereupon he hastily raised the siege, leaving behind him 40 siege guns and all his sick and wounded.
  
1759  
Battle of Plains of Abraham (Seven Years War ) British victory
Fought September 13, 1759, when Wolfe, who was lying on shipboard in the St. Lawrence above Quebec, with 4,000 troops, effected a landing secretly in the night of the 12th to the 13th, and took up unperceived a strong position on the Plains of Abraham. Next morning he was attacked by Montcalm, with about equal numbers, but notwithstanding the most desperate efforts, the French were unable to carry the position, and were driven back into Quebec with a loss of about 1,500. Both Wolfe and Montcalm fell mortally wounded. The British loss amounted to 664 killed and wounded. The French immediately afterwards evacuated Quebec.
  
1760  
Battle of Ste Foy (Seven Years War ) French victory
Fought April 27, 1760, between 3,000 British troops, under General Murray, and 8,000 French, under the Chevalier de Levis, who was approaching from Montreal, with the object of recapturing Quebec. Murray marched out to attack Levis, but was defeated and driven back into Quebec with a loss of over a third of his force. The French lost about 800.
  
1760  
Battle of Montreal (Seven Years War ) British victory
This city was surrendered to the British, under General Amherst, by Vaudreuil, Governor-General of Canada, September 8, 1760. One of the conditions of the surrender was that the whole of the French army in Canada and its dependencies must lay down their arms. Canada thus became a part of the British dominions.
  
1762  
Siege of Havana (Seven Years War ) British victory
In June, 1762, the Earl of Clanwilliam, with 11,000 British troops, supported by a squadron, under Admiral Pococke, laid siege to Havana. Moro Castle, the key of the defenses, was taken by storm, and after a siege of two months and eight days the city was captured.
  
1763  
Massacre of Michilimackinac (Eighth ) Indians victory
On June 2, 1763, as part of Pontiac's Rebellion, a group of Ojibwe staged a ball game outside the fort and invited British officers to play. Suspecting nothing, the British failed to guard the entrance to the fort. The Indians stormed the fort and killed most of the British inhabitants. The fort was held for a year before the British retook it.
  

American Revolutionary War — 1775 to 1783

American colonies rebel from British rule with the help of the French.


1775  
Battle of Lexington (Boston ) drawn battle victory
Fought April 19, 1775, between the Royal troops, under General Gage, and the Americans. After a brief engagement the Americans were defeated, and retired. The losses on both sides were very small.
  
1775  
Battle of Bunker's Hill (Boston ) British victory
Fought June 17, 1775, when 2,000 British troops, forming a portion of General Gage's army, dislodged the Americans holding Breeds Hill and Bunker's Hill, on the outskirts of Boston. The position was stubbornly contested, the assailants losing 800 men.
  
1776  
Battle of Brooklyn (New York ) British victory
Fought August 27, 1776, between 30,000 British under Sir William Howe, and the Americans, about 11,000 strong, under General Putnam. The Americans were completely defeated, with a loss of about 2,000 killed and wounded. The British lost 65 killed and 255 wounded.
  
1776  
Battle of Trenton (New York ) Colonists victory
Fought Dec 26, 1776 when 2400 colonists under George Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised and 1400 Hessians under Johann Rall. The battle, fought early in the morning after a snowstorm was a route. The colonists captured over 900 prisoners and lost only two.
  
1776  
Battle of Princeton (New York ) Colonists victory
Fought 1776 between the Americans, under Washington, and the British, under General Gage. The British were defeated, and this victory enabled Washington to regain possession of New Jersey.
  
1777  
Siege of Ticonderoga (Saratoga ) British victory
This place was invested, June 22, 1777, by the British, under General Burgoyne, and was defended by 5,000 Americans, under General St. Clair. After a brief siege, the Americans evacuated the Fort, July 5.
  
1777  
Battle of Bennington (Saratoga ) Colonists victory
Fought August 10, 1777, between a British force under Colonel Baum, and the New Hampshire troops under General Stark. Baum had been ordered to seize the American magazines at Bennington, but found the place too strong, and asked for reinforcements. Meanwhile they were surrounded and attacked by Stark. The British fought till their ammunition was exhausted and then surrendered, while Baum was killed trying to cut his way through the American lines.
  
1777  
Battle of Brandywine (Philadelphia ) British victory
Fought September 11, 1777, between 18,000 British under General Howe, and 8,000 Americans under Washington. The British General made a flank movement with a large portion of his force, whereupon Washington attacked the British in the front, but, being ill-supported by his lieutenant, Sullivan, he was driven back, and forced to retreat, with a loss of 900 killed and wounded and 300 prisoners. The British lost 590 killed and wounded.
  
1777  
Battle of Germantown (Philadelphia ) British victory
Fought October 4, 1777, between the Americans under Washington, and the British under Sir William Howe. The Americans attacked the British entrenchments, and were repulsed with heavy loss.
  
1777  
Battle of Saratoga (Saratoga ) Colonists victory
Fought October 7, 1777, between the British, 6,000 strong, under General Burgoyne, and the Americans, under General Gates. The Americans occupied a strongly entrenched position, which was attacked by Burgoyne. After a severe encounter, the attack was repulsed at all points, and the British driven back upon their camp at Saratoga, with heavy loss, including General Fraser, mortally wounded. The Americans followed up their success by an assault upon the British camp, in which they succeeded in effecting a lodgement, and on the following day, Burgoyne withdrew, and took up a fresh position on the heights near the Hudson. On October 15, Burgoyne, surrounded by the Americans, and finding that no aid could reach him, surrendered with 5,790 men, his total losses during the campaign having amounted to 4,689.
  
1777  
Battle of Oriskany (Saratoga ) Loyalists victory
On August 6, 1777 a force of patriots under the General Herkimer was ambushed by a force of Loyalists and natives under General Johnson and Chief Joseph Brant. The patriots were defeated with losses of over 450, including Herkimer.
  
1778  
Battle of Onessant (Naval-Europe ) drawn battle victory
Fought July 27, 1778, between 30 British ships of the line, under Admiral Keppel, and a French squadron of equal force, under the Comte d'Estaing. After a fight which lasted throughout the day, the two fleets drew off to repair damages, neither side having lost a ship.
  
1778  
Siege of Pondicherry (Naval-Asia ) British victory
Having been surrendered to the French by the Peace of Paris, Pondicherry was again besieged by a British force, under Sir Hector Monro, in conjunction with a squadron of ships, under Sir Edward Vernon, August 8, 1778. It was gallantly defended by the French, under M. Bellecombe, until the middle of October, when after a month's bombardment the place surrendered.
  
1778  
Battle of Pondicherry (Naval-Asia ) British victory
A naval action was fought off Pondicherry, August 10, 1778, during the third siege, when a French squadron of 5 ships, under M. Tronjolly, issued from the roads, and offered battle to the 5 ships of Sir Edward Vernon. The French were worsted, and driven back to their anchorage.
  
1778  
Battle of Carenage Bay (Naval-West indies ) British victory
Fought 1778, between the French under the Comte d'Estaing, and the English under Admiral Barrington and General Meadows. After a severe encounter, the French were defeated, and the British took possession of the island of St. Lucia.
  
1779  
Battle of Grenada (Naval-West indies ) French victory
Fought July 3, 1779, between a British fleet of 24 sail, under Admiral Byron, and a French fleet of 20 sail-of-the-line, and to frigates, under the Comte d'Estaing. Admiral Byron attacked the French with a view of recapturing Grenada, but was unsuccessful, though he inflicted upon them a loss of 1,200 killed and 1,500 wounded. The British lost 183 killed and 346 wounded.
  
1779  
Battle of Penobscot Bay (Naval-North America ) British victory
Fought July 14, 1779, when a British squadron of 10 ships, under Sir George Collier, completely destroyed an American squadron of 24 ships, and captured the 3,000 men who formed their crews.
  
1779  
Battle of Bon Homme Richard vs. Serapis (Naval-Europe ) Americans victory
Famous naval battle between the French ship Bonhomme Richard under John Paul Jones, and the English frigate Serapis, fought September 23, 1779. In a far inferior vessel, against all odds, the Americans lashed the ships together, cleared the deck with grenades, and boarded the English vessel. The victory, although strategically unimportant, helped encourage the French to become more involved in the war.
  
1779  
Battle of Gibraltar (Naval-Europe ) British victory
From 1779 to 1783, Gibraltar sustained a siege at the hands of a combined French and Spanish force, who, though provided with powerful floating batteries, were unable to make any impression on the defenses. In the course of the siege, the garrison, under General Elliot, were several times reinforced and revictualled by British fleets, which ran the gauntlet of the blockade.
  
1780  
Battle of Camden (Southern ) British victory
Fought August 16, 1780, between the British under Cornwallis, and the Americans under Gates and de Kalb. Cornwallis had concentrated about 2,000 men at Camden, and though the Americans numbered 5,000, they were of very inferior quality. After a small affair of outposts, the British attacked the American levies, who were unable to face the steady attack of the regulars, and fled with heavy loss. Among the killed was de Kalb. The British lost 312 killed and wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Cape Henry (Naval-North American ) British victory
Fought March 16, 1781, between a British fleet of eight ships of the line and three frigates under Vice-Admiral Arbuthnot, and a French squadron stronger by one frigate. The French were forced to retire, the British losing 30 killed and 64 wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Guildford Court House (Southern ) British victory
Fought March 16, 1781, between the British, under Lord Cornwallis, and a largely superior force of Americans, under General Greene, The Americans occupied a strongly entrenched position in and round Guildford, and the battle consisted of a series of independent actions, in which the British were uniformly successful, driving out the Americans with heavy casualties, and the loss of all their guns and ammunition. The British lost 548 killed and wounded, but the victory served little purpose, as Lord Cornwallis was too weak to pursue his advantage.
  
1781  
Battle of Porto Praya Bay (Naval-Africa ) British victory
Fought April 16, 1781, when Commodore Johnstone, in command of a British squadron of 5 ships of the line and 5 frigates, repulsed a determined attack of a French squadron of 11 sail, under de Suffren. The loss in the British squadron amounted to 36 killed and 147 wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Lynn Haven Bay (Naval-North America ) French victory
Fought September 5, 1781, between a British fleet of 19 ships of the line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Thomas Graves, and a French fleet of 25 line of battle ships. Admiral Graves attacked the French as they were lying in Lynn Haven Bay, but was unsuccessful, and drew off after two hours' hard fighting, with a loss of 79 killed and 230 wounded. The French lost 22 officers and 200 men killed and wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Eutaw Springs (Southern ) British victory
Fought September 8, 1781, between the British garrison of Charleston, under Colonel Stewart, and the Americans, under General Greene. The British were attacked and at first driven back, but rallying carried the American positions, but with a loss of 700 men, which so weakened their small force that they were unable to profit by the victory.
  
1781  
Siege of Yorktown (Southern ) Colonists victory
The entrenched position of Lord Cornwallis, with 6,000 British troops at this place, was invested by Washington, with 7,000 French and 12,000 Americans, in September, 1781. The British held out until October 19, when, surrounded and outnumbered, Cornwallis surrendered, having lost during the operations, 12 officers and 469 rank and file, killed and wounded.
  
1781  
Battle of Minorca (Naval-Europe ) French-Spanish victory
Having been restored to England by the Treaty of Paris in 1762, Minorca was again recaptured in 1781, by a force of 12,000 French and Spaniards, the garrison, under General Murray, being only 700 strong. Murray made a sturdy defense but was forced to surrender.
  
1781  
Battle of Dogger Bank (Fourth ) drawn battle victory
Fought August 15, 1781, between a British fleet of seven battleships and six frigates, under Admiral Hyde Parker, and a Dutch fleet of equal strength under Admiral Zoutman. After a severe engagement, the Dutch bore away, and reached their port in safety, the British fleet being too crippled to pursue. The British lost 109 killed and 362 wounded; the Dutch 1 ship, the Hollandia, 142 killed and 403 wounded.
  
1782  
Battle of Dominica (Naval-West indies ) British victory
Fought April 12, 1782, between the British fleet of 36 sail of the line, under Rodney, with Hood second in command, and the French fleet of 33 sail under de Grasse. Rodney departed from the usual tactics of a ship to ship action, and broke the enemy's line, gaining a complete victory, and capturing or destroying 5 ships, while 2 more were captured within the next few days. The British lost 261 killed and 837 wounded. The French losses have been put as high as 15,000, but it is probable that they lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, while 7,980 were taken in the captured ships. This action is also known as the battle of the Saints.
  
1759  
Battle of Trincomalee (Third ) drawn battle victory
Fought August 10, 1759, between a British squadron of 12 sail, under Admiral Pococke, and a French fleet of 14 sail, under the Comte d'Ache. After an engagement lasting two hours, the French were worsted, but sailing better than the British, as usual at this period, eluded pursuit and lost no ships.
  
1767  
Battle of Trincomalee (First ) British victory
Fought September 3, 1767, between the British, under Colonel Smith, and the Mysore army, under Hyder Ali. Hyder attacked the British camp, but was beaten off with a loss of 2,000 men while the British lost 170 only.
  
1746  
Battle of Negapatam (First ) drawn battle victory
Fought 1746, off the Coromandel coast between a British squadron of 6 ships, under Captain Peyton, and 9 French ships, under Labourdonnais. The fight was conducted almost entirely at long range, and was indecisive, but after the action Peyton sheered off and made for Trincomalee, thus practically admitting defeat, though the French had in fact suffered the heavier loss.
  
1783  
Battle of Cuddalore (Naval-Asia ) British victory
Fought June 13, 1783, when a portion of the British force under General Stewart attacked the French entrenchments in front of Cuddalore, and after hard fighting, drove the French into the town with a loss of 700 men and 13 guns. The British lost 1,013 killed and wounded.
  
1783  
Battle of Pondicherry (Naval-Asia ) drawn battle victory
A second naval action off this place was fought June 20, 1783, between a British squadron of 18 ships of the line, and 12 frigates, under Sir Edward Hughes, and a French squadron, under de Suffren. The battle was undecided, the British ships suffering considerably in masts and rigging, and being unable to chase when de Suffren sheered off. The British loss was 520 killed and wounded.
  
1783  
Battle of Cuddalore (Naval-Asia ) French victory
A naval action was fought off Cuddalore June 30, 1783, between a British squadron of 17 sail under Sir Edward Hughes, and 12 French ships under Suffren. The French, as usual, declined to come to close quarters, and after a long range action, in which Hughes lost 532 men, fighting was suspended at nightfall, leaving Suffren in possession of the roads, and able to prevent the complete investment of Cuddalore.
  

War of 1812 — 1812 to 1814

America's first war with Britain over trading and commerce rights.


1812  
Battle of Queenston Heights (Niagra ) British victory
Fought October 13, 1812, between 4,000 British (chiefly Canadian volunteers), under General Brock, and about 5,000 Americans, under Van Reusselaer. The Americans attacked the British position on Queenston Heights, and after very severe fighting, were totally defeated. The exact losses are unknown, but the British took 1,000 prisoners, and the American column was practically annihilated.
  
1812  
Battle of Constitution and Guerriere (Naval ) Americans victory
A famous frigate action, fought August 19, 1812 between the British frigate HMS Guerriere of 49 Guns, under Captain James Dacres and the USS Constitution under Isaac Hull, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities between the two nations. After a furious battle, the Guerriere surrendered. Although of no strategic value, the early victory by American forces boosted morale among Americans considerably.
  
1813  
Battle of Burlington Heights (Niagra ) British victory
Fought May 5, 1813, when the British under Colonel Procter were attacked by 1,300 Americans under General Clay, while engaged with another American force holding Burlington Heights. The Americans broke the British line and seized their guns, but Procter, who had only 1,000 men, with some Indian auxiliaries, rallied his troops and routed Clay, with a loss of nearly I,000 killed, wounded and captured.
  
1813  
Battle of Shannon and Chesapeake (Niagra ) British victory
A famous frigate action, fought May 29, 1813, between the British frigate Shannon, of 38 guns, commanded by Captain Broke, and the American frigate Chesapeake, also of 38 guns, under Captain John Lawrence. The Chesapeake sailed out of Boston Harbour to attack the Shannon, and after a brisk action was taken by the board by the British. The Shannon lost 4 officers and 21 men killed, and 3 officers and 56 men wounded; the Chesapeake, 8 officers and 39 men killed, and 9 officers and 106 men wounded. Captain Lawrence was killed and Captain Broke wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Chrystlers Farm (Champlain ) British victory
Fought November 11, 1813, between 800 British under Colonel Morrison, and about 3,000 Americans under General Boyd. The Americans were defeated with a loss of 249 killed and wounded and 100 prisoners. The British lost 203.
  
1813  
Battle of Lake Erie (Detroit ) Americans victory
Fought September 10, 1813, between the English flotilla of six schooners, under Commodore Barclay, and a largely superior American squadron, under Commodore Perry. The whole British flotilla was destroyed, with a loss of 134 killed and wounded. The Americans lost 27 killed and 96 wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Thames (Naval ) Americans victory
Fought October 5, 1813 between 1,300 British and Indian forces under the command of Colonel Proctor and Tecumseh, who was killed in battle, and 3,500 Americans under William Henry Harrison, shortly after the Americans took control of Lake Erie. The British were decisively defeated and the Americans assumed control of the Northwest Territories.
  
1813  
Battle of Châteauguay (Chesapeake ) British victory
Fought 1813, between the Americans, 7,000 strong, under General Hampton, and a force of Canadian Militia, far inferior in numbers, who were strongly posted near Chateauguay. The Americans attempted to storm the Canadian lines, but the Canadians made a most gallant defense, and repulsed them with heavy loss.
  
1813  
Battle of Black Rock (Niagra ) British victory
Fought 1814, between 1,400 British troops under General Riall, and a force of 2,000 American Indians, occupying a strong position at Black Rock. The British stormed the entrenchments and dispersed the enemy, following up their success by the seizure of Buffalo.
  
1814  
Battle of Chippewa (Niagra ) Americans victory
Fought July 6, 1814, between 4,000 Americans under General Jacob Brown, and 2,400 British, 1,500 being regulars, under General Riall. Riall attacked Brown in a strong position at Chippewa, and was repulsed with considerable loss.
  
1814  
Battle of Lundy's Lane (Batavian Revolt ) British victory
Fought July 25, 1814, between 5,000 Americans, under General Jacob Brown, and 3,000 British, under Sir George Drummond. Drummound occupied high ground on each side of Lundy's Lane, where he was attacked by the Americans. The fighting lasted till far into the night, when a final assault was repulsed, and the Americans retired to Chippewa with a loss of 858. The British lost 878.
  
1814  
Battle of Bladensburg (Chesapeake ) British victory
Fought August 24, 1814, between the British under General Ross, and the Americans under General Winder, who was opposing the British advance upon Washington, and had taken up a position which commanded the only bridge over the Potomac. Ross attacked with a portion of his force, under Thornton, and, having carried the bridge, a combined assault upon the main position resulted in a signal defeat of the American army, which broke and fled. Ross entered Washington the same evening.
  
1814  
Battle of Baltimore (Creek War ) British victory
This city was attacked September 11, 1814, by a British fleet of ten sail, under Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, and a land force of 3,270 under General Ross, who fell during the action. The Americans, 17,000 strong, under General Winder, were defeated, but the British retired on the evening of the 13th. The British lost 46 killed and 300 wounded, the Americans, 20 killed, 90 wounded, and 200 prisoners.
  
1815  
Siege of New Orleans (Detroit ) Americans victory
This city, held by a garrison of 12,000 Americans, under General Jackson, was attacked December, 1814, by a British force of 6,000 men, under General Keane, aided by the fleet. On the 13th the American warships, lying in the Mississippi, were captured by a boat attack, and by the 21st the whole of the troops were disembarked. After a few skirmishes, Sir Edward Pakenham, arrived and took command on the 25th, and on January 1, 1815, a determined attack was made upon the American position. This failed, and owing to difficulties as to supplies, the British retired. On the 7th a final assault took place, but the assailants were again repulsed, with a loss of 1,500, including Pakenham, and the expedition then withdrew. At the time of the action peace had already been concluded, though of course neither party was aware of the fact.
  

Wars of Canada — 1837 to 1885

Minor rebellions in Britain's Canadian colonies.


1837  
Battle of St. Charles (French-Canadian Rising ) Loyalists victory
Fought 1837, between the Loyalists, under Colonel Wetherall, and the Canadian rebels. The latter were defeated.
  
1837  
Battle of St. Denis (French-Canadian Rising ) Rebels victory
Fought 1837, between the Canadian rebels, and a force of British and Canadian troops, under Colonel Gore. The rebels were victorious, but the results of their victory were unimportant.
  
1837  
Battle of St. Eustache (French-Canadian Rising ) Loyalists victory
Fought 1837, between the rebels, under Girod, and the Government troops, under Sir John Colborne. The rebels were completely defeated, and the rebellion was suppressed.
  
1885  
Battle of Fish Creek (Riel's Rebellion ) Rebels victory
Fought April 24, 1885, when General Middleton, with 400 Canadians, attempted to drive the rebels, 280 strong, from a strong position near Fish Creek. After losing 50 men, Middleton withdrew. The rebels lost 29 killed and wounded.
  
1885  
Battle of Batoche (Riel's Rebellion ) Canadians victory
Fought May 9 to 12, 1885, when 750 Canadians under General Middleton gradually drove back and finally defeated Riel's force of half-breeds and Indians, with a loss of 224. The Canadians lost only 54 killed and wounded. Riel surrendered on the 15th.
  

Carnatic Wars — 1749 to 1751

Britain fights with France for control of Indian Trading.


1746  
Battle of Negapatam (First ) drawn battle victory
Fought 1746, off the Coromandel coast between a British squadron of 6 ships, under Captain Peyton, and 9 French ships, under Labourdonnais. The fight was conducted almost entirely at long range, and was indecisive, but after the action Peyton sheered off and made for Trincomalee, thus practically admitting defeat, though the French had in fact suffered the heavier loss.
  
1746  
Siege of Madras (First ) French victory
This city was invested by the French under Labourdonnais, with 9 ships and about 3,700 troops, mostly Europeans, September 14, 1746. It was defended by a garrison of 200, and after a week's bombardment, surrendered September 25. The garrison lost 5 men only; the French not a single man.
  
1748  
Siege of Pondicherry (First ) French victory
This place was invested by the British, under Admiral Boscawen, with a fleet of 30 sail, and a land force of 6,000 men, August 30, 1948, and was defended by a French garrison of 4,800, under Dupleix. The siege was grossly mismanaged, and in October Boscawen was forced to withdraw, having lost by sickness or in action nearly a third of his land force. The French lost 250 only during the siege.
  
1749  
Battle of Devicotta (Second ) British victory
This fortress, held for Pertab Singh by a garrison of the Tanjore army, was captured in 1749, after a three days' bombardment, by a British force of 2,300 men under Major Lawrence. An attack upon the breach, headed by Clive, was nearly disastrous, as the Sepoys hung back, and of the Europeans engaged, only Clive and three others escaped, but Lawrence arriving opportunely with the main column, the place was stormed.
  
1749  
Battle of Ambur (Second ) Chunda-French victory
Fought 1749, between the army of Anwar-ud-din, Nawab of Arcot, 20,000 strong, and the combined forces of Muzuffer Jung and Chunda Sahib, aided by a French contingent under M. d'Auteil. Anwar-ud-din was defeated and slain, and Muzuffer Jung assumed the title of Subandar of the Deccan, Chunda Sahib that of Nawab of Arcot.
  
1751  
Siege of Arcot (Second ) British victory
This fortress was captured by Clive, with a force of 200 Europeans and 300 Sepoys, in August, 1751. The garrison, 1,100 strong, offered no resistance, but marched out on Clive's approach. In the course of the autumn Arcot was beleaguered by an army of 10,000 natives, and 150 Frenchmen under Chunda Sahib, the French nominee for the Nawabship of Arcot. Against this overwhelming force, Clive, whose garrison had been reduced by sickness to 120 Europeans, and less than 200 Sepoys, held out for seven weeks, till the approach of a Mahratta army forced Chunda Sahib to raise the siege. The garrison had 45 Europeans and 30 Sepoys killed.
  
1751  
Battle of Arnee (Second ) British victory
Fought 1751, shortly after the relief of Arcot, between 900 British troops, under Clive, with 600 Mahratta horse under Basin Rao, and a French force of 4,800, including 300 Europeans, who were in charge of a convoy of treasure. Clive took up a position in swampy ground, crossed by a causeway along which the convoy must pass. The French were thrown into disorder, and forced to retreat, but night saved them from complete destruction. The treasure was captured.
  
1752  
Battle of Coverypank (Second ) British victory
Fought February 1752, between the British, 380 Europeans, and 1,300 Sepoys, under Clive, and the troops of Rajah Sahib, with 400 Frenchmen, in all about 5,000. Clive's advance guard marched into an ambush, and with difficulty held its ground against the fire of 9 guns. Meanwhile Clive passed round the enemy's position, and attacked them vigorously in the rear, whereupon they fled in panic. Most of the Frenchmen and the guns were captured.
  
1752  
Siege of Covelong (Second ) British victory
This fortress, held by a French garrison of 350, was captured by Clive in 1752, after a few days' siege. Clive had only 200 European recruits and 500 Sepoys, and had great difficulty in getting his men to face the French fire. Having, however, managed to erect a battery which commanded the place, the Governor surrendered. On the following day Clive ambushed and defeated, with a loss of 100 men, a relieving force approaching from Chingleput.
  
1752  
Siege of Chingleput (Second ) British victory
This fortress, defended by a French garrison of 40 Europeans and 500 native troops, was captured, 1752, by Clive, with a force of about 700 recruits and Sepoys.
  
1752  
Battle of Bahur (Second ) British victory
Fought August, 1752, between the French, numbering 2,500, including natives, under M. Kirkjean, and 2,000 British troops, with 4,000 of Mohammed Ali's levies, under Major Lawrence. The French were totally defeated, losing heavily in men, guns and stores. This victory determined the Mahrattas, who were wavering, to throw in their lot with the British.
  
1753  
Battle of Seringham (Second ) British victory
Fought 1753, between 1,000 British troops, under Major Laurence, and the French, with their Mahratta and Mysori allies, under M. Astruc. The French attacked in force an isolated post, held by 200 Sepoys, and carried it before Major Laurence could come up. He then attacked, and in turn carried the position, driving off the French, and the Mahrattas who came up to their support, and captured three guns.
  
1753  
Battle of Golden Rock (Second ) British victory
Fought August 7, 1753, between 1,500 British under Major Lawrence, together with 5,000 Tanjore troops under Monakji, and a detachment of French and Mysoris, forming part of the army besieging Trichinopoly. The Golden Rock was taken by assault, and the enemy driven off in confusion, but the victory would have been more decisive had the Tanjore horse pursued with more vigour.
  
1753  
Battle of Sugar-loaf Rock (Second ) British victory
Fought September 20, 1753, between the British, about 3,000 strong, under Major Laurence, and the French army which was besieging Trichinopoly, under M. Astruc. Laurence attacked before daybreak, and the native auxiliaries with the French army were seized with a panic and fled, leaving the Europeans unsupported. In the end the French were defeated, with a loss of 100 killed and 200 prisoners, including Astruc. The British lost 40 killed and wounded.
  
1754  
Battle of Tondeman's Woods (Second ) French-Mysoris victory
Fought February 14, 1754, when a convoy to revictual Trichinopoly, escorted by 180 British and 800 native troops, was attacked by 12,000 Mysore and Mahratta horse, under Hyder Ali and Morari Rao, supported by a small French force. The Sepoys at once laid down their arms, but the Europeans made a gallant defense, until the arrival of the French force, when, hopelessly outnumbered, they also surrendered. The convoy and the whole detachment were captured.
  
1756  
Siege of Calcutta (Third ) Nawab Bengal victory
Siege was laid to the city June 16, 1756, by Sarabjah Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, with a large force. The garrison, consisting of 514 regulars and militia, and 1,000 matchlock men, under Captain Minchin, was quite inadequate to man the defenses, and it was decided to abandon the city, remove all non-combatants to the ships, and only defend the fort. The Governor, Mr. Drake, was among those who left the place, and he was accompanied by Captain Minchin, who deserted his post, as did many of the militiamen, with the result that only 190 remained for the defense of the fort. An assault was repulsed, with a loss to the defenders of 95 killed and wounded, but on the l0th the little garrison surrendered. The survivors were thrust into a small room, known as the Black Hole, and used as a soldiers' prison, and out of 146 only 23 survived the horrors of the night.
  
1757  
Siege of Chandernagore (Third ) British victory
This place was besieged March 14, 1757, by Clive, with 2,000 Company's troops, and defended by 600 Frenchmen and 300 Sepoys. On the 19th three British ships under Admiral Watson arrived, and on the 24th a joint attack by sea and land resulted in the capture of the place.
  
1757  
Battle of Plassey (Third ) British victory
Fought 1757, between the British, 3,000 strong, with 8 guns, under Clive, and the army of Surabjah Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, aided by a small force of Frenchmen. Clive was encamped in a grove of mango-trees, where he was attacked by the Nawab. He beat off the attack, and then stormed the Nawab's lines, totally routing his army, which fled in panic, with a loss of about 500. The British lost 72 only.
  
1758  
Siege of Fort St. David (Third ) French victory
This fortress was besieged, May 14, 1758, by a French force under Lally Tollendal, and defended by a garrison of 800 British and 1,600 native troops. The defense was not energetically conducted, and, on the arrival in the roads of a French fleet under Comte d'Aché, the garrison surrendered, June 2.
  
1758  
Battle of Fort St. David (Third ) drawn battle victory
A naval action was fought off this place, April 29, 1758, between 7 British ships under Admiral Pococke, and a squadron of 9 French vessels under Comte d'Aché. After a short and indecisive engagement, the French sheered off, but the British were too severely damaged in the rigging to give chase. The French lost one ship, driven ashore.
  
1758  
Siege of Tanjore (Third ) Tanjore victory
This place was besieged, August, 1758, by the French, under Lally-Tollendal, and was defended by a garrison, under Monacji. After five days' bombardment, the walls were still insufficiently breached, and owing to lack of ammunition, Lally determined to retire. Hearing this, Monacji made a sortie, and nearly succeeded in surprising the French camp. He was with difficulty beaten off, and the French withdrew, with the loss of all their siege guns and heavy baggage.
  
1758  
Battle of Carrical (Third ) British victory
An action was fought off this place August 2, 1758, between a British squadron under Admiral Pococke, and the French under Comte d'Ache. After a severe engagement, the French fleet drew off, but the English pursuit, owing to damaged rigging, was ineffectual, and d'Ache reached Pondicherry without the loss of a ship.
  
1758  
Battle of Rajahmundry (Third ) British victory
Fought December 9, 1758, between 2,500 British troops, under Colonel Forde, in conjunction with about 5,000 native levies, and the French, 6,500 strong, under Conflans. The native troops did little on either side, but Forde's 500 Europeans routed Conflans' Frenchmen, and the latter fled with considerable loss.
  
1758  
Siege of Madras (Third ) British victory
On December 16, 1758, Madras was invested by Lally-Tollendal with 2,000 European and 4,000 native troops. The garrison consisted of 4,000 men, more than half of whom were Sepoys, under Colonel Lawrence. After a bombardment lasting from January 2, 1759, to February 16, Lally-Tollendal was on the point of ordering an assault, when the arrival of the British fleet caused him to raise the siege and retire. The garrison lost during the siege 1,341 killed and wounded. The French losses amounted to 700 Europeans, besides Sepoys.
  
1759  
Siege of Masulipatam (Third ) British victory
This fortress, held by a French garrison, under Conflans, was besieged by the British, about 2,500 strong, under Colonel Forde, in March, 1759. After a fortnight's bombardment the place was taken by storm, the resistance being very feeble, and Conflans surrendered with his whole force, which considerably outnumbered the assailants. One hundred and twenty guns were taken in the fortress.
  
1759  
Battle of the Hooghly (Third ) British victory
Fought November 24, 1759, between three British ships, under Commodore Wilson, and a Dutch squadron of seven sail. After two hours' fighting, the Dutch were completely defeated, and all their ships captured. Meanwhile a force of 700 Europeans and 800 Sepoys landed from the Dutch fleet, was defeated with heavy loss by 330 British troops and 800 Sepoys, under Colonel Forde.
  
1759  
Battle of Trincomalee (Third ) drawn battle victory
Fought August 10, 1759, between a British squadron of 12 sail, under Admiral Pococke, and a French fleet of 14 sail, under the Comte d'Ache. After an engagement lasting two hours, the French were worsted, but sailing better than the British, as usual at this period, eluded pursuit and lost no ships.
  
1760  
Battle of Trivadi (Third ) French-Mysore victory
Fought 1760, between 5,000 Mysoris, under Hyder Ali, and a British force of 230 European and 2,700 native troops, under Major Moore, Notwithstanding his inferior numbers, Moore attempted to prevent the junction of Hyder Ali with the French, and was totally defeated.
  
1760  
Battle of Pondicherry (Third ) British victory
In August, 1760, Colonel Coote, with about 8,000 British and native troops, invested this place, which was held by a French garrison, 3,000 strong, under Lally-Tollendal. Coote was almost immediately superseded by Colonel Monson, but the latter having been wounded, Coote resumed the command. Fire was not opened from the breaching batteries till December 8th, and on the 31st a terrific hurricane wrecked all the land batteries, and drove ashore six ships of the blockading squadron. On January 10, 1761, however, fire was reopened, and the town surrendered on the 15th.
  
1763  
Battle of Morshedabad (Third ) British victory
Fought July 24, 1763, between the troops of Mir Cossim, the deposed Nawab of Bengal, and a British force of 750 Europeans and a large body of native troops, under Major Adams. The British stormed Cossim's entrenchments, driving out his army in confusion, and followed up their victory by the occupation of Morshedabad, without further opposition.
  
1763  
Battle of Gherain (Third ) British victory
Fought August 2, 1763, between the army of Mir Cossim, the deposed Nawab of Bengal, and the British under Major Adams. A severe engagement, lasting four hours, ended in a signal victory for the British.
  
1763  
Battle of Oondwa Nullah (Third ) British victory
Fought September, 1763, when 3,000 British and native troops, under Major Adams, carried by storm the entrenchments and the fort held by Mir Cossim's army of 60,000 men with 100 guns. Mir Cossim fled and his army was entirely dispersed.
  
1764  
Battle of Buxar (Third ) British victory
Fought October 23, 1764, between 7,000 British troops and sepoys under Major Monro, and the army of Oude, 40,000 strong, under Surabjah Daulah, who was accompanied by the Great Mogul, Shah Allum. The British gained a signal victory, Surabjah Daulah abandoning his camp with a loss of 4,000 men and 130 guns. The British lost 847 killed and wounded.
  

Mahratta Wars — 1775 to 1803

Britain becomes involved in wars of the Maratha confederation in central India.



DateBattle Summary
1775  
Battle of Aras (First ) British victory
Fought May 18, 1775, between Raghunath Rao, the claimant to the Peshwaship, with 20,000 Mahrattas, and 2,500 British troops under Colonel Keating, and the army of the Mahratta chieftains, 25,000 strong under Hari Pant Phunhay. Raghunath's undisciplined levies fled, and threw the British line into confusion; but they rallied, and after hard fighting repulsed the Mahrattas with heavy loss. The British lost 222, including 11 officers.
  
1779  
Battle of Wargaom (First ) Marathas victory
Fought January 12, 1779, when a British force, 2,600 strong, under Colonel Cockburn, retreating from Poonah, was attacked by the Mahratta army, under Mahadaji Sindhia, and Hari Pant. The British succeeded in beating off the attack, and making good their position in the village of Wargaom, but at a loss of 352, including 15 officers, and ultimately a convention was signed by Sindhia, under which the British retired unmolested.
  
1780  
Battle of Ahmedabad (First ) British victory
This strong fortress, garrisoned by 8,000 Arabs and Scinde Infantry, and 2,000 Mahrattas, was taken by assault, after a short bombardment, by a British force under General Goddard, February 15, 1780. The British lost 106 killed and wounded, including 12 officers.
  
1780  
Battle of Deeg (Gwalior Campaign ) British victory
Fought 1780 between the British, 6,000 strong under General Fraser, and the Mahrattas under Holkar of Indore, with 14 battalions of infantry, a numerous cavalry, and 160 guns. The Mahrattas were utterly routed, leaving 87 guns on the field. The British lost 643, including General Fraser, killed.
  
1780  
Siege of Gwalior (First ) British victory
This strong fortress was captured from the Mahrattas, August 3, 1780, by a British force of about 2,000 men, mostly sepoys, under Captain Popham. The wall was scaled by two companies of sepoys, under Captain Bruce, supported by 20 Europeans, and followed by two battalions. The garrison was completely surprised, and an entrance effected without opposition, whereupon the place was surrendered to the assailants, who had not lost a man.
  
1780  
Siege of Bassein (First ) British victory
This place, held by a Mahratta garrison, was besieged by a British force under General Goddard, November 13, 1780. A serious attempt was made to relieve the garrison, but the defeat of the relieving force by Colonel Hartley at Dugaar, on December 10, completely discouraged the defenders, and they surrendered on the following day.
  
1802  
Battle of Poonah (Second ) Rao victory
Fought October 25, 1802, between the forces of Jeswunt Rao, and the united armies of the Peshwa and Sindhia of Gwalior. After an evenly contested action, Jeswunt Rao got the upper hand, and gained a complete victory, Sindhia fleeing from the field, leaving behind him all his guns and baggage.
  
1803  
Battle of Aligurh (Second ) British victory
This fortress, the arsenal of Sindhia of Gwalior, was captured August 29, 1803, by the 76th Highlanders under Colonel Monson, forming part of General Lake's army. The place was strongly fortified and surrounded by a ditch 100 feet wide, containing to feet of water. The Highlanders carried the fortress by storm, blowing in the main gate, and fighting their way from room to room till the place was captured. Two hundred and eighty-one guns were taken. The British loss amounted to 223 killed and wounded.
  
1803  
Battle of Delhi (Second ) British victory
Fought September 11, 1803, between 4,500 British under General Lake, and 19,000 Mahrattas of Scindiah's army under Bourguin. The enemy occupied a strong position with the Jumna in their rear, and Lake, feigning a retreat, drew them from their lines, and then turning upon them drove them with the bayonet into the river, inflicting enormous loss upon them. The British lost 400 only.
  
1803  
Battle of Assaye (Second ) British victory
Fought September 23, 1803, when General Wellesley (Duke of Wellington) with 4,500 British and native troops routed the army of Sindhia of Gwalior, over 30,000 strong. All the camp equipment and 100 guns were taken. The Duke always considered this the bloodiest action, for the numbers engaged, that he ever witnessed. The British loss amounted to 1,566, or more than one-third of Wellesley's entire force.
  
1803  
Siege of Agra (Second ) British victory
The fortress was besieged October 4, 1803, by the British under General Lake, and was defended by a garrison of Sindhia's troops, 6,000 strong, who held the citadel, while seven additional battalions were encamped in the town. The latter force was attacked on the l0th and routed, losing 26 guns, while the survivors, 2,600 in number, surrendered on the following day. On the 17th the batteries opened fire on the citadel, and on the 18th the garrison surrendered.
  
1803  
Battle of Laswari (Second ) British victory
Fought November 1, 1803, between the British, 10,000 strong, under General Lake, and Scindhia's army, consisting of 9,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry. Scindhia's veteran infantry made a most gallant defense, standing their ground until 7,000 had fallen, when the survivors laid down their arms. The cavalry also suffered heavily. The British loss amounted to about 800. Seventy-two guns and a large quantity of ammunition and stores were captured.
  
1803  
Battle of Argaum (Second ) British victory
Fought November 28, 1803, between the British under Wellesley (Duke of Wellington) and the forces of the Rajah of Berar, under Sindhia of Gwalior. Three of Wellesley's battalions, which had previously fought well, on this occasion broke and fled, and the situation was at one time very serious. Wellesley, however, succeeded in rallying them, and in the end defeated the Mahrattas, withthe loss of all their guns and baggage. The British lost 346 killed and wounded. This victory ended the Second Mahratta War.
  
1804  
Battle of Delhi (Second ) British victory
The city was invested October 7, 1804, by 20,000 Mahrattas, with too guns, under Jeswunt Rao Holkar, and was successfully defended for nine days by a small British garrison. At the end of this period, Holkar withdrew. So small was the garrison, that they were on constant duty on the ramparts, throughout the siege, without relief.
  
1804  
Battle of Furruckabad (Second ) British victory
Fought November 14, 1804, between a small British force under Lord Lake, and an army of 60,000 Mahrattas under Jeswunt Rao Holkar. Holkar was signally defeated with heavy loss. The British casualties were only 2 killed and 20 wounded.
  
1804  
Battle of Deeg (Second ) British victory
The fortress, which was held by a garrison of Holkar's troops, was besieged December 11, 1804, by the British under Lord Lake. After six days' bombardment, it was stormed on the 23rd, and the citadel captured on the following day. Over 100 guns were taken.
  
1805  
Siege of Bhurtpur (Third ) Marathas victory
This city, garrisoned by about 8,000 of the Rajah's troops, was besieged by General Lake, January 4, 1805. Finding that his siege train was inadequate to reduce the town by the ordinary methods, Lake determined to carry it by storm. Four successive assaults were made, but without success, and on April 21 Lake was obliged to withdraw, having lost 3,200 men during the siege.
  
1817  
Battle of khadki (Third ) British victory
Fought November 5, 1817, between the Mahrattas under Bajee Rao, and a British force of one European and three native regiments, under Colonel Burr. On moving out of his entrenchments, the flanks of Burr's force were attacked by the Mahratta horse, but their charge was repulsed, and the British advancing drove off the enemy with a loss of over 500. The British loss was 75 killed and wounded.
  
1817  
Battle of Sitabaldi (Third ) British victory
Fought November 24, 1817, between a small force of Madras native troops, and some Bengal cavalry, in all about 1,300 men, under Colonel Scott, and the army of Nappa Sahib, Rajah of Nagpur, 18,000 strong, with 36 guns. The Sepoys held their ground for 18 hours, and eventually beat off their assailants, at a cost to themselves of about 300 men.
  
1817  
Battle of Mahidpur (Third ) British victory
Fought December 21, 1817, between the British, under Sir Thomas Hislop, and the army of Holkar of Indore. The Mahrattas, with 70 guns, were strongly posted behind the Sipra, which Sir Thomas crossed in the face of a heavy fire, and completely defeated them. The British lost 998 killed and wounded, the Mahrattas about 3,000.
  
1818  
Battle of Korygaom (Third ) British victory
Fought January 1, 1818, when a small British force of under 1,000 men, chiefly native troops, under Captain Staunton, was attacked by 25,000 Mahrattas, under the Peshwa, Baji Rao. The British held their ground gallantly all day, and the approach during the night of large reinforcements under General Smith determined the Peshwa to retreat, with a loss of 600. The British lost 275, including 5 out of 8 British officers.
  
1818  
Battle of Talneer (Third ) British victory
By the treaty of January 6, 1818, this fortress was surrendered by Holkar to the British, but on Sir Thomas Hislop, with a British force, arriving to take possession, on February 17, the commandant refused to hand it over. Though warned of the consequences, he fired upon the British, whereupon Hislop opened fire, and in the afternoon of the same day the place surrendered. By some misunderstanding, however, the Arab garrison of 300, were drawn up at one of the gates, and on the approach of two British officers and some Sepoys, cut them down. No quarter was then given, the garrison being killed to a man, and the commandant hanged.
  
1818  
Battle of Ashtee (Third ) British victory
Fought February 19, 1818, between the army of the Peshwa, Baji Rao, under Gokla, and the British under General Smith. The Peshwa fled before the action began, and Gokla, charging at the head of his cavalry, was killed, whereupon the Mahrattas broke and fled in confusion.
  
1818  
Battle of Chanda (Third ) British victory
This fortress, the chief stronghold of the Rajah of Nagpur, was besieged by a British force under Colonel Adams, May 9, 1818. It was defended by over 3,000 of the Rajah's troops, but after two days' bombardment the place was taken by storm, with small loss to the assailants, while the garrison had 500 killed, including the commandant.
  
1818  
Battle of Sholapur (Third ) British victory
Fought May 10, 1818, when a body of cavalry, under General Pritzen, forming part of General Monro's force, attacked and dispersed the retreating remnant of the Peshwa's army. Sholapur surrendered on the 15th, the operations having cost the British only 97 killed and wounded, while the loss of the Mahrattas exceeded 800 killed.
  
1819  
Siege of Asirghur (First ) British victory
This fortress, held by Jeswunt Rao, with a strong Mahratta garrison, was besieged by a British force under Sir John Malcolm and General Doveton, March 18, 1819. On the 21st the garrison was driven into the upper fort, and after a continuous bombardment, Jeswunt Rao surrendered April 7. The British loss during the siege was 313 killed and wounded; that of the garrison somewhat less.
  
1843  
Battle of Maharajpur (Gwalior Campaign ) British victory
Fought December 29, 1843, between the British, 14,000 strong, with 40 guns, under Sir Hugh Gough, and the troops of Bhagerat Rao Scindhia, 18,000 strong, with 100 guns. The Mahrattas occupied a strong position at Maharajpur, the exact locality of their lines being unknown to Sir Hugh, until his troops came under fire. The British at once charged and carried the batteries, and finally routed the Gwalior infantry at a cost of 787 killed and wounded. The Mahrattas lost 3,000 killed and wounded, and 56 guns.
  
1843  
Battle of Punniar (Hyderabad ) British victory
Fought December 29, 1843, between the left wing of Sir Hugh Gough's army, under General Grey, and a force of 12,000 Mahrattas, with 40 guns. The Mahrattas were totally routed.
  

Mysore Wars — 1767 to 1799

Wars between Britain and the Mysores and their French allies in Southern India.


1767  
Battle of Trincomalee (First ) British victory
Fought September 3, 1767, between the British, under Colonel Smith, and the Mysore army, under Hyder Ali. Hyder attacked the British camp, but was beaten off with a loss of 2,000 men while the British lost 170 only.
  
1767  
Battle of Trincomalee (First ) British victory
On September 26 of the same year, a second engagement took place near Trincomalee, when Colonel Smith, with 12,000 British and native troops, came unexpectedly upon the united armies of Hyderabad and Mysore, 60,000 strong, under Hyder Ali, while rounding a hill which separated them. The superior discipline of the British enabled them to take full advantage of the surprise, and they inflicted an overwhelming defeat upon their opponents' disordered masses. Hyder Ali lost over 4,000 men and 64 guns, the British loss being 150 killed and wounded.
  
1767  
Siege of Ambur (First ) British victory
This strong fortress was held by a garrison of 500 Sepoys, under Captain Calvert, and a detachment of Mysore troops under Mukhlis Khan. This man had assumed the status of an independent chief, but being suspected of intriguing with Hyder Ali, was arrested by Calvert. Hyder laid siege to the place November 10, 1767, but Calvert, now secure from treachery within, held out with his small garrison till December 6, when the approach of a relieving force obliged Hyder to raise the siege.
  
1768  
Battle of Ooscata (First ) British victory
Fought August 23, 1768, when the camp of the Mahratta contingent, under Morari Rao, forming a part of Colonel Donald Campbell's column, was attacked by a detachment of Hyder Ali's army. The Mahrattas repulsed the Mysore cavalry with a loss of about 300, at a cost to themselves of 18 only.
  
1773  
Siege of Tanjore (Fourth ) British victory
The fortress was besieged, August 20, 1773, by a British force, under General Joseph Smith, and defended by a garrison of 20,000 men, under the Rajah, Laljaji, and his Vizier Monacji. On September 16, a breach having been effected, the besiegers delivered an assault at midday, when their garrison were taking their usual noon-day rest, and meeting with little opposition, made themselves masters of the place.
  
1780  
Siege of Tellicherry (Second ) British victory
This place, held by a small British garrison, and very imperfectly fortified, was besieged June, 1780, by a Mysore force, under Sirdar Ali Khan. Aid was sent to the garrison from Bombay, and a most gallant defense was made till January 18, 1782, when reinforcements arrived, under Major Abington, who, aided by the garrison, stormed the Mysori entrenchments, capturing all their guns, 60 in number, and 1,200 prisoners, among whom was Sirdar Ali.
  
1780  
Battle of Perembacum (Second ) Mysoris victory
Fought September 10, 1780, when a Mysore force, 11,000 strong, under Tippu Sahib, surrounded and cut to pieces a detachment of Sir Hector Monro's army, 3,700 in number, under Colonel Baillie. Only a few, including Baillie himself, escaped the massacre.
  
1780  
Battle of Ponani (Second ) British victory
Fought November 19, 1780, when a force of British and native troops, about 2,500 strong, under Colonel Macleod, entrenched near Penani, were attacked before daybreak by a strong force of Mysoris, under Tippu Sahib. The Mysoris were repulsed at the point of the bayonet, with a loss of 1,100. The British loss was 87 only.
  
1780  
Siege of Wandewash (Second ) British victory
This fort, defended by a small native garrison, under Lieutenant Flint, who had only one other European with him, was besieged, December, 1780, by the Mysoris, under Hyder Ali. Flint held out with the utmost gallantry till January 22, 1781, when the approach of Sir Eyre Coote forced Hyder Ali to raise the siege. The garrison had then only one day's ammunition left.
  
1781  
Battle of Porto Novo (Second ) British victory
Fought July 1, 1781, between 8,500 British troops, under Sir Eyre Coote, and about 65,000 Mysoris, under Hyder Ali. Hyder occupied a strongly entrenched camp, blocking the British advance upon Cuddalore. Here he was attacked by Coote, and after a day's hard fighting the position was stormed, and Hyder forced to retreat. The British lost 306 only, while the Mysoris are computed to have lost 10,000.
  
1781  
Battle of Pollicore (Second ) British victory
Fought August 27, 1781, between 11,000 British, under Sir Eyre Coote and the Mysoris, 80,000 strong, under Haidar Ali. Coote seized the village of Pollicore, turning Haidar's flank and forcing him to retreat, after an action lasting eight hours. The British lost 421 killed and wounded, the Mysoris about 2,000.
  
1781  
Battle of Sholingur (Second ) British victory
Fought September 27, 1781, between the British, 10,000 strong, under Sir Eyre Conte, and the Mysoris, numbering about 80,000, under Hyder Ali. Hyder was surprised in the act of striking camp, and though a series of cavalry charges enabled him to withdraw his guns in safety, it was at a cost of 5,000 men that he eventually made good his retreat. The British loss did not exceed 100.
  
1781  
Siege of Negapatam (Second ) British victory
Siege was laid to this place October 21, 1781, by a British force, 4,000 strong, under Colonel Braithwaite. The garrison, partly Dutch and partly Mysore troops, though 8,000 in number, did not wait for a bombardment, but surrendered November 3.
  
1782  
Battle of Arnee (Second ) drawn battle victory
An indecisive action fought June 7, 1782, between the British under Sir Eyre Coote, and the Mysore troops under Hyder Ali.
  
1783  
Siege of Mangalore (Third ) Mysoris victory
This place was besieged June 20, 1783, by Tippu Sahib with his whole army, and was defended by a small British garrison, under Colonel Campbell. On the conclusion of peace between France and England, the French officer assisting Tippu withdrew, and on August 2 an armistice was arranged, during which the garrison was to receive regular supplies. This article was evaded, and the defenders half starved, and after some delay Tippu renewed the siege. No attempt, however, was made to relieve the place, and after a gallant defense, Campbell surrendered January 26, 1763.
  
1789  
Battle of Travancore (Third ) British victory
Fought December 28, 1789, when Tippu Sahib, with about 15,000 Mysoris, made a night attack upon the British lines. Having thrown down a portion of the rampart, a small advance party were hastening to open the gate, when. they were assailed by a detachment of the garrison, and hurled back into the trench. This repulse threw the advancing troops into confusion, and they were routed with a loss of over 2,000.
  
1790  
Battle of Calicut (Third ) British victory
Fought December 10, 1790, between 9,000 Mysore troops under Hussein Ali, and a British force of one European and two native regiments under Colonel Hartly. Hussein Ali occupied a strong position in front of Calicut, which was attacked and carried by Hartley with a loss of 52 only. The enemy lost 1,000 killed and wounded, and 2,400 prisoners, including their commander.
  
1791  
Battle of Arikera (Third ) British victory
Fought May 13, 1791, between the British under Lord Cornwallis, and the forces of Tippu Sahib. The latter was encamped between Arikera and Seringapatam, and was attacked by Cornwallis, who attempted to surprise him by a night march, but was foiled by heavy rain. A frontal attack on Tippu's position was, however, successful, and, aided by a flank movement under Maxwell, resulted in the total defeat of the Mysore troops, with a loss of over 2,000. The British loss amounted to 500. This is also known as the battle of Carigat.
  
1791  
Siege of Bangalore (Third ) British victory
This place was besieged by the British under Lord Cornwallis, March 5, 1791, and notwithstanding numerous efforts to relieve it on the part of Tippu Sahib, it was taken by storm on the night of the 21st, Tippu's final attempt being beaten off by the reserve with heavy loss. The British casualties were few.
  
1791  
Siege of Savandroog (Third ) British victory
Siege was laid to this place December 10, 1791, by a column of Lord Cornwallis' army, about 4,000 strong,. It was defended by a strong garrison of Mysoris, and was considered impregnable, but a practicable breach having been effected, it was taken by storm eleven days later, the garrison offering little resistance. The assailants did not lose a man.
  
1792  
Siege of Seringapatam (Allied Campaign in France ) British victory
This city was besieged, February 5, 1792, by 22,000 British and native troops, with 86 guns, under Lord Cornwallis, and defended by a Mysori garrison, under Tippu Sahib. On the 6th an assault upon the outlying works was successful, all the redoubts commanding the city being carried, at a cost to the assailants of 530, while the Mysoris lost 20,000. On the approach of reinforcements, under General Abercromby, on the 16th, Tippu consented to treat, and peace was signed in the following month.
  
1799  
Battle of Sidassir (Fourth ) British victory
Fought March 6, 1799, between the advance guard of General Stuart's force, composed of three regiments, under Colonel Montresor, and 12,000 Mysoris, under Tippu Sahib. Montresor's small force withstood the attack of Tippu's troops for over six hours, and their ammunition was all but exhausted when Stuart came up, and drove back the enemy with a loss of 2,000 men. The British lost 143 killed and wounded.
  
1799  
Battle of Malavilly (Fourth ) British victory
Fought March 20, 1799, when the camp of the British force, under Lord Harris, marching on Seringapatam, was attacked in force by Tippu Sahib. The enemy was thrown into confusion by a charge of cavalry, under General Floyd, and retired with a loss of about 1,000, The British losses were trifling.
  
1799  
Siege of Seringapatam (Second ) British victory
The second siege by General Harris, opened April 6, 1799, when the city was defended by a garrison of 20,000, under Tippu. On May 3, the breach was declared practicable, and the place was stormed by 4,000 men, under General Baird. Tippu was slain in the rout which followed the assault. The British losses during the siege amounted to 1,464. About 8,000 Mysoris fell in the assault.
  

British Gurkha War — 1814 to 1816

British repel the Gurkhas invaders from their Indian territories.


1814  
Siege of Kalunga   British victory
This place was attacked by the British under General Gillespie, in October, 1814, and was defended by the Gurkhas under Bulbuddur Singh. An unsuccessful assault cost the besiegers 260 officers and men, and after waiting a month for the arrival of heavy guns, a breach was made, and a general assault ordered. This also failed, 680 men being killed and wounded. The fortress was then shelled for three days, at the end of which time the survivors of the garrison, 70 only out of 600, made their escape, and the place was captured.
  
1815  
Battle of Jitgurh   Gurkas victory
Fought January 14, 1815, between 4,500 British troops, under General Wood, and 1,200 Gurkhas, occupying a strong stockade. The British were led unexpectedly into the zone of fire by a treacherous guide, and though Wood fought his way to a position from which he could have carried the stockade, he retired, having suffered considerable loss, just when the Gurkhas were about to abandon their works.
  
1815  
Battle of Almorah   British victory
Fought April 25, 1815, when 2,000 British regulars under Colonel Nicolls and a force of irregular troops under Colonel Gardiner assaulted and captured the heights of the town of Almorah. The result of this victory was the surrender of the province of Kumaon and all its fortresses.
  
1816  
Battle of Mukwanpur (Celtiberian Wars ) British victory
Fought February 27, 1816, when a village, forming part of Sir David Ochterlony's position, was attacked by 2,000 Gurkhas. The village was defended by three companies of Sepoys and 40 men of the 87th Regiment, and the defenders were hard pressed, but the arrival of reinforcements enabled them after severe fighting to beat off the assailants with very heavy loss.
  

British Burmah Wars — 1824 to 1825

After several years of daunting jungle warfare the British finally conquer Indo-China.


1824  
Battle of Kemendine (First ) British victory
Fought June 10, 1824, when 3,000 British troops, under Sir Archibald Campbell, stormed a series of stockades, occupied by a large force of Burmans, and drove out the defenders with heavy loss.
  
1824  
Battle of Kamarut (First ) British victory
Fought July 8, 1824, when a small British force, under Sir Archibald Campbell, stormed a series of stockades held by 10,000 Burmans, under Tuamba Wangyee. The Burmans left 800 dead on the field, including their leader.
  
1824  
Battle of Kokein (First ) British victory
Fought December 12, 1824, when 1,800 British troops, under Sir Archibald Campbell, stormed and captured two large stockades, garrisoned by about 20,000 Burmans, under Maka Bandula.
  
1825  
Battle of Donabew (First ) British victory
Fought March 7, 1825, when General Cotton, with about 700 troops, attacked three strong stockades held by 12,000 Burmans under Maha Bandoola. The smallest of the three was carried, but Cotton's force was too small, and it was not till the 25th that Sir Archibald Campbell arrived, and, shelling the stockade, forced the Burmans to evacuate the position. Maha Bandoola was killed.
  
1825  
Battle of Pagahar (First ) British victory
The only occasion during the war when the Burmans met the British in the open. In 1825 Sir Archibald Campbell, with 1,300 men, encountered 15,000 Burmans, under Zay-ya-Thayan but the battle was almost a bloodless one, for the Burmans failed to make any stand, their general being the first to flee.
  
1825  
Battle of Watigaon (First ) Burmese victory
Fought November 15, 1825, when Brigadier-General M'Donell, with four native regiments, advanced in three columns, against a large force of Burmans, under Maha Nemyo. The columns failed to keep touch, and were repulsed in detail, with a loss of 200 men, including the Brigadier.
  
1827  
Siege of Bhurtpur (Siege of Bhurtpur ) British victory
The city was again besieged by the British under Lord Combermere in 1827, a dispute having taken place as to the succession, and the Rajah who was under British protection having been expelled. After a bombardment of two months, which had little effect on the fortress, it was taken by assault.
  

Afghan Wars — 1839 to 1880

Britain faces a rebellion after deposing an Afghan King, and suffers a terrible massacre.



DateBattle Summary
1834  
Battle of Kandahar (Afghan Tribal-Wars ) Dost Mahomed victory
Fought July 29, 1834, when Shah Sujah, the expelled Amir of Afghanistan, attempted to take the city. His successor, Dost Mahomed, and Kohandil Khan sallied forth at the head of their troops, and totally defeated Shah Sujah, dispersing his followers.
  
1837  
Siege of Herat (Perso-Afghan Wars ) Afghans victory
On November 22, 1837, Mohamed, Shah of Persia, laid siege to the city, which was held by an Afghan garrison, under Yar Mohamed. After a somewhat desultory siege, an attempt was made to storm the place, June 24, 1838, when the Persians were repulsed with a loss of 1,700 men. From this time a tacit armistice existed till September 9, when the Shah withdrew his army.
  
1839  
Battle of Ghuzni (First ) British victory
This fortress, garrisoned by 3,000 Afghans, under Haidar Khan, was captured, January 21, 1839, by the British. The besiegers having no breaching guns, it was found necessary to blow in the main gate, and the place was then stormed, at a cost of 18 officers and 162 rank and file, killed and wounded. The garrison lost 500 killed.
  
1839  
Battle of Khelat (First ) British victory
This place, which was defended by a garrison of Beluchis, under Mehrab Khan, was captured by a British force, 1,000 strong, under General Willshire, November 13, 1839 The defenders lost 400 killed, including their leader and 2,000 prisoners. The British lost 37 killed and 107 wounded.
  
1841  
Battle of Beymaroo (First ) Afghans victory
Fought November 23, 1841, when a detachment of General Elphinstone's force, under Brigadier Shelton, attempted to dislodge a large body of Afghans, posted near Beymaroo village. The detachment had one gun only, which, being well served, did considerable execution, but it broke down, whereupon the Afghans attacked, and a charge of Ghazis caused a panic and a disorderly flight to the British camp.
  
1842  
Battle of Khyber Pass (First ) Afghans victory
While passing through this defile, the British force, under General Elphinstone, retreating on Jellalabad, was attacked by the Afghans, January 8,1842, and lost 3,000, including followers.
  
1842  
Battle of Jugdulluck (First ) Afghans victory
At this place the remnant of General Elphinstone's army made their last stand, January 12, 1842, against the Afghans and Ghilzais. Of the few who escaped the massacre at this point, only one, Dr. Brydon, succeeded in reaching Jellalabad.
  
1842  
Siege of Jellalabad (First ) British victory
This fortress was besieged by the Afghans, under Mohammed Akbar Khan, March 11, 1842, after the destruction of General Elphinstone's force in the Khoord Cabul pass. It was defended by a small British garrison, under General Sale. Akbar led his whole army to the assault, but was gallantly repulsed, and then sat down to besiege the place in form. An attempt to relieve it by Brigadier Wyld, in January, 1843, failed, Wyld being defeated in the Khyber Pass by the Khyberis. The garrison meanwhile made several successful sorties, and on April 7, drove Akbar Khan out of his entrenchments, with a loss of all his guns, and many men, forcing him to raise the siege. All chance of a renewal of the investment was ended by the arrival on the 18th, of a strong relieving force, under General Pollock.
  
1842  
Battle of Khojah Pass (First ) Afghans victory
Fought March 28, 1842, when General England, in an endeavor to relieve General Nott in Kandahar, marched into the pass with 500 men only, without waiting for the rest of his brigade, and was defeated by the Afghans with a loss of 100 killed and wounded, and compelled to retire to Quettah.
  
1842  
Battle of Ghoaine (First ) British victory
Fought August 30, 1842, between General Nott's force, on its march from Kandahar to Ghuzni, and the Afghans, under Shems-ud-din, Governor of Ghuzni. The Afghans were totally defeated, losing all their guns, tents and baggage.
  
1842  
Battle of Maidan (First ) British victory
Fought September 14, 1842, between the British, under General Nott, and 12,000 Afghans, under Shems-ud-din, who occupied the heights commanding the road to Kabul. Nott attacked and carried the Afghan position, the Afghans being driven off with heavy loss.
  
1843  
Battle of Meeanee (Scinde ) British victory
Fought February 17, 1843, between 2,800 British and native troops, under Sir Charles Napier, and about 20,000 Beluchis, under the Amirs of Scinde. The infantry were at one time almost overpowered by the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, who attacked with great bravery, but they were rescued by a charge of the 9th Bengal cavalry, who broke up the assailants, and in the end the Beluchis were routed with a loss of 5,000 men and several guns. The British lost 256 killed and wounded.
  
1843  
Battle of Dubba (Scinde ) British victory
Fought March 24, 1843, between 5,000 British troops, under Sir Charles Napier, and 20,000 Beluchis, under the Amir Shir Mohamed. The enemy was strongly posted behind a double nullah, which was carried by the infantry with great gallantry, and the Beluchis were totally defeated.
  
1843  
Battle of Hyderabad (Scinde ) British victory
Fought March 24, 1843, between 6,000 British troops, under Sir Charles Napier, and 20,000 Beluchis, under Shir Mohammed. The latter was strongly entrenched behind the Fullali, but the Beluchis, being thrown into disorder by a heavy artillery fire, were overthrown by a charge of cavalry on their exposed flank, and a frontal attack by the 22nd Regiment. This defeat put an end to the resistance of the Scinde Emirs.
  
1878  
Battle of Peiwar Kotal (Second ) British victory
Fought December 2, 1878, between a British force, 3,200 strong, under Sir Frederick Roberts, with 13 guns, and about 18,000 Afghans, with 11 guns, strongly posted in the Kotal. By an able, but difficult turning movement, the pass was crossed, and the Afghans completely defeated, with heavy loss, all their guns being captured. The British lost 20 killed and 78 wounded.
  
1879  
Battle of Charasiab (Second ) British victory
Fought October 6, 1879, when Sir Frederick Roberts attacked a force of Afghans and Ghilzais, who were massed on the road by which a convoy was approaching from Zahidabad, under General Macpherson. The enemy was routed and dispersed, and the convoy reached camp safely.
  
1880  
Battle of Ahmed Khel (Second ) British victory
Fought 1880, when a British force under General Stewart on the march to Ghuzni was attacked by about 15,000 Ghilzais. A rush of 3,000 Ghazis was successfully repulsed, and the enemy defeated and driven off, leaving 1,000 dead on the field. The British lost 17 only.
  
1880  
Battle of Maiwand (Second ) Afghans victory
Fought July 27, 1880, between a small British force, with 6 guns, under General Borrows, and the Afghan army, under Ayub Khan. A Bombay native regiment was broken by a Ghazi rush, and although the 66th Regiment fought magnificently, the British were routed, with a loss of 32 officers and 939 men killed, and 17 officers and 151men wounded. The survivors escaped with difficulty to Kandahar.
  
1880  
Battle of Kandahar (Second ) British victory
Fought September 1, 1880 between the British, under Lord Roberts, and the Afghans, under Ayub Khan, immediately after the completion of the famous march from Kabul. Ayub was completely defeated, with a loss of 2,000 men, and his army dispersed. The British losses were only 248 killed and wounded.
  
1895  
Battle of Chitral (Chitral Campaign ) British victory
On March 3, 1895, the Chitral garrison, consisting of 90 Sikhs and 280 Kashmir Imperial Service troops, with 7 British officers under Captain Campbell, was attacked by a large force of Chitralis and Bajauris under Shere Afzal, the Pretender to the Chitral throne, and Umrar Khan of Bajaur. A sortie was repulsed, with a loss of 58, including 2 British officers, and General Baj Singh, who commanded the Kashmiris, but in spite of a series of attacks, and continual mining operations, the garrison held out until April 18, when it was relieved by Colonel Kelly. One fifth of the garrison was killed or wounded.
  
1895  
Battle of Malakand Pass (Chitral Campaign ) British victory
Fought April 3, 1895, when the British expedition, under General Low, 15,000 strong. forced the pass, which was held by about 12,000 tribesmen, with a loss of 8 officers and 61men killed and wounded. The Chitralis lost about 800.
  
1897  
Battle of Dargai (Tirah Campaign ) British victory
Fought October 20, 1897, when a British brigade, under General Yeatman Biggs, stormed the heights, which were held by a large force of Afridis. The actual storming was accomplished by the Gordon Highlanders, and the British loss amounted to 37 killed and 175 wounded. Colonel Mathias' speech to the Gordons, before leading them to the charge was, "Highlanders, the General says the position must be taken at all costs. The Gordons will take it."
  

Sikh Wars — 1845 to 1849

On the death Raj of the Punjab Sikh civil wars



DateBattle Summary
1845  
Battle of Moodkee (First ) British victory
Fought December 18, 1845, between the British, 12,000 strong, with 42 guns, under Sir Hugh Gough, and the Sikhs, 30,000 strong, with 40 guns, under Taj Singh. Gough, at the end of a long march, was surprised by the Sikhs, and his force thrown into some confusion, but he succeeded in rallying them, and finally drove the Sikhs from the field, capturing 17 guns. The British loss was 872 killed and wounded, among the former being Generals M'Caskill and Sir Robert Sale.
  
1845  
Battle of Ferozeshah (First ) British victory
Fought December 21, 1845, between 50,000 Sikhs, with 108 guns, under Lal Singh, and 16,700 British and native troops, under Sir Hugh Gough. An attempt was made to carry the Sikh entrenched camp by a night attack, but this was unsuccessful. When the attack was renewed at dawn, dissensions among the Sikh leaders enfeebled the resistance, and the Sikhs were defeated with a loss of about 7,000. The British losses were 694 killed, 1,721 wounded.
  
1846  
Battle of Aliwal (First ) British victory
Fought January 28, 1846, between the British, 10,000 strong, under Sir Harry Smith, and 20,000 Sikhs under Runjur Singh. The troops of the Khalsa withstood three charges of the British cavalry with splendid bravery, but at last broke and fled, losing many drowned in the Sutlej, besides those left on the field. The British captured 67 guns.
  
1846  
Battle of Sobraon (Second ) British victory
Fought February 10, 1846, between the British, about 15,000 strong, and 25,000 Sikhs, under Runjur Singh. The Sikhs were strongly entrenched on the Sutlej, and Sir Hugh Gough, with feigned attacks on their centre and right, succeeded in pushing home his assault on their left, and after hard fighting drove the defenders to the river, where many perished. The British lost 2,383, the Sikhs about 8,000.
  
1848  
Battle of Kineyri (Second ) British victory
Fought June 18, 1848, between 8,000 Bhawalpuris, under Futteh Mohammed Khan, aided by 3,000 Sikh irregulars, under Lieutenant Edwardes, and the Sikhs, 8,000 strong, under Rung Ram. The Bhawalpuris were repulsed in an attack on the Sikh positions, but the arrival of Lieutenant Edwardes' guns turned the scale, and at a second attempt the entrenchments were stormed and captured, with a loss to the victors of 300 men. The Sikhs lost 500 killed in the action, and many more during their flight to Multan.
  
1848  
Battle of Suddusain (Second ) British victory
Fought July 1, 1848, when a force of Bhawalpuris and British 18,000 strong, under Lieutenant Edwardes, encountered 12,000 Sikhs, under Malraj. The Sikhs attacked, but were beaten off, largely owing to the superiority of the British artillery, and defeated with heavy loss.
  
1848  
Siege of Multan (Second ) British victory
This fortress, defended by the Sikhs, under Mulraj, was besieged by Lieutenant Edwardes with about 1,200 men in July, 1848. After an ineffectual bombardment, the siege was raised September 22, but was renewed December 27 by General Whish, with 17,000 men and 64 guns. After a heavy bombardment the place was stormed January 2, 1849, and on the 22nd of the same month Mulraj surrendered the citadel. The British loss during the siege was 210 killed and 910 wounded.
  
1848  
Battle of Sadulapur (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought December 3, 1848. After the failure of his frontal attack on the Sikh position at Ramnugger in November, Lord Gough despatched a force under Sir Joseph Thackwell, to cross the Chenab and turn the Sikh left. An indecisive action followed, which Lord Gough claimed as a victory, but though the Sikhs retired, it was slowly, and only to take up a fresh position, which Thackwell did not consider himself strong enough to attack.
  
1849  
Battle of Chillianwallah (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought January 14, 1849, between the British under Lord Gough, and the Sikhs, 40,000 strong, under Shere Singh. The battle was very evenly contested, and though in the end Lord Gough drove the Sikhs from the field, his own position was so insecure that he was himself compelled to retire after the action. The British losses were over 2400. They Sikh losses were about 4000.
  
1849  
Battle of Gujerat (Second ) British victory
Fought February 22, 1849, between the British, 25,000 strong, under Lord Gough, and 50,000 Sikhs, under Shir Singh. The British artillery, numbering 84 pieces, broke the Sikh lines, and after resisting for over two hours, they fled, and were practically annihilated in the pursuit. Fifty-three guns were taken. The British lost only 92 killed and 682 wounded.
  
1849  
Battle of Ramnugger (First ) Sihks victory
Fought November, 1849, when Lord Gough attempted to dislodge Shir Singh, who with about 35,000 Sikhs, had occupied a position behind the Chenab opposite Ramnugger. The attempt was made by a brigade under General Campbell, with a cavalry force under General Cureton, and failed owing to the unexpected strength of the Sikh artillery, which was well posted and served. General Cureton was killed.
  

Indian Mutiny — 1857 to 1858

Britain puts down a Sepoy rebellion in Northern India.



DateBattle Summary
1857  
Battle of Baduli-ki-Serai (Delhi ) British victory
Fought June 8, 1857, when a British force, under Sir Henry Barnard, defeated a large body of mutineers, who were opposing their march to Delhi. All the rebels' guns were captured.
  
1857  
Siege of Delhi (Delhi ) British victory
After the outbreak at Meerut, Delhi became the rallying place of the mutineers, and on June 8, 1857, Sir Harry Barnard commenced the siege of the city. His force was too small for a complete investment, while the mutineers numbered 30,000, and could obtain continual reinforcements, and ample supplies. The garrison made constant sorties, and fighting was incessant at the outposts. On September 8 the breaching batteries opened fire, and on the 14th the final assault was made and the city entered. It was not however, till the 20th that the Palace was taken, and all resistance at an end. Among those who fell was John Nicholson.
  
1857  
Battle of Nujufghur (Jansi ) British victory
Fought August 24, 1857, between 6,000 rebels, under Mohammed Bukht Khan, and a small British force, under John Nicholson. The rebels were defeated, at small cost, with a loss of over 800 men and all their guns.
  
1857  
Siege of Cawnpur (Cawnpore ) Sepoys victory
The Residency of Cawnpur was invested by the mutineers June 6, 1857, and defended by a small garrison until June 24, when the survivors, about 450 in number, surrendered under promise from the Nana Sahib of a safe conduct to Allahabad. They were, however, fired upon as they took to the boats, and only a few escaped. The survivors of this massacre were afterwards murdered in cold blood by order of the Nana Sahib.
  
1857  
Battle of Futteypur (Cawnpore ) British victory
Fought July 12, 1857, between a strong force of rebels, and the British troops under Havelock, who was marching to the relief of Lucknow. The rebels were completely defeated, losing 11 guns, while not a single European in the British force was killed.
  
1857  
Battle of Aong (Cawnpore ) British victory
Fought July 15, 1857, between the British relieving force under Havelock and the mutineers who were opposing their advance on Cawnpore. The rebels were defeated and driven from their entrenchments.
  
1857  
Battle of Pandu Naddi (Cawnpore ) British victory
Fought July 15, 1857, between a British relieving force. under Havelock, and the mutineers who were opposing his advance to Cawnpore. By a forced march in the heat of the day, Havelock succeeded in seizing the bridge over the Pandu Naddi, which the mutineers were engaged in mining, thus securing an open road to Cawnpore. The rebels were driven off after a short engagement.
  
1857  
Battle of Maharajpur (Cawnpore ) drawn battle victory
Fought July 16, 1857, between 5,000 rebels, under the Nana Sahib, and the British relieving force, under Havelock. The Nana was entrenched across the Grand Trunk Road, and his position being too strong for a frontal attack, Havelock turned his left flank. After severe fighting the rebels were defeated, though Havelock was left with only 800 Europeans available for further service. On the following day Cawnpore was re-occupied.
  
1857  
Battle of Arrah (Cawnpore ) British victory
A house in Arrah was, in 1857, defended by Mr. Boyle, with 16 Englishmen and 60 Sikh police, against the attacks of three revolted native regiments, led by a Zemindar named Kur Singh. This small garrison held out from July 25 till August 3, when they were relieved by a small field force under Major Vincent Eyre.
  
1857  
Battle of Bithur (Cawnpore ) British victory
Fought August 16, 1857, when 4,000 mutineers, strongly posted, were attacked and routed by the relieving force under General Havelock. When driven from their position, the rebels had to cross a stream in their rear by a small bridge, and had Havelock possessed an adequate cavalry force, but few could have escaped.
  
1857  
Battle of Pandu Naddi (Cawnpore ) British victory
Fought November 26, 1857, between 1,400 British, under General Windham, and the advance guard of the mutineers and the Gwalior contingent, under the Nana Sahib. The rebels were posted beyond the river, and the British crossing the dry bed, drove them from their entrenchments, capturing 3 guns. Windham, then finding himself close to the main body of mutineers, retired towards Cawnpore.
  
1857  
Battle of Cawnpur (Delhi ) British victory
Fought December 6, 1857, between the British under Sir Colin Campbell, and 25,000 rebels, including the Gwalior contingent. The mutineers were routed at all points, and fled, pursued by the cavalry for 14 miles, suffering heavy loss. Out of 36 guns, 32 were captured. The British lost 99 only.
  
1857  
Siege of Lucknow (Lucknow ) British victory
On the approach of the rebel Sepoy army, July 1, 1857, the garrison and residents took refuge in the Residency, which had been prepared to stand a siege. On September 19, 1857, a force of 3,179 British troops, under Havelock and Outram, left Cawnpore to relieve the garrison. On the 23rd they encountered and defeated a force of 12,000 rebels at the Alumbagh, capturing 5 guns. On the 25th they forced the Charbagh bridge, and captured the Secunderbagh, and the main body, after prolonged street fighting, reached the Residency, the rearguard with the wounded getting in on the 26th. The loss during the operations amounted to 535, while the garrison up to this time had lost 483 killed and wounded, Outram now took command and the garrison held out until November 19, when it was relieved, after very heavy fighting, by a column under Sir Colin-Campbell, and the whole force withdrawn. On March 1, 1858, the recovery of the city from the rebels commenced by the capture of the Alumbagh, and was completed on the 21st, when the mutineers were finally driven from the place. During the interval the various fortresses and palaces held by the rebels were successively carried by assault, the fighting in many cases being exceedingly severe.
  
1857  
Battle of Onao (Lucknow ) British victory
Fought July 28, 1857, between Havelock's relieving force, 1,500 strong, and the rebels, who occupied a strong position near Onao, so protected on the flanks that a frontal attack was necessary. This was successful, and after the town had been passed, a further attack by the mutineers was repulsed, with a loss of 300 men and 15 guns.
  
1857  
Battle of Secunderbagh (Lucknow ) British victory
Fought November 16, 1857, during the second relief of Lucknow, by Sir Colin Campbell. The Secunderbagh, a walled enclosure of strong masonry, held by a large body of rebels, was, after a bombardment of about an hour and a half, taken by storm by the 93rd Highlanders and the 4th Punjabis, with very heavy loss to the enemy, over 2,000 dead bodies being afterwards carried out of the enclosure.
  
1857  
Battle of Goraria (Lucknow ) British victory
Fought November 23 and 24, 1857, between a British column, about 3,000 strong, under Brigadier Stuart, and a body of 5,000 rebels. The mutineers occupied a strong position, and the British were unable to dislodge them on the 23rd. On the following day the attack was renewed, and the rebels were driven out and dispersed, with a loss of over 1,500.
  
1858  
Battle of Musa Bagh (Danish Invasion ) British victory
Fought March 19, 1858, when a British force, under Sir James Outram, totally routed a body of mutineers, 7,000 strong, under Huzrat Mahul, Begum of Oude, which was holding the Musa Bagh, a fortified palace in the outskirts of Lucknow.
  
1857  
Battle of Agra (Jansi ) British victory
On August 2, 1857, the British garrison holding Agra sallied out to attack a body of 10,000 rebels encamped within four miles of the city. The Kotah contingent, which formed a portion of the British force, deserted to the mutineers, and the British troops, hard pressed and short of ammunition, were driven back into Agra, and forced to take refuge in the fort. In October of the same year Colonel Greathed's column of four battalions and two cavalry regiments encountered close to Agra a force of 7,000 mutineers. The rebels at first held their own, but were eventually put to flight, and pursued with great slaughter for ten miles.
  
1857  
Battle of Jhansi (Jansi ) British victory
This place, which fell into the hands of the mutineers in June, 1857, was recaptured by Sir Hugh Rose, who invested it in March, 1858, and carried the city by assault, April 2.
  
1858  
Siege of Kotah (Jansi ) British victory
This place, which had been seized by the rebellious troops of the Rajah of Kotah, 5,000 in number, was besieged by General Roberts, March 22, 1858. The Rajah, who held the citadel, joined forces with the British, and after a short bombardment the town was stormed, March 30.
  
1858  
Battle of the Betwa (Jansi ) British victory
Fought April 1, 1858, between 1,200 British under Sir Hugh Rose, forming part of the force besieging Jhansi, and 20,000 rebels, chiefly belonging to the Gwalior contingent, under Tantia Topi. The enemy was thrown into confusion by a charge of cavalry on the flank, and, being then attacked with the bayonet, broke and fled, leaving 1,000 dead on the field and all their guns.
  
1858  
Battle of Azimghur (Jansi ) British victory
Fought April 15, 1858, between a British column, composed of three regiments of infantry and three of Sikh cavalry, under Sir Edward Layard, and the Dinapur mutineers, about 5,000 strong, under Kur Singh. The rebels were routed and dispersed, Kur Singh falling mortally wounded.
  
1858  
Battle of Banda (Jansi ) British victory
Fought April 19, 1858, between a force of rather over 1,000 British troops under General Whitlock, and 7,000 mutineers under the Nawab of Banda. After an obstinate conflict the rebels were totally routed.
  
1858  
Siege of Kalpi (Jansi ) British victory
This town, which had fallen into the hands of the mutineers, was besieged by Sir Hugh Rose, May 19, 1858. The garrison made two ineffectual sorties, in which they were repulsed with heavy loss, and on the 23rd the town was entered without further resistance, the mutineers having fled.
  
1858  
Battle of Gaulauli (Jansi ) British victory
Fought May 22, 1858, between a British column under Sir Hugh Rose, and 20,000 rebels under Tantia Topi, the Ranee of Jhansi, and other rebel leaders. The overwhelming numbers of the rebels at first gave them the advantage, but a bayonet charge broke them, and they fled in disorder with heavy loss. This victory was followed by the recovery of Calpi.
  
1858  
Battle of Gwalior (Lucknow ) British victory
Fought June 17, 18 and 19, 1858, between a British column under Sir Hugh Rose, and a large body of rebels, led by the Ranee of Jhansi in person. On the 17th the mutineers were driven out of the cantonments with heavy loss, while on the following days the important positions in the town were captured in succession, until by the evening of the 19th, the British were in undisputed possession of Gwalior. The Ranee was known to be amongst the slain, though her body was never found.
  

Opium Wars — 1859 to 1883

Britain forces China to open its ports to International trade including opium.



DateBattle Summary
1859  
Battle of Taku Forts (Second ) Chinese victory
Fought June 25, 1859, when an attempt was made by the British to carry the forts at the mouth of the Peiho River. Eleven light-draught gunboats crossed the bar, and tried to silence the batteries, but without success, and at 5 p.m. an attempt was made to carry the defenses by a land attack. A force of 600 marines and blue-jackets, under Captain Vansittart, was landed, but after severe fighting was driven back to the boats, with a loss of 68 killed, and nearly 300 wounded. Six of the gunboats were sunk or disabled, and their crews also suffered heavily.
  
1860  
Battle of Taku Forts (Tongking War ) British victory
On August 21, 1860, a second and successful assault was made on the forts by a force of 11,000 British and 7,000 French troops, under Sir Hope Grant. After a brief bombardment, the small north fort, garrisoned by 500 Chinese, was stormed by 2,500 British, and 400 French, 400 of the garrison falling, while the British lost 21 killed and 184 wounded. In the course of the day the remaining forts surrendered without further fighting.
  

British Conquest of New Zealand — 1864 to 0

British wars with the Maori's of New Zealand.



DateBattle Summary

Kaffir Wars — 1818 to 1852

Expanding British colonies in South Africa conflict with Kaffir tribes North of Cape Town.



DateBattle Summary
1818  
Battle of Amalinde   Ndlambi victory
Fought 1818 between the Gaikas and the forces of Ndlambi, in which the former were utterly routed.
  
1834  
Battle of Grahamstown   Kaffirs victory
Several days before Christmas 10,000 Kaffirs descended on the region surrounding Grahamstown, burned houses and massacred settlers. At least 40 were killed and several thousand made homeless.
  
1846  
Battle of Amatola Mountain   British victory
Fought 1846, between the Kaffirs under Sandilli, and the British and Cape troops under Colonels Campbell and Somerset. Sandilli was totally defeated, but, rallying his forces, he made a successful attack on the British baggage train, the loss of which forced them to retire.
  
1847  
Battle of Burns Hill   Kaffirs victory
Fought 1847, between the Kaffirs under Sandilli, and a small British force sent to arrest that chief. The British were greatly outnumbered, and were defeated and forced to retreat.
  
1852  
Battle of Berea (Franco-Dutch ) drawn battle victory
Fought December 20, 1852, between the British under General Cathcart, about 2,500 strong, and the Basutos, many thousands in number, under Moshesh. The British, after hard fighting, succeeded in holding their ground, but were obliged on the following day to retreat to the entrenched camp on the Caledon, having suffered a loss of 37 killed and 15 wounded.
  

Ashanti Wars — 1824 to 1874

Britain repels the Ashanti tribes' incursions into coastal areas.



DateBattle Summary
1824  
Battle of Accra (First ) Ashanti victory
Fought 1824, between 10,000 Ashantis and a force of 1,000 British under Sir Charles McCarthy. The British were surrounded and routed by the natives, McCarthy being killed.
  
1825  
Battle of Accra (First ) British victory
Fought 1825, between 15,000 Ashantis and 400 British troops, with 4,600 native auxiliaries. The Ashantis were completely defeated, and the king compelled to abandon his designs on Cape Coast Castle.
  
1826  
Battle of Dodowah (First ) British victory
Fought 1826, between the Ashanti army, which had invaded the Gold Coast, and the British under Colonel Purdon. The Ashantis fought bravely, but were routed with heavy loss.
  
1874  
Battle of Amoaful (Second ) British victory
Fought January 31, 1874, when the British expeditionary force under Sir Garnet Wolseley defeated the Ashantis after a desperate resistance, which cost the assailants 16 officers and 174 men killed and wounded. The 42nd Regiment, which led the attack, lost 9 officers and 105 men.
  

Crimean War — 1853 to 1855

Britain and France ally with the Ottomans Turks to foil Russia's invasion of Constantinople.



DateBattle Summary
1853  
Battle of Sinope (Turkey ) Russians victory
Fought 1853, when the Russian fleet attacked the Turkish fleet of 9 sail, lying in the harbour of Sinope. No quarter was given, and the Turkish fleet was totally destroyed. Over 4,000 Turks were killed, and it is said that only 400, almost all wounded, escaped the massacre.
  
1853  
Battle of Oltenitza (Balkan ) Turks victory
Fought 1853, when a Turkish army, superior in numbers, under Omar Pasha, totally defeated the Russian army which had invaded the Danubian Principalities.
  
1853  
Battle of Ostrolenka (Balkan ) Turks victory
Fought 1853, between the Turks, under Omar Pasha, and the Russian army which had invaded the Danubian Principalities. The Turks, who were considerably superior in numbers, gained a complete victory.
  
1854  
Battle of Chetaté (Balkan ) Turks victory
Fought January 6 to 9, 1854. On the 6th the advanced Russian post of 6,000 men at Chetaté under General Fischbuch was attacked by 6,000 Turks under Ahmed Pasha, and after heavy fighting, in which the Russians lost 3,000 killed and wounded, and many prisoners, and the Turks 1,000, was driven out of the village. On the following days the Russians made desperate attempts to recover the position, General Anrep, on the 9th, bringing up some 20,000 men from Cragova. All their efforts, however, failed, and the three days' fighting cost them a further 2,000 men, the Turks losing about 1,000.
  
1854  
Siege of Calafat (Balkan ) Turks victory
This position, strongly entrenched and held by 30,000 Turks under Ahmed Pasha, was invested by the Russians, 40,000 strong, under General Aurep, about the middle of February, 1854. The Russians delivered assault after assault upon the place, without effect, and finally withdrew their forces in May; having suffered a loss from disease, privation, and battle of 20,000 men. The Turks lost 12,000.
  
1854  
Siege of Silistria (Balkan ) Turks victory
This fortress was besieged by the Russians in 1854, and was defended by a Turkish garrison, who received valuable assistance from two English officers, Captain Buller and Lieutenant Nasmyth. Many attempts to storm the place were repulsed, and though no efforts were made to relieve them, the garrison held out until June 22, when the Russians raised the siege, having suffered a loss of over 12,000 men.
  
1854  
Battle of Sveaborg (Baltic ) British victory
The town, which had become an important Russian arsenal, was bombarded by a British fleet, under Admiral Dundas, August 9 to 15, 1854. By the latter date, the arsenal and storehouses had been destroyed, and Dundas withdrew, making no further attempt to destroy the fortifications.
  
1854  
Battle of Alma (Crimea ) British victory
Fought September 20, 1854, between the Russians, 40,000 strong, under Prince Mentschikoff, and the allied British and French armies, 26,000 strong, under Lord Raglan and Marshal St. Arnaud. The bulk of the fighting fell upon the British Second and Light Divisions and the Guards, who carried the heights held by the Russians at the point of the bayonet, and utterly routed them. The Russians lost 1,200 killed, and left 4,700 prisoners, many of them wounded, in the hands of the allies. The British loss amounted to 3,000 killed and wounded; that of the French to 1,000.
  
1854  
Siege of Sebastopol (Crimea ) British victory
This fortress was besieged by the allied French and British armies, under Marshal St. Arnaud and Lord Raglan, September 28, 1854. It was defended by a large force of Russians, under Prince Mentschikoff, with General Todleben as his principal engineer officer. The besiegers were too few for a complete investment, and though the harbour was closed by the British fleet, under Sir Edmund Lyons, the Russians were throughout the siege enabled to obtain reinforcements and provisions from the north side. The batteries opened on October 17, and from that time till September 8, 1855, the town was more or less continuously bombarded. On that day the Malakoff, an important part of the southern defenses, was stormed by the French, and the place became untenable, the allies entering it unopposed on the following day. The Russians, during the later days of the bombardment, are said to have lost as many as 3,000 men a day.
  
1854  
Battle of Balaclava (Crimea ) British victory
Fought October 25, 1854, between 30,000 Russians under Prince Mentschikoff, and the British under Lord Raglan. The Russians, having driven the Turks from their redoubts at Kadikoi, entered the valley of Balaclava, where they were encountered and driven back by the Heavy Cavalry Brigade under General Scarlett. Later in the day, acting under a mistaken order, Lord Cardigan at the head of the Light Brigade, charged the Russian guns at the head of the valley, and captured their batteries. Being, however, shelled from all sides, he was compelled to retire with heavy loss. Of this famous feat of arms, General Pelissier is reported to have said, "C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas la guerre." Another feature of this singular battle was the repulse by the Highland Brigade, in line, of a charge of the Russian cavalry. The British losses were small, except in the case of the Light Brigade, whose casualties amounted to 272 out of 673 who took part in the charge.
  
1854  
Battle of Inkerman (Crimea ) British victory
Fought November 5, 1854, when 50,000 Russians, under Prince Mentschikoff, attacked the British position at Inkerman, held by about 8,000 troops. There was a dense fog, and the battle was chiefly a series of detached hand-to-hand combats some of the most serious fighting being round the Sandbag Battery, where the Russians lost 1,200 killed. At 10 o'clock, the French arrived on the scene, and the Russians were soon in full retreat, having suffered very heavy loss.
  
1855  
Battle of Tchernaya (Crimea ) French victory
Fought August 16, 1855, between three Russian divisions, under General Gortschakoff, and three French and one Sardinian division, under General Marmora. The Russians attacked the allies' position on the Tchernaya, and after severe fighting, were repulsed with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded. The allies lost 1,200.
  
1855  
Battle of Malakoff (Crimea ) French victory
This fort, forming an important part of the southern defenses of Sebastopol, was stormed by 30,000 French, under General Pelissier, September 8, 1855. The Russians being taken by surprise, made but a feeble resistance.
  
1855  
Battle of Redan (Crimea ) British victory
This fort, forming part of the southern defenses of Sebastopol, was attacked by the British Second and Light Divisions, September 8, 1855. The ramparts were stormed, but the assailants were unable to make good their footing, and were eventually repulsed with heavy loss. The fall of the Malakoff, however, rendered the southern side of Sebastopol untenable, and the Russians retired during the night. The British losses amounted to 2,184 killed and wounded.
  
1855  
Siege of Kars (Turkey ) Russians victory
This fortress, held by a Turkish garrison under General Williams, was besieged by the Russians in the course of the Crimean war. The place was most gallantly defended. But was finally forced by famine to capitulate, November, 1855.
  

Arabi's Rebellion — 1882 to 1882

Britain comes to the aid of a faltering Egyptian government beset by a rebellion.



DateBattle Summary
1882  
Battle of Alexandria   British victory
Arabi Pasha having refused to cease work upon the forts of Alexandria, the Admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour, who had under his command a fleet of 8 battleships and 5 gun-boats, decided to shell them. He opened fire on the morning of July 11, 1882, and the bombardment continued till the evening of the 12th, when the forts were totally destroyed, and the garrison abandoned the city. The gunboat Condor, under Lord Charles Beresford, particularly distinguished herself, running close in under the forts, and doing considerable damage.
  
1882  
Battle of Tel-el-Mahuta   British victory
Fought August 24, 1882, when the Egyptians attempted to oppose the march of the British advance guard, under General Graham, to Kassassin. They made, however, but a feeble resistance, and were driven off with heavy loss.
  
1882  
Battle of Kassassin   British victory
Fought August 28, 1882, between the British, under General Graham, and the Egyptians, under Arabi Pasha. Arabi attacked the British position, Graham remaining on the defensive throughout the day, but towards evening he launched his heavy cavalry, under Sir Baker Russell, against the enemy, who broke and fled. The British losses were only 11 killed and 68 wounded.
  
1882  
Battle of Tel-el-Kebir   British victory
Fought September 13, 1882, when the British, 17,000 strong, under Lord Wolseley, after a night march across the desert, attacked and stormed Arabi's entrenchments, which were defended by 22,000 Egyptians. The British lost 339 killed and wounded, the Egyptian loss was very heavy.
  

Soudan Campaign — 1883 to 1904

Egypt and Britain fight the Mahdi rebels who had taken over Soudan.



DateBattle Summary
1883  
Battle of Kashgal (First ) Madhists victory
On November 3, 1883, an Egyptian force, 11,000 strong, under Hicks Pasha, with several British officers, was led by a treacherous guide into a defile, where they were attacked by the Mahdists, and after fighting for three days, were massacred almost to a man.
  
1884  
Battle of El Teb (First ) Madhists victory
Fought February 4, 1884, when a column of 3,500 Egyptian troops under Baker Pasha, marching to relieve Sinkat, was overwhelmed, and practically annihilated by 12,000 Soudanese under Osman Digna. The Egyptians lost 2,360 killed and wounded.
  
1884  
Battle of Tamai (First ) British victory
Fought March 13, 1884, when 4,000 British, under General Graham, attacked and defeated the Mahdists, under Osman Digna, destroying their camp. The British fought in two squares, one of which was momentarily broken by the Mahdists, who captured the naval guns. The second square, however, moved up in support, and the Mahdists were repulsed and the guns recovered. The British lost 10 officers and 204 men killed and wounded; the Dervishes over 2,000 killed.
  
1884  
Battle of Trinkitat (First ) British victory
Fought March 29, 1884, when the British, 4,000 strong, under General Graham, totally defeated 6,000 Mahdists, under Osman Digna, after five hours' severe fighting. The British casualties amounted to 189 killed and wounded; the Mahdists lost about 2,000. This action is also known as the Battle of El Teb.
  
1884  
Battle of Khartoum (First ) Madhists victory
This city, defended by an Egyptian garrison under General Gordon, was invested by the Mahdi in the early part of 1884, and, after a gallant defense, was stormed January 26, 1885. The forerunners of the relieving force, consisting of the river gunboats under Lord Charles Beresford, arrived off the city on the 28th, two days too late, and after a brief engagement with the Mahdist batteries, returned down the river.
  
1885  
Battle of Abu Klea (First ) British victory
Fought January 17, 1885, between a British force, 1,500 strong, under Sir Herbert Stewart, and 12,000 Mahdists, of whom about 5,000 actually attacked. The British square was broken at one corner, owing to the jamming of a Gardner gun, and the Mahdists forcing their way inside, a desperate hand-to-hand conflict followed. Eventually the assailants were driven off, and the square reformed. The British loss was 18 officers, among them Colonel Fred. Burnaby, and 150 men. In the immediate vicinity of the square, 1,100 Arab dead were counted.
  
1885  
Battle of Abu Kru (First ) British victory
Fought January 19, 1885, between 1,200 British troops under Sir Herbert Stewart, and a large force of Mahdists. The Mahdists attacked a short distance from the Nile, and the British square moved towards the river, repelling all assaults successfully till they reached the Nile. The British losses were 121, including Sir Herbert Stewart, mortally wounded. This action is also known as the battle of Gubat.
  
1885  
Battle of Kirbekan (First ) British victory
Fought February 10, 1885, when the British, about 1,000 strong, under General Earle, stormed the heights of Kirbekan, which were held by a strong Mahdist force, and totally routed them, with heavy loss. The British lost 60, among whom was General Earle, killed.
  
1885  
Battle of Hashin (First ) British victory
Fought March 20, 1885, when 8,000 British troops, under General Graham, defeated a detachment of Osman Digna's army, inflicting upon them a loss of about 1,000 killed. The British lost 48 killed and wounded.
  
1885  
Battle of Tofrek (Second ) British victory
Fought March 22, 1885, when General McNeill, with 3 battalions of Indian, and 1 1/2 of British troops, was surprised in his zariba, by about 5,000 Mahdists. One of the native regiments broke and fled, but the Berkshires and Marines, made a gallant defense, though the zariba was forced, as did the other native regiments. After twenty minutes' fighting the attack was beaten off, the Mahdists leaving 1,500 dead on the field. The British lost 294 combatants and 176 camp-followers, killed, wounded and missing.
  
1893  
Battle of Agordat (Second ) Italians victory
Fought December 21, 1893, between 2,200 Italians, and native troops, under General Arimondi, and 11,500 Mahdists under Ahmed Ali, who had invaded Italian territory. The Mahdists were routed with a loss of about 3,000 men. The Italians lost 13, and 225 natives killed and wounded.
  
1896  
Battle of Ferkeh (Second ) Egyptians victory
Fought June 7, 1896, between 9,500 Egyptian troops, with a British horse battery, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 4,000 Mahdists under the Emir Hamada. Kitchener, by a night march, surprised the Mahdists in their camp, and after two hours' fighting, drove them out with a loss of 1,500 killed and 500 prisoners. Of 62 Emirs present in the camp, 44 fell and four were captured. The Egyptians lost 20 killed and 81 wounded.
  
1897  
Battle of Abu Hamed (Second ) Egyptians victory
Fought August 7, 1897, when the Dervish entrenchments outside Abu Hamed were stormed by a Soudanese Brigade, with 2 guns Royal Artillery, under Major-General Hunter. The Mahdist garrison was driven through the town, losing heavily, and their commander, Mohammed Zain, captured. The Egyptian loss was 80 killed and wounded, including 4 British officers.
  
1898  
Battle of Atbara (Second ) British-Egyptians victory
Fought April 8, 1898, between the British and Egyptian army, 14,000 strong, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 18,000 Mahdists under Mahmad. The Mahdists occupied an entrenched zareeba on the Atbara, where they were attacked and utterly routed, with a loss in the zareeba of 5,000 killed and 1,000 prisoners, while many more fell in the pursuit. Mahmad was captured. The Anglo-Egyptian losses were 570 killed and wounded, including 29 British officers.
  
1898  
Battle of Omdurman (Somali Expedition ) British-Egyptians victory
Fought September 2, 1898, between the British and Egyptians, 23,000 strong, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 50,000 Dervishes, under the Khalifa. The Dervishes attacked the British zareba, and were repulsed with heavy loss. Kitchener then advanced, to drive the enemy before him into Omdurman, and capture the place. In the course of the operation, however, the Egyptian Brigade on the British right, under General Macdonald, became isolated, and was attacked in front by the centre of the Dervish army, while his flank and rear were threatened by the Dervish left, which had not previously been engaged. The position was critical, but through the extreme steadiness of the Soudanese, who changed front under heavy fire, the attack was repulsed. The British and Egyptian losses were 500 killed and wounded. The Dervishes lost about 15,000.
  
1904  
Battle of Jidballi (cuba ) British victory
Fought January 10, 1904, between the Somalis, 5,000 strong, and a small British and native force, under Sir Charles Egerton. The Somalis' camp was attacked, and after a brisk action they were driven out and pursued by the cavalry for twelve miles, losing 1,000 killed in the fight and pursuit. The British losses were very small.
  

Zulu Wars — 1838 to 1879

Britain suffers a massacre at the hands of the Zulus but eventually prevails against the tribe.



DateBattle Summary
1838  
Battle of Blood River   Boers victory
Fought December 16, 1838, between the Boers of the Transvaal, and the Zulus under Dingaan. The Zulus were totally routed, with heavy loss. The Boer losses were small.
  
1879  
Battle of Isandhlwana   Zulus victory
Fought January 22, 1879, when six companies of the 24th Regiment, with two guns and a small force of Natal volunteers, under Colonel Durnford, were overwhelmed and massacred by the Zulus, under Matyana. Of the regulars, 26 officers and 600 men were killed, in addition to 24 officers, and a large number of men in the Colonial force.
  
1879  
Battle of Rorke's Drift   British victory
On the night of January 22, 1879, after the disaster of Isandhlwana, this outpost, held by a company of the 24th Regiment and details, in all 139 men, under Lieutenants Bromhead and Chard, R.E., was attacked by a force of Zulus, estimated at 4,000. After a most heroic defense, in which many acts of heroism were performed, especially in the removal of the sick from the hospital, which was fired by the Zulus, the assailants were beaten off, leaving over 400 dead on the field. The little garrison lost 25 killed and wounded. Eight Victoria Crosses and nine Distinguished Conduct medals were awarded for this affair.
  
1879  
Battle of Inhlobane Mountain   Zulus victory
Fought March 28, 1879, when a British force of 1,300 men, under Colonels Buller and Russell, attacked a strong Zulu kraal, and after severe fighting, were repulsed with considerable loss.
  
1879  
Battle of Kambula   British victory
Fought March 29, 1879, when Colonel Wood, with 2,000 British and native auxiliaries, was attacked in his lager by three Zulu impi. The Zulus were repulsed with very heavy loss, and pursued for seven miles. The British lost 81 killed and wounded. The defeat practically broke Cetewayo's power.
  
1879  
Battle of Ulundi   British victory
The last battle of the war, fought August, 1879, between 5,000 British, under Lord Chelmsford, and about 20,000 Zulus. The Zulus were routed with a loss of over 1,500, the British losing only 15 killed and 78 wounded.
  

Boer Wars — 1848 to 1900

Dutch Boers attempt to maintain their independence from British Imperial control.



DateBattle Summary
1848  
Battle of Boomplaats (Boomplaats ) British victory
Fought August 29, 1848, between the British, 500 strong, with 250 Griquas, under Sir Harry Smith, and a force of 1,000 Transvaal Boers under Commandant Jan Kock. The British stormed the Boer position and drove out the defenders, at a cost of 22 killed and 38 wounded. The Boers stated their losses at 5 killed and 9 wounded.
  
1880  
Battle of Bronkhorst Spruit (First ) Boers victory
The opening engagement of the war, when, on December 20, 1880, a British column, 259 strong, under Colonel Anstruther, was ambushed by 150 mounted Boers under Joubert, and defeated with a loss of 155 killed and wounded. The Boers stated their losses at 2 killed and 5 wounded only.
  
1881  
Battle of Lang's Nek (First ) Boers victory
Fought January 28, 1881, when a British column, 1,100 strong, under General Colley, attacked the Boers in a strong position at Lang's Nek. The British were repulsed with a loss of 198 killed and wounded. The Boers lost 14 killed and 27 wounded.
  
1881  
Battle of Ingogo (First ) Boers victory
Fought February 8, 1881 when a small British column, consisting of 5 companies of infantry, 4 guns, and a small mounted force, attacked the Boer position, and were repulsed with a loss of 139 killed and wounded. The Boers admitted a loss of 14 only.
  
1881  
Battle of Majuba (First ) Boers victory
Fought February 27, 1881, when a British column, 647 strong, under Sir George Colley, posted on the summit of Majuba Hill, was attacked and driven off by the Boers under General Joubert. A strong party of young Boers stormed the hill while the fire of the defenders was kept down by a picked body of marksmen, and the British were driven from their position with heavy loss, especially during the retirement down the hillside. The casualties amounted to 223 killed and wounded, Sir George Colley being killed, and 50 prisoners. The Boer losses were very small. After this disaster an armistice was agreed to, and peace soon afterwards concluded.
  
1899  
Siege of Mafeking (Second ) British victory
This small township, entirely destitute of regular defenses, was invested October, 1899, by a force of 5,000 Boers, under General Cronje, and defended by a garrison of about 700 irregulars and armed townsmen, under Colonel Baden-Powell. Later in the siege Cronje withdrew a large part of his force, leaving about 2,000 under Snyman to prosecute the siege. Though the bombardment was continuous, only one resolute attempt was made to penetrate the defenses; when on May 12, 1900, 300 Boers, under Sarel Eloff, succeeded in getting within the lines, but were surrounded and forced to surrender. On May 17, the place was relieved by a cavalry column under Colonel Mahon. The garrison lost 293, the Boers about 1,000, in the course of the siege.
  
1899  
Siege of Kimberley (Second ) British victory
This town, defended by a garrison of 4,000 (including armed townsmen) under Colonel Kekewich, was besieged October 15, 1899, by the Boers, under Commandant Wessels, and later under General Cronje. It withstood a severe and continuous bombardment till February 15, 1900, when it was relieved by a force of cavalry, 5,000 strong, under General French. The losses of the garrison during the siege amounted to 18 officers and 163 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Dundee (Second ) British victory
Fought October 20, 1899, between 4,000 Boers, under General Lucas Meyer, and a British force of equal strength, under General Symons. The Boers occupied a strong position on the heights of Dundee, from which they were dislodged by the British infantry, with a loss of about 300. The British lost 19 officers, 142 men killed and wounded, and 331 prisoners, the latter a detachment of cavalry and mounted infantry, who were surrounded by a superior force of Boers, and surrendered. General Symons was mortally wounded. The action is also called the battle of Talana Hill.
  
1899  
Battle of Elandslaagte (Second ) British victory
Fought October 21, 1899, between a strong Boer force under General Koch, and 3 battalions and 5 squadrons of British troops, with 12 guns, under General French. The Boers occupied a strong position, on high ground near the Ladysmith-Dundee railway, from which they were driven by the infantry and Imperial Light Horse (dismounted) with a loss of 250 killed and wounded, and 200 prisoners, including Koch. The British lost 35 officers and 219 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Rietfontein (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought October 24, 1899, between 4,000 British, under Sir George White, and the Free Staters, who were advancing to interrupt the retreat of Colonel Yule from Dundee. The enemy occupied a range of hills about seven miles from Ladysmith, where they were attacked by White. After an indecisive action the British retired to Ladysmith, with a loss of 111 killed and wounded, but the object aimed at was attained, for the Boers were prevented from interfering with Colonel Yule's march.
  
1899  
Battle of Farquhar's Farm (Second ) Boers victory
Fought October 29, 1899, between the main Boer army, under Joubert, and the garrison of Ladysmith, under Sir George White. The Boer position covered about eight miles, and White attacked in three columns, one of which, detached to the left to hold a position at Nicholson's Nek, was overwhelmed and surrendered. The Boers meanwhile developed a strong attack against the British right, and White, having no guns capable of coping with the heavy Boer ordnance, ordered a retreat. This was effected in good order, and was greatly aided by the opportune arrival of two heavy naval guns, under Captain Hedworth Lambton. The British lost 317 killed and wounded, and 1,068 missing. The Boer losses are unknown, but were certainly small.
  
1899  
Siege of Ladysmith (Second ) British victory
Sir George White, with about 12,000 troops, was shut up in Ladysmith by the invading army, under General Joubert, November 2, 1899. The Boers, who were well provided with heavy guns, contented themselves in the main with a continuous bombardment. On January 6, 1900, however, a picked force, under Commandant de Villiers, supported by several thousand Boer marksmen posted on the heights, made attempt to force the British lines at Waggon Hill and Caesar's Camp. The battle lasted throughout the day, and more than once the defenders were very hard pressed, but they held their ground till nightfall, when the Boers withdrew, having lost about 800 men. From this date the Boers again contented themselves with bombarding the town, until it was finally relieved by Sir Redvers Buller, February 27. In addition to deaths by disease, the garrison lost during the siege 89 officers and 805 men, more than half of whom fell in the battle of January 6.
  
1899  
Battle of Spion Kop (Second ) Boers victory
General Buller's second attempt to break through the Boer lines on the Tugela, and relieve Ladysmith, is known by this name. The operations commenced on the 19th, 24,000 men being employed. On that day Sir Charles Warren's division commenced to turn the Boer right, and gradually drove them from ridge to ridge till the evening of the 22nd, when by a night surprise, Spion Kop, the centre of the position, was seized. It was, however, found impossible to get artillery up the steep slopes, and the brigade holding the hill lost about a third of their strength in the course of the 23rd, including the Brigadier, General Woodgate. At nightfall, Colonel Thorneycroft, who had been appointed to the command, abandoned the hill, and on the following day General Buller decided to recross the Tugela. The British losses during the operations amounted to 87 officers and 1,647 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Belmont (Second ) British victory
Fought November 23, 1899, between a Boer commando, about 3,000 strong, occupying a strong position on the hills near Belmont, and Lord Methuen's division of 71 battalions of infantry and a regiment of cavalry. The Boer position was carried by a frontal attack, which cost the assailants 28 officers and 270 men. The Boers lost about 300 killed and wounded, and 50 prisoners.
  
1899  
Battle of Graspan (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought November 25, 1899, between Lord Methuen's division, with a naval brigade, 400 strong, and a Boer commando of about 2,500 men. The Boers occupied a strong position, the key of which, a high kopje, was attacked in front and flank, and carried, with a loss of 9 officers and 185 men. The marines, who numbered 200, lost 3 officers and 86 men of this total. The Boers lost about 100. This is also called the battle of Enslin.
  
1899  
Battle of Modder River (Second ) British victory
Fought November 28, 1899, between a Boer force, about 9,000 strong, under General Cronje, and the British, under Lord Methuen. Cronje held a strong position on both banks of the river, which was not accurately known to Lord Methuen, who was marching to the Modder. His columns came under fire about 7 a.m., and the action lasted till evening, when a turning movement enabled him to drive Cronje from his entrenchments. The British losses were 24 officers and 461 men killed and wounded, those of the Boers being about the same.
  
1899  
Battle of Stormberg (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 10, 1899, when General Gatacre, with about 3,000 men, made a night march to attack the Boer position at Stormberg. He was misled by his guides, and came unexpectedly under a heavy Boer fire. The position was too strong to carry, and Gatacre was forced to retire, with a loss of 89 killed and wounded, and 633 prisoners.
  
1899  
Battle of Magersfontein (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 11, 1899, between 9,000 Boers, under General Cronje, and Lord Methuen's division, with the addition of the Highland Brigade. Cronje's position was exceedingly strong, and an attempt to turn it by a flank march undertaken at night led to a disaster to the Highland brigade, who came under a heavy fire before they were extended, and lost 57 officers and over 700 men, including their brigadier, General Wauchope. Eventually the attacking force was withdrawn, without having made any impression on the Boer position. The total British losses were 68 officers and 1,011 men. The Boers admitted a loss of 320, but it was probably considerably heavier.
  
1899  
Battle of Colenso (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 15, 1899, being the first action in Sir Redvers Buller's campaign for the relief of Ladysmith. Buller attempted to carry by a frontal attack the Boer position on the opposite side of the Tugela, and notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, was compelled to retire, with a loss of 71 officers and 1,055 rank and file. Of this total the Irish Brigade lost about half. The Boers captured 10 guns.
  
1900  
Battle of Vaalkranz (Second ) Boers victory
General Buller's third attempt to pierce the Boer lines on the Tugela. On February 5, 1900, he seized Vaalkranz, under cover of a feint attack at Brakfontein towards the Boer right. The hill was held by a brigade during the 6th and 7th, but finding further progress impossible, Buller again recrossed the Tugela. The British losses amounted to 374 killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Paardeberg (Second ) British victory
Fought February 18, 1900, between 5,000 Boers, under Cronje, and the British, numbering 4 Infantry Brigades, with 4 batteries, under Lord Kitchener. Cronje had taken refuge in the bed of the Tugela river, and an attempt was made to dislodge him. The absence of cover for the attacking force, however, rendered this impossible, but he was surrounded, and on the arrival of Lord Roberts, subjected to a sustained artillery fire, which lasted until he surrendered on the 27th. The British losses during the operations amounted to 98 officers and 1,437 men, of whom 1,100 fell in the battle of the 18th. The prisoners taken numbered 3,000 Transvaalers and 1,100 Free Staters, with 6 guns.
  
1900  
Battle of Pieter's Hill (Second ) British victory
The scene of the severest fighting in the course of Sir Redvers Buller's final and successful attempt to relieve Ladysmith. The operations commenced by the capture of Hlangwane, on February 19, 1900, which gave the British command of the Tugela, which was crossed on the 21st. On the 22nd a steady advance was made up to the line of Pieter's Hill, which was attacked by the Irish Brigade, under General Hart, on the 23rd. At a cost of nearly half their numbers, they succeeded in establishing themselves under cover, close to the Boer trenches, but could not dislodge the defenders. It was not till the 27th, when Buller had turned the Boer left, that a general assault was successful, and the Boers evacuated the position. The British losses during the operations were 1,896 killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Driefontein (Second ) British victory
Fought March 10, 1900, between the Boer Army covering Bloemfontein, under de Wet, and the British under Lord Roberts. The Boers occupied a position about seven miles in extent, which was attacked in front by Kelly-Kenny's division, and on the left flank by that of Tucker. The Boers were driven out and the road to Bloemfontein opened, at a cost to the British of 424 killed and wounded. The Boers left over 100 dead on the field.
  
1900  
Battle of Karee (Second ) British victory
Fought March 29, 1900, when a Boer force holding a line of hills about eighteen miles north of Bloemfontein were driven from their entrenchments by a British division under General Tucker. The British lost 10 officers and 172 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Sanna's Post (Second ) Boers victory
Fought March 31, 1900, when a force of cavalry, with 2 R.H.A. batteries and a considerable convoy, under Colonel Broadwood, was ambushed by a party of Boers, under De Wet, while crossing a donga. The guns were just entering the donga when the Boers opened fire, and 4 guns of Q battery succeeded in getting clear and opening fire, stuck to their work till only 10 men of the battery were left standing. Broadwood succeeded in extricating his force, but at a cost of 19 officers and 136 men killed and wounded, 426 prisoners, 7 guns, and the whole of his convoy. General Colville's column was within a few miles, but though the firing was heard, he failed to relieve. This is also known as the action of Kornspruit.
  
1900  
Battle of Reddersberg (Second ) Boers victory
Fought April 3, 1900, when 5 companies of British infantry were surrounded by a force of Boers, with 5 guns, and after holding out for twenty-four hours, were compelled by want of water to surrender, having lost 4 officers and 43 men killed and wounded. The prisoners numbered 405.
  
1900  
Siege of Wepener (Second ) British victory
This place was invested by a strong force of Boers, under De Wet, April 9, 1900, and was defended by 1,700 men of the Colonial Division, under Colonel Dalgety. Notwithstanding the Boer's great preponderance in artillery, and a succession of bold assaults on the trenches, the garrison held out gallantly till April 25, when they were relieved by General Rundle, having lost 300 killed and wounded in the course of the operations.
  
1900  
Siege of Lindley (Second ) Boers victory
At this place a force of 500 yeomanry, under Colonel Spragge, after holding out for four days against a largely superior Boer force, surrendered May 27, 1900.
  
1900  
Battle of Senekal (Second ) Boers victory
Fought May 29, 1900, when a British force, under General Rundle, attacked the Boers, strongly posted on the Biddulphsberg. The attack was made amidst great bush fires, in which many of the wounded perished, and was unsuccessful, the British losses amounting to 7 officers and 177 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Diamond Hill (Second ) British victory
Fought June 11 and 12, 1900, when General Botha, with the main Boer army of 15,000 men, strongly entrenched about 15 miles from Pretoria, was attacked by Lord Roberts with 17,000 men and 70 guns, and driven from his position. The Boer lines were so extended that three distinct actions were in progress at the same time. The British lost 25 officers and 137 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Elands River (Second ) drawn battle victory
On August 4, 1900, a force of 400 Australians, under Colonel Hore, were surrounded by 2,500 Boers, with 6 guns. The Australians occupied an exposed kopje, with no water nearer than the river half-a-mile away. Their maxim became unserviceable, an attempt by General Canington to relieve them failed, and so severe was the Boer fire that, in 11 days, 1,800 shells fell within their lines. They held out, however, till August 15, when they were relieved by Lord Kitchener, having lost 75 killed and wounded, and nearly all their horses.
  
1900  
Battle of Dalmanutha (Second ) British victory
Fought August 21 to 28, 1900, when the position of the Boers from Belfast to Machadodorp covering the Delagoa Bay Railway, and extending over a line 30 miles long, was attacked on the west by Lord Roberts, and on the south by Sir Redvers Buller, On the 28th Buller entered Machadodorp, by which time the Boers, who were under General Botha, had been driven from all their positions. Kruger at once fled to Delagoa Bay. The British loss in the four days amounted to about 500.