Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. — George Orwell

Wars and Battles of Spain,
Mexico, and South America

Click on red links to see detailed descriptions of Spanish and Spanish Empire wars.
Click on light blue links for lists of battles. Key historical battles are indicated in blue.
Most of the battle summaries listed below are taken from
Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1904.
 
Wars of Early SpainWars of Modern Spain
Conquest of Hispania 215-28 B.C.     Battles       Conquest of Indochina 1502-1739     Battles      
Visigoth Wars 251-410     Battles       Wars of Italy 1495-1559     Battles      
Moorish Conquest 711-732     Battles       Barbary Pirate Wars 1500-1830     Battles      
Moorish Empire Wars 800-1344     Battles       Revolt of the Netherlands 1566-1609     Battles      
Reconquista 717-1492     Battles       Anglo Spanish Wars 1587-1660     Battles      
Castilian Wars 1054-1474     Battles       Spanish Successsion 1701-1714     Battles      
Conquest of Granada 1482-1498     Battles       Peninsular War 1808-1814     Battles      
Wars of Mexico Carlist Wars 1836-1872     Battles      
Conquest of Mexico 1519-1521     Battles       Spanish American War 1898     Battles      
Mexican Independence1810-1821     Battles       Spanish Civil War 1936-1939     Battles      
Texas Revolt 1835-1836     Battles       Wars of South America
Mexican American War 1846-1848     Battles       Conquest of Peru 1526-1546     Battles      
Mexican War of Reform 1857-1861     Battles       Raids of the Buccaneers 1670-1687     Battles      
Franco Mexican War 1862-1867     Battles       South American Revolution 1813-1826     Battles      
Mexican Revolution 1910-1921     Battles       Paraguayan War 1865-1877     Battles      

The Wars of Mexico and South America are irregular and difficult to follow. This is because the politics of the region are complicated and often misrepresented in Latin American histories. A much better inquiry into South American wars would be worthwhile, but reliable resources are lacking.

Roman Conquest of Hispania — 215 to 28 B.C.

Roman wars of conquest in Hispania



DateBattle Summary
218 BC  
Battle of Cissna (Second-Iberia ) Romans victory
Fouth B.C. 218 between 22,000 Romans under Gnaeus Scipio, and 10,000 Carthagians under Hanno. Scipio landed a force north of the Elbro river in order to prevent Carthage from sending reinforcements from Spain over the Alps. Hanno gave battle, and was routed, losing most of his army.
  
217 BC  
Battle of Ebro River (Second-Iberia ) Romans victory
This naval battle was fought in B.C. 217 at the mouth of the Ebro River between a Carthage fleet of 40 quinqueremes under Himilco, and a Roman fleet of 55 under Gnaeus Scipio. The Romans won a decisive victory.
  
215 BC  
Battle of Dertosa (Second-Iberia ) Romans victory
Fought in the spring of B.C. 215 between 33,000 Romans under Gnaeus Scipio, and 29,000 Carthagians under Hasdrubal Barca. After a pitched battle with heavy losses on both sides, Scipio drove Hasdrubal out of the region south of the Ebro.
  
211 BC  
Battle of Upper Baetis (Second-Iberia ) Carthagians victory
In the years leading up to this battle, Rome, lead by the Scipio brothers, Gnaeus and Publius, had secured a strong front in the Ebro valley, but Carthage, under Hasdrubal still held sway in the south. The Scipios hired 20,000 Celt-Iberian mercenaries and went to meet Hasdrubal at his stronghold near the Baetis River. The Scipios split their armies and fought two battles. The Romans under Publius Scipio met the Spaniards under Indibilius at the Battle of Castulo, and held the advantage until the arrival of Masanissa and his Numedian horsemen put the Romans to rout, and Publius was killed. A few days later, the Celt-Iberian mercenaries deserted Gnaeus and he was overwhelmed and killed at the Battle of Llorca.
  
209 BC  
Siege of Nova Carthago (Second-Iberia ) Romans victory
This city, defended by a small Carthaginian garrison, under Mago, was stormed by 27,500 Romans, under Scipio, B.C. 209.
  
208 BC  
Battle of Baecula (Second-Iberia ) Romans victory
Fought 208 B.C. between 35,000 Romans under Scipio Africanus, and 25,000 Carthagians and Spaniards under Hasdrubal Barca. In his first engagement in a pitched battle after taking possession of Novo Carthago, Scipio Africanus routed the Carthagians, killing 6,000 and taking 10,000 captive. Hasdrubal, however, escaped.
  
206 BC  
Battle of Elinga (Second-Sicily ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 206, between 74,000 Carthaginians, under Hanno, and 48,000 Romans under Scipio Africanus. The battle was fought on the open plain in front of Hanno's camp, and resulted in a complete victory for the Romans. This battle, which is also known as the battle of Silpia, ended the Carthaginian domination in Spain.
  
195 BC  
Battle of Emporia (Armagnac War ) Romans victory
Fought B.C. 195 between 40,000 coastal tribes in rebellion, and a much smaller Roman force under Marcus Cato. Cato dismissed his ships, telling his troops that if they failed in battle, there would be no safety in defeat. After a hard fought battle, the Romans prevailed, and slaughter many of the rebels. Cato then sent a message to all of the towns in the region telling them to tear down their walls, which they did.
  
179 BC  
Siege of Caravis (Celtiberian Wars ) Romans victory
This city was besieged in B.C. 179 by 20,000 Celtiberians. A roman army, led by Tiberius Gracchus (the elder) arrived to its relief, having first sent a scout through the enemy's camp to inform the town that relief was on its way.
  
153 BC  
Battle of Segeda (Celtiberian Wars ) drawn battle victory
When the Belli began fortifications of the city of Segeda, an army of 30,000 Romans, under Quitus Fulvius Nobilior was sent against it. A force of 20,000 Belli and their Aravaci allies, under Carus set and ambush and fell upon the Romans, killing 6,000. The Roman horsemen however, recovered and killed Carus, also killing 6,000 Spaniards.
  
142 BC  
Siege of Numantia (Sertorian War ) Romans victory
This city, defended by the inhabitants under Megaravicus, was besieged B.C. 142 by a Roman consular army. In the course of 141 the Romans were twice defeated under the walls, and though negotiations for a surrender were entered into in the following year, they were not concluded, and in 139 the new Roman commander, Popilius Laenas, refused to ratify the terms. Shortly afterwards he was again defeated by the Numantians, as was his successor Mancius in 137. It was not till the arrival of Scipio Aemilianus in 134 that the lengthy resistance of the inhabitants was at last overcome, and fifteen months after he took command the city fell, in the autumn of 133 B.C.
  
80 BC  
Battle of Baetis River (Sertorian War ) Sertorius victory
Fought B.C. 80, between the rebels, under Sertorius, and the Roman army under Lucius Fulfidas. The rebels were victorious.
  
75 BC  
Battle of the Suero (Turdetani Uprising ) Sertorius victory
Fought B.C. 75, between the rebels, under Sertorius, and the Roman army, under Pompey. The Roman right, under Pompey, was broken and defeated, but Afranius turned defeat into victory, capturing the Sertorian camp, and routing and dispersing the rebel army.
  

Visigoth Wars — 251 to 711

Wars of the Visigoths in the Balkans, Italy, and Spain


251  
Siege of Philippopolis (Invasion of Dacia ) Goths victory
This city was besieged, 251, by the Goths, under Cniva, and after a gallant defense, and the defeat of an attempt by Decius to relieve it, was stormed and sacked. It is said that 100,000 of the garrison and inhabitants perished in the siege and subsequent massacre.
  
251  
Siege of Forum Terebronii (Invasion of Dacia ) Goths victory
Fought 251, between the Romans under Decius, and the Goths under Cuiva. The Gothic army was drawn up in three lines, and the legionaries overthrew the first two, but, in attacking the third, they became entangled in a morass, and were utterly routed. Decius and his son were slain.
  
269  
Battle of Naissus   Romans victory
Fought 269 between the Imperial troops, under the Emperor Claudius Gothicus, and the invading Goths. The Romans were hard pressed, when the Gothic lines were attacked in the rear by a force of 5,000 men, which Claudius had concealed for this purpose in the neighboring mountains, and being thrown into confusion, were totally routed. Fifty thousand men are said to have fallen in the battle.
  
376  
Battle of Marcianopolis (Fritigern ) Goths victory
Fought 376, between the Romans, under Lupicinus, and the Goths, under Fritigern. The Romans were totally defeated, but stood their ground to the last, and were cut to pieces almost to a man. Lupicinus fled as soon as the ultimate success of the Goths became apparent.
  
378  
Battle of Hadrianople (Invasion of Dacia ) Goths victory
Fought August 9, 378, between the Romans, under the Emperor Valens, and the Goths, under Fritigern. The Roman cavalry fled from the field, and the legionaries were surrounded and ridden down by the overwhelming masses of the Gothic horse. Two thirds of the legionaries, and 9 great officers and tribunes perished. Valens was carried off the field wounded, but the hut in which he was lying was fired, and he perished in the flames.
  
402  
Battle of Verona (Alaric ) Romans victory
Fought June of 402 by Visigoths, under Alaric, and a Roman force led by Stilicho. Alaric was defeated and withdrew from Italy.
  
403  
Battle of Pollentia (Alaric ) Romans victory
Fought March 29, 403, between the Goths, under Alaric, and the Romans, under Stilicho. Stilicho attacked the Gothic camp while they were celebrating the festival of Easter, and owing to the surprise, the charge of the Roman cavalry threw them into confusion. They were, however, soon rallied by Alaric, and the Romans driven off with heavy loss, but Stilicho advancing at the head of the legionaries, forced his way into the camp, and drove out the Goths with enormous slaughter. Alaric's wife was among the captives.
  
406  
Siege of Florence (Alaric ) Romans victory
This city was besieged in 406, by the German invaders under Radagaisus, and was almost on the verge of starvation, when the approach of Stilicho at the head of a large Roman army, encouraged the defenders to further resistance. The besiegers, in fact, now became the besieged, for Stilicho surrounded their camp, and starved the Germans into surrender.
  
408  
Siege of Rome (Fritigern ) Goths victory
The city was besieged in 408 by the Goths, under Alaric, and after being brought to the verge of starvation and losing many thousands from famine, the Romans capitulated, but retained their freedom on payment of a heavy ransom, whereupon Alaric retired northward in 409. In the course of the year, however, Alaric seized Ostia, the port of Rome, and summoned the city to surrender. In the absence of the Emperor Honorius, the populace forced the authorities to yield; and Alaric, after deposing Honorius, and bestowing the purple on Attains, withdrew his troops. In 410, during the month of August, Alaric for the third time appeared before the walls, and on the night of the 24th the Salarian gate was opened to the besiegers by some sympathisers within the city, and Rome was given over to pillage and massacre, in which thousands perished.
  
436  
Siege of Narbonne (Champlain ) Romans victory
The walls of Narbonne had been shaken by the battering engines, and the inhabitants had endured the last extremities of famine, when Count Litorius, directing each horseman to carry behind him two sacks of flour, cut his way through the entrenchments of the besiegers. The siege was immediately raised; and the more decisive victory, which is ascribed to Aetius himself, was marked with the blood of eight thousand Goths.
  
451  
Battle of Châlons (Hun Invasion ) Romans-Goths victory
Fought 451 between the Romans and the Visigoths under Aetius and Theodoric respectively, and the Huns under Attila. The battle was fought on an open plain, and while the right and centre of the allies withstood Attila's onslaught, the Visigoths on the left made a furious charge, in which Theodoric fell, and totally routed the right of the Huns. Attila then withdrew to his camp, having suffered heavy loss, and prepared to resist the attack of the allies on the following day. Aetius, however, did not renew the conflict, and allowed Attila to retreat unmolested.
  
507  
Battle of Vouille   Franks victory
Fought 507, between the Franks, under Clovis, and the Visigoths, under Alaric II. Clovis and Alaric met in single combat, and Alaric was slain, following which the Goths were utterly routed. By this decisive victory, the province of Aquitaine was added to the Frankish dominions.
  
711  
Battle of Guadalete   Moors victory
Fought July 19 to 26, 711, between 90,000 Spaniards, under Roderic, and 12,000 Moslems, with a numerous force of African auxiliaries, under Tarik. On the fourth day the Moslems suffered a severe repulse, leaving 16,000 dead on the field, but the defection of Count Julian, with a large part of the King's forces, revived their courage, and finally the Christians were routed and dispersed. Roderic fled from the field, but was drowned in crossing the Guadalquivir. This victory marks the fall of the Gothic monarchy, and the beginning of the Moorish domination in Spain. Also called the Battle of Xeres.
  

Moorish Conquest of Spain — 711 to 732

Moors from Africa invade and Conquer Spain, but are stopped at the Battle of Tours.



DateBattle Summary
711  
Battle of Guadalete   Moors victory
Fought July 19 to 26, 711, between 90,000 Spaniards, under Roderic, and 12,000 Moslems, with a numerous force of African auxiliaries, under Tarik. On the fourth day the Moslems suffered a severe repulse, leaving 16,000 dead on the field, but the defection of Count Julian, with a large part of the King's forces, revived their courage, and finally the Christians were routed and dispersed. Roderic fled from the field, but was drowned in crossing the Guadalquivir. This victory marks the fall of the Gothic monarchy, and the beginning of the Moorish domination in Spain. Also called the Battle of Xeres.
  
712  
Siege of Merida   Moors victory
This place was besieged in 712 by 18,000 Moors, under Musa. After a defeat in the open plain before the city, the Spaniards made a long and obstinate defense, which cost the besiegers many lives, but in the end they were forced by famine to surrender.
  
722  
Battle of Covadonga (grananda ) Spaniards victory
Fought 717 near Covadonga between less than 1000 Christian Goths and Romans under Pelayo, and a much larger body of Moors under Al Kamah. The Christians drew the Moslems into an ambush and decisively routed the Moors. The Moors withdrew and left Pelayo in his mountain fastness, which became the foundation of the Christian kingdom of Austria.
  
721  
Battle of Toulouse   Franks victory
Fought June 9, 721 between a Frankish army led by Odo, the Duke of Aquitaine, and the Moors, led by the Umayyad governor. The Moors besieged Toulouse, the largest city in the region but Odo returned with an army and launched a surprise attack on the unprepared Moors and nearly annihilated them.
  
732  
Battle of Tours   Franks victory
Fought 732, between the Franks, under Charles Martel, and the Saracens, under Abderrahman Ibu Abdillah. The battle lasted several days—according to the Arab chroniclers, two, while the Christian accounts say seven—and ended in the fall of Abderrahman, when the Saracens, discouraged by the death of their leader, owned defeat, and fled, losing heavily in the pursuit.
  

Wars of the Moorish Empire — 800 to 1344

Wars of the Moorish Empire in Spain, including Moslem Civil Wars.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Christian Reconquest of Spain — 1050 to 1492

Wars between Christian and Moorish kingdoms for control of the Iberian Peninsula.



DateBattle Summary
722  
Battle of Covadonga (grananda ) Spaniards victory
Fought 717 near Covadonga between less than 1000 Christian Goths and Romans under Pelayo, and a much larger body of Moors under Al Kamah. The Christians drew the Moslems into an ambush and decisively routed the Moors. The Moors withdrew and left Pelayo in his mountain fastness, which became the foundation of the Christian kingdom of Austria.
  
778  
Battle of Roncesvalles (Spanish Campaign ) Basques victory
Fought 778 between the Franks, under Charlemagne, and the Basques and Gascons, under Loup II. The army of Charlemagne, retreating from Spain, was caught in the defile of Roncesvalles, in the Pyrenees, and the rearguard was totally annihilated, among those who fell being the famous Paladin, Roland.
  
844  
Battle of Clavijo (cordova ) Spaniards victory
Fought in 844 between Christian forces led by Ramiro I of Asturias, against a much larger force of Moors, led by Abderrahmen II of Cordova. Legend has it that Saint James intervened on the side of the greatly outnumbered Christians.
  
901  
Battle of Zamora (cordova ) Spaniards victory
Fought 901, between the Spaniards, under Alfonso the Great, King of the Asturias, and the Moors, under Abdallah, King of Cordova. The Moors were utterly routed, with heavy loss, Alfonso thereby extending his dominions as far as the Guadiana.
  
939  
Battle of Alhandega (cordova ) Spaniards victory
Fought 939, between the Moors under Abd at Rahman, and the Christians under Ramiro II of Leon. The Moors, 100,000 strong, were besieging Zamora, when they were attacked by Ramiro, who, aided by a sortie of the garrison, utterly routed them. In the battle 20,000 Moors fell, and 40,000 are said to have been drowned in the moat surrounding the city.
  
1002  
Battle of Calatanazor (cordova ) Spaniards victory
Fought July 1002 between the combined Christian armies of Castile and Leon, under Sancho and Alfonso V, and the Moorish forces under Almanzor. The Moors were routed by the Christians and Almanzor was slain.
  
1010  
Battle of Cordova (early ) Spaniards & Berbers victory
Fought August 1010, between the Berbers under Sulaiman, aided by the Spaniards under Sancho, Count of Castile, and the Moors of Cordova under Almudy. Almudy marched out of Cordova to meet the Berbers, but was utterly routed, with a loss of 20,000, including most of his principal Emirs.
  
1085  
Battle of Toledo (almoravids ) Spaniards victory
The capital city of the Moslem kingdom of Toledo was besieged by Alphonso VI, and defended by Jahaiah. After a long and celebrated siege, to which several French and other foreign warriors eagerly hastened, Toledo finally capitulated, 1085.
  
1086  
Battle of Zalaka (almoravids ) Moors victory
Fought October 26, 1086, between 40,000 Moors, under Almoravid, and 300,000 Christians, under Alfonso VI of Castile. The Spaniards were utterly routed, with enormous loss. Alfonso, at the head of 500 horse, cut his way out, and with difficulty escaped.
  
1094  
Battle of Valencia (almoravids ) Spaniards victory
This city was besieged by the Christian forces of El Cid in October 1092. A major battle occurred in December 1093, but Almoravids failed to drive the Christians away, and the city surrendered in 1094. The family of El Cid held the city for several years after his death in 1099, but the city was burned before being retaken by the Almoravids in 1102.
  
1097  
Battle of Consuegra (almoravids ) Moors victory
Fought August 15, 1097 between Castilians under Alfonso VI and the Almoravids under Yusuf. The battle turned against the Spaniards and Alfonso retreated to the Castle of Consuegra.
  
1105  
Battle of Huesca (almoravids ) Spaniards victory
Fought 1105, when the Moors, under Ali attacked the Spaniards, who, under Alfonso VI of Castile, were besieging Huesca. Ali was utterly routed, losing 10,000 killed in the battle.
  
1108  
Battle of Ucles (almoravids ) Moors victory
Fought 1109, between the Spaniards, under Don Sancho of Castile, and the Moors, under Ali. The Spaniards were defeated, with a heavy loss of the Christian chivalry, among the killed being Don Sancho, the son of Alfonso VI.
  
1139  
Battle of Ourique (almoravids ) Portuguese victory
Fought July 25, 1139 between a Portuguese army under Afonso Henriques and a much larger force of Almoravid Moors under Ali ibn Yusuf. Due to divisions within the Moorish army (and the legendary, miraculous intervention of St. James), the victory went to the Christians, and the Moorish army was destroyed. Afonso took immediate measures to have himself crowned the King of Portugal, independent of both Castile and Leon.
  
1147  
Siege of Lisbon (cordova ) Portuguese victory
The city of Lisbon was besieged from July 1 of 1147 by a Christian Portuguese army under Afonso I of Portugal, aided by a number of European crusaders. The city surrendered after a siege of four months, and Lisbon became the Christian capital of Portugal.
  
1195  
Battle of Alarcos (almohads ) Moors victory
Fought July 19, 1195, between the Moors under Yakub el Maasur, and the Spaniards under Alfonso VIII of Castile. The Spaniards were utterly routed, and very few escaped to Calatrava. The Moors claimed to have taken 30,000 prisoners.
  
1212  
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (almohads ) Spaniards victory
Fought July 10, 1212, between a huge army of Moors, said by the chroniclers to have amounted to 600,000, under Mohammed al Nasin, and the allied armies of the Kings of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. The Moors were utterly routed, very few of their enormous host escaping from the field.
  
1248  
Battle of Seville (almoravids ) Spaniards victory
Capital city of the Almohads of Iberia was besieged by the Christians of Castile, and fell in 1248
  
1319  
Battle of Granada (grananda ) Moors victory
Fought 1319, when a Spanish army, under the Regents Pedro and John of Castile, appeared under the walls of Granada. A sortie of 5,000 picked Moors, under Said Othman took place, and the Christians were utterly routed, both the Regents being slain.
  
1340  
Battle of Rio Salado (grananda ) Spaniards victory
Fought 1340 between the Spaniards, under Alfonso XI of Castile, and the Moors, under Abu 'l Hasan of Granada. The Moors, who were besieging Tarifa, were attacked by the Spaniards, who utterly routed them and relieved the town. Abu 'l Hamed fled to Africa, and Alfonso was enabled to recover Algeciras.
  
1344  
Siege of Algeziras (grananda ) Spaniards victory
Fought 1344, between the Portuguese and Castilians, under Alfonso IV of Portugal and Alfonso XI of Castile, and the Moors, under Abu Hamed, Emir of Morocco. The Christians won a signal victory, and Alfonso so distinguished himself in the battle as to earn the title of the "Brave."
  
1482  
Siege of Alhama (grananda ) Spaniards victory
This fortress, one of the ring of strong places protecting the Moorish capital, Granada, was surprised by a small party of Spaniards, under Juan de Ortiga, in the early morning of February 28, 1482. They scaled the ramparts unperceived, and opened the gates to the Spanish army. The garrison continued to defend the streets most obstinately, and it was only after hard fighting that the Spaniards mastered the town. An attempt was made to recapture the place by Abul Hasan, King of Granada, who set down before it, with 50,000 Moors. March 5, 1482. The garrison, under the Marquis of Cadiz, made a gallant defense, and on the 29th, Abul Hasan, alarmed by the approach of a strong relieving army under Ferdinand, raised the siege.
  
1482  
Battle of Loja (grananda ) drawn battle victory
Fought July 4, 1482, between the Spaniards, under Ferdinand the Catholic, and the Moors, under Ali Atar. The King, who was besieging Loja, was encamped on the heights of Almohacen, but finding the position insecure, decided upon a retreat. As he was retiring he was vigorously attacked by the garrison, and though, after very heavy fighting, he succeeded in withdrawing in good order, he lost most of his baggage and artillery.
  
1483  
Battle of Axarquia (grananda ) Moors victory
Fought March 20, 1483, between a Spanish force of 3,000 knights, and about 2,000 infantry, under the Marquis of Cadiz, and a strong Moorish force under Abul Hasan. The Spaniards were marching through the defile of Axarquia, on their way to attack Malaga, when they were assailed in front and flank, and totally routed, losing 800 killed and 1,600 prisoners. Among the killed were 400 men of rank.
  
1483  
Battle of Luncena (grananda ) Spaniards victory
Fought April, 1483, when the Moors, under Abdullah and Ali A tar, who were besieging Lucena, were attacked by a Spanish relieving force under the Comte de Cabra. The Moorish infantry fled, and Ali Atar, heading a charge of cavalry in a gallant attempt to retrieve the day, was slain, whereupon his following broke and fled, pursued by the Christians to the banks of the Xenil, where the majority were cut to pieces.
  
1487  
Siege of Malaga (grananda ) Spaniards victory
This city, defended by a Moorish garrison, under Hamet Zell, was besieged by the Spaniards, 60,000 strong, under Ferdinand the Catholic, April 17, 1487. After an obstinate resistance, lasting for four months, the garrison was forced to surrender, and Ferdinand and Isabella entered the city August 18th. The inhabitants were sold into slavery.
  
1498  
Siege of Baza (grananda ) Spaniards victory
This fortress, one of the outposts of Granada, was besieged by Ferdinand, with 95,000 Spaniards, in June 1489, and was defended by a strong Moorish garrison under Sidi Yahye. The town was very strong, and was gallantly defended, and the siege lasted until December, when the place was surrendered on honourable terms.
  
1491  
Siege of Granada (grananda ) Spaniards victory
On April 26, 1491, Ferdinand the Catholic, with an army of 50,000 Spaniards, sat down before Granada, the last stronghold of the Moors in Spain. The siege was carried on in somewhat desultory fashion, and in the early days one serious sortie was made by the inhabitants and garrison, who were, however, defeated, with a loss of 2,000 killed. The city held out until November 25, when Abdallah, the last king of Granada, capitulated.
  
1501  
Battle of Monarda   Moors victory
Fought March 18, 1501, between the Spaniards, under the Count di Cifuentes and Alonso de Aguilar, and the insurgent Moors. The Spaniards were largely outnumbered, and were overpowered by the rebels, suffering a disastrous defeat. De Aguilar was killed, fighting to the end.
  

Castilian Wars — 1307 to 1476

Civil wars between Christian factions within Spain during the fourteenths and fifteenth centuries.



DateBattle Summary
1054  
Battle of Atapuerca (Sons of Ferdinand I ) Castilians victory
Fought September 1, 1054 between and army of Castilians under Ferdinand I, and Navarrese under King Garcia of Navarre. The Castilians were victorious and King Garcia was killed. As a result of this battle, Ferdinand annexed considerable territory to his domains.
  
1063  
Battle of Graus (Sons of Ferdinand I ) Castilians and Zaragoza victory
Fought May 8, 1062, between the Aragonese under Ramiro I, and the Moorish forces of Zaragoza under king al-Muktadir, who were allied with a Castilian army led by Prince Sancho, heir to the Castilian throne. The victory went to the Zaragoza and Castilian forces and king Ramiro I was killed. The battle is notable for being the first combat of El Cid, who fought under Sancho.
  
1068  
Battle of Llantada (Sons of Ferdinand I ) Castilians victory
Fought July 19, 1068, between the Castilian forces of Sancho II, and Alfonso VI of Leon. The victory went to Sancho, largely due to the efforts of El Cid, who fought for Castile.
  
1072  
Battle of Golpejera (Sons of Ferdinand I ) Castilians victory
Fought Jan, 1072 between the forces of Castile, under Sancho II and El Cid, and Alfonso VI of Leon. The victory went to Sancho II and Alfonso fled to Toledo. Shortly after the battle, however, Sancho II was assassinated, and Alfonso inherited the kingdoms of Leon and Castile.
  
1353  
Battle of Algheri (Pedro the Cruel ) Aragonese victory
Fought 1353, between the Aragonese under Pedro IV and the Genoese. Pedro won a complete victory, driving the Genoese out of Sardinia, the whole of which island became an appanage of the crown of Aragon.
  
1369  
Battle of Montiel (Pedro the Cruel ) French victory
Fought 1369, between the French, under Bertrand du Guesclin, and the Spaniards, under Pedro II of Castile. Pedro was routed and taken prisoner, and Henry of Trastamare placed on the throne of Castile.
  
1367  
Battle of Navarrete (Pedro the Cruel ) English(Pedro) victory
Fought April 3, 1367, between 24,000 English, under Edward the Black Prince, and 60,000 French and Spaniards, under Bertrand du Guesclin and Henry de Trastamare. The English, mainly owing to the skill of their archers, completely defeated their opponents, with heavy loss, du Guesclin being made prisoner. This battle is also known as the Battle of Najara.
  
1128  
Battle of Sao Mamede (portugal ) Portuguese victory
Fought June 24, 1128 between the forces of Afonso I, a grandson of Alfonso VI of Castile, and those of his mother, Countess Theresa of Portugal. Afonso, supported by many Portuguese nobles who desired independence from Leon, defeated the armies of Galacia and Leon. He shortly afterward declared himself King of Portugal.
  
1384  
Battle of Atoleiros (Portuguese Civil War ) portuguese victory
Fought April 6 1384 between the Portuguese, under Nuno Pereira and a force of Castilians under John I of Castile. At the time Portugal was without a king and John of Castile was betrothed to the princess of Portugal, but opposed by many of the Castilian nobles. The battle went in favor of the Portuguese, but was indecisive.
  
1385  
Battle of Aljubarotta (Portuguese Civil War ) portuguese victory
Fought August, 1385, between the Castilians, under John I, in support of the claim of Beatrix of Castile to the throne of Portugal, and the Portuguese under the Regent John. The Portuguese inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Spaniards, and John I was compelled to withdraw his troops, and renounce his sister's claim.
  
1467  
Battle of Olmedo (Castilian Succession ) Castilians victory
Fought 1467, between the Spanish adherents of the Infante Alfonso, a claimant to the throne, under the Archbishop of Toledo, and the Royal troops, under Henry of Castile. After an action which began late in the afternoon, and lasted for three hours, without any very decisive result, the Archbishop, who was considerably inferior in numbers, withdrew his troops, leaving Henry in possession of the field.
  
1476  
Battle of Toro (Castilian Succession ) Castilians victory
Fought March 1, 1476, between the Portuguese, and the Spanish supporters of Joanna for the throne of Castile, 8,500 strong, under Alfonso of Portugal, and the adherents of Isabella, about equal in numbers, under Ferdinand the Catholic. Ferdinand, after a long march, attacked the Portuguese at 4 p.m., and at the end of two hours' fighting, signally defeated them with heavy loss.
  

Conquest of Granada — 1482 to 1498

Spain under Isabel and Ferdinand reclaimed the last Moorish stronghold in Granada.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Portugal Conquest of Indochina — 1511 to 1739

Portugal conquers Goa, Dui, and other islands in Indo China.



DateBattle Summary
1415  
Battle of Ceuta (First ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 14, 1415 between 45,000 Portuguese invaders led by Prince Henry the Navigator and the Moorish defenders of the city. The Moors were caught off guard and the Moorish trading post located on an island south of Spain was captured by nightfall.
  
1511  
Battle of Goa (East India Conquest ) Portuguese victory
In 1511, Goa, held by a Portuguese garrison, under Albuquerque, was invested by Kumal Khan, General of the Rajah of Bijapore, at the head of 60,000 men. After a siege of 20 days Albuquerque found his communication with his fleet threatened, and withdrew the garrison. In the same year, however, having collected a force of 1,500 men with 23 ships at Cananore, he attacked Goa, and at once forced an entrance. After severe fighting in the streets, the Deccanis fled in confusion to the mainland, with a loss of 6,000. The Portuguese lost 50 only.
  
1513  
Battle of Malacca (East India Conquest ) Portuguese victory
This city, which was defended by 30,000 Malays, under the Sultan Mohammed, was captured by Albuquerque, with 19 ships and 1,400 Portuguese regulars, after a very feeble defense, in 1513.
  
1537  
Battle of Diu (East India Conquest ) Portuguese victory
This fortified Portuguese factory was besieged early in September, 1537, by a fleet of 76 Turkish galleys, and 7,000 soldiers under Solyman, Pasha of Egypt, acting with whom was an army of 20,000 Gujeratis under Bahadur Shah, and Khojah Zofar, an Italian renegade. The garrison of 600, under Antonio de Silveira, repulsed assault after assault, but were nearly at the end of their resources, when the false rumour of an approaching Portuguese fleet caused Solyman to withdraw.
  
1545  
Siege of Diu (East India Conquest ) Portuguese victory
In 1545 Diu was again besieged by the Gujeratis, the garrison being commanded by Mascarenhas. Khojah Zofar, who led the besiegers, was killed in the course of the siege, and was succeeded by Rami Khan. The garrison, at the end of several months, was on the point of surrendering, owing to famine, when it was relieved by Juan de Castro, who signally defeated the Gujeratis, and raised the siege.
  
1570  
Siege of Goa (Mahratta conquest ) Portuguese victory
This fort, which was held by a Portuguese garrison of 700, under the Viceroy, Luis de Ataida, was attacked by Ali Adil Shah, Rajah of Bijapore, with 135,000 men and 350 guns, in 1570. Aided by the civilians, and 1,300 monks, the garrison made so strenuous a defense, that the Rajah was beaten off, after losing 12,000 men.
  
1739  
Siege of Vasai (West Coast Africa ) Marathas victory
This Portuguese fort was besieged by the Marathas, led by the brother of Baji Rao I, in 1739. The fort was taken and the Portuguese were driven from the surrounding area.
  

Wars of Italy — 1495 to 1559

Series of battles for Italian territories between various European powers.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Barbary Pirate Wars — 1500 to 1830

Wars of the Barbary Pirates who were based in Algiers; Tunis and Tripoli.



DateBattle Summary
1535  
Siege of Tunis (Holy League ) Christians victory
In 1535 Charles V led a Christian army of 60,000 men against Tunis, which had recently been taken by the Ottomans. After a siege at La Goletta, Tunis was taken and 30,000 inhabitants slaughtered.
  
1509  
Battle of Oran (Holy League ) Spaniards victory
Fought May 17, 1509, between the Moors and the Spaniards, under Navarro. The Spaniards, late in the evening, attacked and drove off the Moors from a strong position on the heights above the city. They then stormed the city itself, escalading the walls by placing their pikes in the crevices of the stones. The Moors lost in the battle and the storm 4,000 killed and about 8,000 prisoners, while the losses of the victors were very small.
  
1538  
Battle of Preveza (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
This naval battle was fought Sept 28, 1538 in the Ionion Sea between an Ottoman fleet of 122 galleys under Barbarossa, and 162 Christian galleys under Andrea Doria. The winds were against the Christians and the Turks were able to destroy 13 ships and capture 36 while suffering minimal losses. The next morning Doria retreated with his Genoese fleet, leaving the Venetians to their fate.
  
1541  
Siege of Algiers (Holy League ) Algiers victory
A large fleet was fitted by Charles V. for a campaign against the pirate city of Algiers, but a tremendous storm destroyed much of the fleet enroute, and insufficient supplies remained to conduct a siege. The retreating forces were harassed in their departure, and many more ships were sunk on the return. Over 150 ships and 30,000 Spaniards were lost or captured.
  
1560  
Battle of Djerbeh (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
Fought 1560, between the fleet of Solyman I, Sultan of Turkey, under Piycala Pasha, and the combined squadrons of Malta, Venice, Genoa and Florence. The Christian fleet was utterly routed, the Turks securing thereby the preponderance in the Mediterranean.
  
1570  
Siege of Famagusta (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
This place was besieged by the Turks under Mustapha Pasha, in October, 1570, and was defended by 7,000 men, half Venetians, half Cypriotes, under Marcantonio Bragadino. The garrison held out until August 6, 1571, when it capitulated, marching out with the honours of war. After the surrender, however, Mustapha murdered in cold blood, Bragadino and four of his lieutenants. The Turks lost 50,000 men in the course of the siege.
  
1571  
Battle of Lepanto (Holy League ) Christians victory
Fought October 17, 1571, betwen a fleet of 250 Spanish and Venetian ships, under Don John of Austria, and a Turkish fleet of 270 sail, under Piale, the Capitan Pasha. The Turkish left wing, under the Dey of Algiers, met with some success, but the centre and right were almost destroyed, the Turks losing 200 vessels, and, it is said, 30,000 men. Piale was killed. The Dey of Algiers succeeded in extricating the majority of his ships. The allies lost between 4,000 and 5,000 men, including 15 Venetian captains.
  
1522  
Siege of Rhodes (Knights of Malta ) Ottomans victory
A second and successful siege was begun July 28, 1522, by Solyman the Magnificent. The Knights, under Villiers de L'Isle Adam, held out until December 21, repulsing numerous attacks, but at last, worn by famine, they were compelled to surrender. The Turks are stated to have lost by disease and battle over 100,000 men. This siege is notable as being the first in which the Turks used explosive bombs.
  
1565  
Siege of Malta (Knights of Malta ) Knights Templar victory
This place was besieged May 19, 1565, by 30,000 Turks, under Mustapha Pasha, aided by a fleet of 185 sail, under Piale, the Capitan Pasha. It was defended by the Knights of Malta, under their Grand-Master Lavalette, and though St. Elmo was taken, Valetta held out against numerous assaults until September 11, when Mustapha raised the siege. The garrison lost 5,000 men, the Turks 20,000.
  
1655  
Battle of Porto Farina (Seventeen Eighteen ) British victory
In April 1655 Blake was sent to the Bey of Tunis in order to demand compensation for losses to English fleets. Upon the refusal of the Bey to comply, he destroyed 9 Algerian ships and 2 shore batteries.
  
1775  
Siege of Algiers (Seventeen Eighteen ) Algiers victory
This town was attacked July 8, 1775, by a Spanish force of 51 ships of war and 26,000 men under Don Pedro de Castijon and Count O'Reilly. After a severe conflict, the Spaniards failed to dislodge their opponents, and retired, with a loss of over 3,000 killed and wounded. The Algerines lost about 5,000.
  
1803  
Battle of Tripoli (Fall of Corsairs ) Americans victory
In October of 1803 the harbor of Tripoli was blockaded by an American fleet under the command of Commodore Preble. The first major action of the siege was the capture and subsequent sinking of the USS Philadelphia under the direction of Stephen Decatur. During the siege several inconclusive attacks were made on Tripoli, but the siege was not brought to a close until the town of Derna was taken.
  
1805  
Battle of Derna (Fall of Corsairs ) Americans victory
A small number of American Marines under William Easton led a force of 500 mercenaries on a 500 mile trek across the Libyan desert to attack the town of Derna. The town was stormed and after light resistance and few casualties the American led force gained command of the garrison. This was the first American battle fought on foreign soil.
  
1816  
Battle of Algiers (Fall of Corsairs ) British victory
In 1816 Lord Exmouth, in command of 19 British warships, and accompanied by 6 Dutch ships under Van Capellan, bombarded the forts of Algiers, mounting 500 guns. The bombardment lasted for about eight hours, and resulted in the destruction of the forts and a large part of the city. The Dey then gave way, and agreed to the total abolition of Christian slavery in his dominions. The loss of the allies amounted to 885 killed and wounded; that of the Algerines to over 6,000.
  
1836  
Battle of Constantine (Fall of Corsairs ) French victory
This fortified city in Eastern Algeria, which, under Hadji Ahmad, had held out for six years against French rule, was invested by the French, 7,000 strong, under Marshal Clausel, in the autumn of 1836. Having no breaching pieces, Clausel essayed an assault, but was repulsed with a loss of 2,000 men, and abandoned the siege. In the following year General Damrémont sat down before Constantine October 6, with 10,000 men, and on the 12th, a breach having been effected, an assault was on the point of taking place, when Damrémont was killed. His successor, General Valée, however, took the place by storm on the following day.
  
1844  
Battle of Isly (Abd-el-Kader's Rebellion ) French victory
Fought August 14, 1844, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Bugeaud, and 45,000 Algerines, chiefly cavalry, under Abd-el-Kader. The French infantry repulsed all the charges of the Algerine Horse, and aided by the artillery, inflicted heavy loss upon them; when sufficiently shaken, a charge of the French cavalry completed the rout, and the Algerines fled, leaving 1,500 dead on the field. Abd-el-Kader was captured.
  

Netherlands War of Independence — 1566 to 1601

The Protestant Netherlands fights for its independence from the Spanish Empire.



DateBattle Summary
1566  
Battle of Valenciennes   Spanish victory
Siege was laid to this place in December, 1566, by a force of Spaniards and Germans, mercenaries, under Noircarmes. The operations were somewhat indolently conducted, insomuch that he and his six lieutenants were derided as the "Seven Sleepers," but towards the end of February Noircarmes began to press on his siege works, and on March 23 his batteries opened fire, the city surrendering on the following day.
  
1567  
Battle of Lannoy   Spanish victory
Fought January, 1567, between 3,000 Flemish Protestants, under Pierre Cornaille, and a small force of the Duchess of Parma's troops, under Novicarmes. The Flemings, mostly half-armed peasants, were cut to pieces by the Spaniards, 2,600 being killed in one hour's fighting.
  
1567  
Battle of Watrelots   Spanish victory
Fought January, 1567, between 1,200 Flemish Protestants, under Teriel, and 600 Spaniards, under the Seigneur de Rassinghem. The Protestants were defeated and 600 took refuge in an old graveyard, where they held out till the last man had fallen.
  
1568  
Battle of Heiliger-Zee   Patriots victory
Fought May 23, 1568, between the "'Beggars," under Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 veteran Spaniards, under Aremberg. Louis occupied a very strong position on a wooded height, near the monastery of the Holy Lion, his front being protected by a morass crossed by a narrow causeway. The Spanish infantry traversed this to the attack, but were repulsed, and Count Aremberg, leading a charge of horse, in the hope of restoring the day, fell mortally wounded. Upon this the Spaniards broke and fled, having suffered a loss of 1,600 men.
  
1572  
Battle of Brill   Patriots victory
This fortress was captured from the Spaniards by the Beggars of the Sea, about 400 strong, under De la Marck and Treslong, April 1, 1572. It was the first success of the Netherlands patriots in their struggle against Spanish rule, and may be said to have laid the foundation of the Dutch republic.
  
1572  
Siege of Tergoes   Spanish victory
This fortress was besieged, August 16, 1572, by the Dutch Patriots, 7,000 strong, under Jerome de 't Zeraerts, and was defended by a small Spanish garrison. On October 20, a force of 3,000 Spanish veterans, under Colonel Mondragon, succeeded in crossing the "Drowned Land," with a loss of only 9 men drowned, and relieved the town, 't Zeraert's troops refusing to face this unexpected attack.
  
1572  
Siege of Haarlem   Spanish victory
This city was invested by the Spaniards, 30,000 strong, under Don Francisco de Toledo, December If, 1572. It was held by a garrison of 4,000, under Ripperda, including a corps of Amazons, led by a widow named Kenau Hasselaer. The batteries opened on the 18th, and on the 21st an assault was repulsed, the assailants losing 400, the garrison three or four only. A second assault, on January 31, 1573, was also repulsed, while a brilliant sortie, on March 25, captured a large and welcome convoy of provisions. On May 28, however, the patriot flotilla of 150 vessels under Martin Brand, on the lake, was defeated by 100 Spanish ships, under Count Bossu. From this point the reduction of the city by famine was inevitable, and the place was surrendered, July 12, 1573. The garrison, reduced to 1,800, was massacred, with the exception of 600 Germans, and altogether 2,300 persons perished after the capitulation. The Spaniards lost 12,000 men in the course of the siege.
  
1573  
Siege of Alkmaar   Patriots victory
Siege was laid to this place August 21, 1573, by 16,000 Spaniards under Don Frederico de Toledo. It was defended by a garrison of 800 soldiers and 1,300 armed burghers. On September 18, an assault was delivered, which was repulsed, with a loss to the besiegers of 1,000 men, while only 37 of the garrison fell. The opening of the dykes at last rendered the position of the Spaniards most precarious, and on October 8 the siege was raised.
  
1573  
Battle of Zuyder Zee   Patriots victory
Fought October 11, 1573, between 30 Spanish ships, under Bossu, and 25 Dutch ships, under Admiral Dirkzoon. The Spanish fleet fled, after losing 5 ships, only Bossu standing his ground. His ship, however, was eventually captured, after losing three-fourths of her crew.
  
1574  
Battle of Romerswael   Patriots victory
Fought January 29, 1574, between the "Beggars of the Sea," under Admiral Boisot, and a Spanish fleet of 95 ships, under Julian Romero. The "Beggars" grappled the enemy's ships in a narrow estuary, and after a very severe encounter, in which the Spaniards Lost 15 vessels and 1,200 men, Romero retreated to Bergen-op-Zoom.
  
1574  
Battle of Leyden   Patriots victory
This city was invested May 26, 1574, by 8,000 Walloons and Germans under Valdez, who in the course of a few days had erected 62 batteries round the place. There was no garrison, with the exception of a few "freebooters" and a burgher guard, under Jan van der Does. The Prince of Orange, in order to save the city, determined to open the dykes, and on August 3 the gates at Schiedam and Rotterdam were opened, and the dykes broken along the course of the Yssel. Meanwhile the citizens had come to an end of their bread, but by strenuous efforts the fleet under Admiral Boisot succeeded in throwing relief into the city at the beginning of October. By this time the city was on the verge of starvation, and 8,000 of the inhabitants had perished of pestilence. The Spaniards, however, had been driven from work after work, and on October 3 the last of their redoubts was mastered, and Valdez was forced to raise the siege.
  
1574  
Battle of Mook   Spanish victory
Fought April 14, 1574, between the Dutch Patriots, 8,000 strong, under Count Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 Spaniards, under Don Sancho d'Avila. The village of Mook was held by the Dutch infantry, who were driven out by the Spaniards, and totally routed, with a loss of at least 4,000. Among the slain were the Counts Louis and Henry of Nassau.
  
1576  
Battle of Antwerp   Spanish victory
This city was sacked by the Spaniards, November 4, 1576. It was defended by 6,000 troops, mostly Walloons, who offered little resistance to the 5,600 Spaniards under Sancho d'Avila, who formed the attacking force. Having effected an entrance, the Spaniards proceeded to massacre the inhabitants, of whom 8,000 are said to have perished. This event is known as the Spanish Fury.
  
1578  
Battle of Gemblours   Spanish victory
Fought January 31, 1578, between the Netherlands patriots, 20,000 strong, under General Goignies, and the Spaniards, in about equal force, under Don John of Austria. The patriots, who were retiring from Namur, were followed by Don John, who sent forward a picked force of 1,600 men, under Gonzaga and Mondragon in pursuit. They attacked the rearguard, under Philip Egmont, and dispersed it, and then, falling suddenly upon the main body, utterly routed it, with a loss, it is said, of 10,000 killed and prisoners. The Spaniards lost ten or eleven at most.
  
1578  
Battle of Rynemants   Patriots victory
Fought August 1, 1578, between the Dutch Patriots, 20,000 strong, under Count Bossu and Francois de la None, and the Spaniards, numbering about 30,000, under Don John of Austria. Don John crossed the Demer, and attacked Bossu in his entrenchments. He was however repulsed, after severe fighting, and retired, leaving 1,000 dead on the field. He offered battle in the open on the following morning, but Bossu declined to leave his lines, and Don John was indisposed to renew the attack, and fell back upon Namur.
  
1579  
Siege of Maestricht   Spanish victory
This city, the German Gate of the Netherlands, was besieged by the Spaniards, under Prince Alexander of Parma, March 12, 1579. It was held by a garrison of 1,000 troops and 1,200 armed burghers, under Melchior, while the besiegers numbered 20,000. Two unsuccessful assaults were made April 8, which cost the Spaniards 670 officers and 4,000 men, but finally the place was taken by surprise, and a massacre followed, in which 6,000 of the inhabitants perished.
  
1580  
Battle of Hardenberg   Spanish victory
Fought June 15, 1580, between the Dutch Patriots, under Count Philip Hohenlo, and the Royalists, under Martin Schenck, fatigued by a long march, the Patriots were no match for Schenck's fresh troops, and after an hour's fighting, were broken and almost annihilated.
  
1581  
Siege of Tournay   Spanish victory
This place was besieged, October 1, 1581, by the Royal troops, under Alexander of Parma, and in the absence of the Governor, Prince Espinay, was gallantly defended by the Princess, who held out until November 30, when, by an honourable capitulation, she was allowed to march out at the head of the garrison, with all the honours of war.
  
1586  
Battle of Zutphen   Spanish victory
Fought September 22, 1586, between the Spaniards, under Prince Alexander of Parma, and the English, under the Earl of Leicester. The Spaniards endeavoured to throw a convoy of provisions into Zutphen, which Leicester was besieging. He attempted to intercept it, but without success, and was forced to retire after suffering considerable loss. Among those who fell on the English side was Sir Philip Sydney.
  
1593  
Siege of Middelburg   Patriots victory
This fortress, the last stronghold in Walcheren to hold out for the Spanish king, was besieged by the Patriots in the winter of 1593. It was defended by a garrison under Colonel Mondragon, who in spite of a gallant resistance and numerous attempts to relieve him, was forced by famine to surrender, February 18, 1594.
  
1597  
Battle of Turnhout   Patriots victory
Fought August 22, 1597, between the Dutch, under Prince Maurice of Nassau, and the Spaniards under the Archduke Albert. The Spaniards were totally defeated, and this victory may be said to have set the seal of the Independence of the Netherlands.
  
1600  
Battle of Nieuport   Patriots victory
Fought July 2, 1600, between the Dutch, under Maurice of Orange, and the Spaniards, under the Archduke Albert of Austria. Prince Maurice was surprised by the Archduke in a very critical position, but succeeded in holding his own, and after a long and evenly-contested engagement, ultimately defeated the Spaniards with heavy loss.
  
1601  
Battle of Ostend (First Rebellion ) Spanish victory
This place was besieged, July 5, 1601, by the Spaniards, under the Archduke Albert. The town made a most remarkable defense; holding out for more than three years, but Spinola having taken command of the besiegers, it was finally captured, September 14, 1604, by which time scarcely a house in the town was left standing. The Spaniards lost 70,000 men in the course of the siege.
  

Anglo Spanish Wars — 1587 to 1655

English sailors prevails over Spain; assuring its claims to the New World.



DateBattle Summary
1587  
Battle of Cadiz (First ) English victory
On April 19, 1587, Sir Francis Drake, with between 30 and 40 English ships, entered Cadiz Bay, and destroyed over 100 Spanish vessels. This exploit Drake described as "Singeing the King of Spain's beard."
  
1588  
Battle of the Armada (First ) English victory
The fight with the Spanish Armada in the Channel began on Sunday, July 21, 1588, and lasted with intervals until the 30th. The Armada consisted of 130 ships, many of large size, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia. The English fleet numbered 197 in all, but only 34 were Queen's ships, and of these but 8 were over 600 tons burden. Lord Howard of Effingham commanded, with Drake and Hawkins as his lieutenants. The English vessels hung on to the flanks of the Spanish ships as they sailed up channel, harassing them in every way, and doing considerable damage, until the Armada anchored in Calais roads, Here many of their finest vessels were captured or destroyed by fire-ships, and finally on the 30th, Medina Sidonia decided to attempt to escape northwards. His fleet was scattered by storms, and many wrecked on the Scotch and Irish coasts, and in the end only about one-half of the Armada returned to Spain.
  
1591  
Battle of Azores (First ) Spanish victory
In 1591, a fleet of 7 ships under Lord Thomas Howard was driven from Floris by the Spanish fleet under Don Alfonso Bassano. The action was chiefly remarkable for the gallant fight made by Sir Richard Grenville in the Revenge, which maintained an unequal struggle for nine hours, when her gallant commander was mortally wounded, and she surrendered at daybreak.
  
1596  
Battle of Cadiz (First ) English victory
In 1596 an English fleet led by the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh entered the harbor of Cadiz. They first raided the harbor and sunk many of the Spanish ships, and later landed a body of soldiers who captured the town. The Spanish however, had warning and were able to sink or hide much treasure before the raid.
  
1655  
Battle of Jamaica (Second ) English victory
This island was captured from the Spaniards, May, 1655 by a combined English naval and military force, under Admiral Penn and General Venables.
  
1657  
Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Second ) English victory
On April 20, 1657 a British fleet under Blake destroyed a fleet of 16 Spanish treasure ships in Santa Cruz Bay, Tenerife in the Canary Islands.
  
1658  
Battle of Dunes (Second ) English victory
Fought June 14, 1658, between the Spaniards, 14,000 strong, under Don John of Austria and the Great Condé, and the French in equal force under Turenne. A force landed from the English fleet commenced the attack on the Spaniards, which was vigorously supported by Turenne, and the Spaniards were totally defeated, with a loss of 4,000 killed, wounded and captured. Ten days later the town of Dunkirk capitulated.
  

War of the Spanish Succession — 1702 to 1712

Large scale European war which curtailed the expanding power of Louis XIV of France.



DateBattle Summary
1701  
Battle of Chiari (Italy ) imperials victory
Fought September 1, 1701, between the Imperialists, about 28,000 strong, under Prince Eugene, and the French and Spaniards under the Duke of Savoy. The Prince occupied the small town of Chiari, where he was attacked by the allies, who, after two hours' hard fighting, were repulsed with a loss of nearly 3,000. Owing to the strength of their position, the Imperialists lost 117 only.
  
1701  
Battle of Carpi (Italy ) imperials victory
Fought July 1701, between the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, and the French army in Lombardy, under Marshal Catinat. The French were signally defeated, and, in consequence, Catinat was recalled from the command.
  
1702  
Siege of Cremona (Italy ) imperials victory
This city, held by a French garrison, was surprised by the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, February 1, 1702, The town was entered without the alarm being given, and many important officers, including Marshal Villeroy, were made prisoners. A portion of the garrison, however, still held out in the citadel, and made Eugene's tenure of the town precarious, and finally, on the approach of a relieving force under the Prince de Vaudemont, he was forced to withdraw his troops. The garrison lost 1,000 killed.
  
1702  
Battle of Santa Vittoria (Italy ) French victory
Fought July 26, 1702, when 4 regiments of Prince Eugene's army, under General Visconti, were attacked by 15,000 French and Spaniards, under the Duc de Vendome. The Imperialists were forced to abandon their camp and retire with the loss of their baggage, but lost only 500 men, while their qualified success cost the allies nearly 2,000 killed and wounded.
  
1702  
Battle of Luzzara (Italy ) imperials victory
Fought August 15, 1702, between the French, 35,000 strong, under the Duc d'Anjou, and 25,000 Imperialists, under Prince Eugene. The Prince attacked the French in their entrenchments in front of Luzzara, and after a stubborn resistance, drove them out with a loss of about 4,000 men. The Imperialists lost 27,000 killed and wounded.
  
1705  
Battle of Cassano (Italy ) imperials victory
Fought August 16, 1705, between the French under the Duc de Vendome, with 35 battalions and 45 squadrons, and the Imperialists under Prince Eugene. The Prince, with greatly inferior numbers, attacked the French in a strong position, which he succeeded in carrying as the night fell. The Imperialists lost about 4,000; the French about 5,000.
  
1706  
Siege of Turin (Italy ) imperials victory
This place, held by an Imperialist garrison, 10,000 strong, under the Duke of Savoy, was besieged by a French army of 68 battalions and 80 squadrons, with artillery and engineers, under the Duc de la Feuillade, May 26, 1706. On June 17 the Duke of Savoy left the city to orgainse a relief force, Count Daun taking the command. The garrison held out stoutly till September 7, when the approach of a large relieving force under Prince Eugene compelled the French to raise the siege. About 5,000 of the garrison perished either in action or by disease. In the action which preceded the retirement of the French, the Imperialists lost 1,500,the French 2,000 killed and wounded and 6,000 prisoners.
  
1706  
Battle of Castiglione (Naval ) French victory
Fought September 8, 1706, between the Imperialists under the Prince of Hesse, and the French under General de Medavi. The Prince was besieging Castiglione, when he was attacked by the French, and totally defeated, with a loss of 8,000 killed, wounded, and missing.
  
1707  
Siege of Toulon (Quadruple Alliance ) drawn battle victory
An attack was made upon the fortress by a combined Dutch and British fleet, under Sir Cloudesley Shovel, July 17, 1707. The allies failed to gain a footing in the town, but 8 French ships lying in the harbour and 130 houses were destroyed by fire.
  
1702  
Siege of Landau (Bavaria ) imperials victory
This fortress, held by a French garrison under M. de Melac, was besieged by the Imperialists, under Prince Louis of Baden, June 19, 1702. The garrison made a gallant defense, but was forced to surrender, September 10. The Comte de Soissons, elder brother of Prince Eugene, fell during the siege.
  
1703  
Battle of Speyer (Bavaria ) French victory
Fought November 15, 1703, between the French, under Marshal Tallard, and the Imperialists, under the Prince of Hesse, each side being about 20,000 strong. After a severe engagement, the Imperialists were overpowered by the French cavalry, and totally defeated with a loss of 6,000 killed, wounded and missing. Among the prisoners was the Prince of Hesse.
  
1704  
Battle of Donauworth (Bavaria ) Allies victory
Fought July 2, 1704, between the British and Imperialists under the Duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bavarians under Marshal Tallard. The Duke attacked the enemy's entrenched position at Schellenberg, in front of Donauworth, and drove them out, forcing them to abandon the town. The victors lost 5,374 killed and wounded. The French losses are unknown, but were probably heavier.
  
1704  
Battle of Blenheim (France ) Allies victory
Fought August 13, 1704, between the British and Imperialists under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French and Bavarians under Marshals Tallard and Marsin, and the Elector of Bavaria. The French numbered 60,000, the allies 52,000. Tallard had massed his best troops in the village of Blenheim, and Marlborough, seeing the weakness of his centre, hurled his cavalry against it, and cut the French line in two. Prince Eugene meanwhile had withstood the attack of Marsin and the Elector, and, after Marlborough's charge, he assumed the offensive, and the French right and centre were totally routed. The French lost 40,000, including 1,600 prisoners, amongst whom was Marshal Tallard. The allies lost about 11,000.
  
1706  
Battle of Ramillies (rhine-belgium ) Allies victory
Fought May 23, 1706, between the British and Imperialists, under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, about 80,000 strong, and the French, in equal force, under Marshal Villeroy. The allies drove the French out of Ramillies, their resistance on the whole being unworthy of them, and in the end they were disastrously defeated with heavy loss, 5,000 being killed and wounded, while 6,000 prisoners and 50 guns were taken. The allies lost less than 3,000.
  
1707  
Battle of Stolhoffen (Spain ) French victory
Fought May 22, 1707, when Marshal Villars, with 45 French battalions, stormed and captured the lines of Stolhoffen, which were held by the Imperialists, under the Marquis of Baireuth. The French took 50 guns.
  
1707  
Siege of Bethune (rhine-france ) imperials victory
This small fortress, held by a French garrison of 3,500 under M. du Puy Vauban, was invested July 14, 1707, by the Imperialists, with 30 battalions under Count Schulemburg. Vauban made a most skilful and gallant defense, lasting 35 days, when, the garrison being reduced to 1,500 men, he was compelled to surrender. This little place cost the allies 3,500 in killed and wounded.
  
1708  
Battle of Oudenarde (rhine-belgium ) Allies victory
Fought July 11, 1708, between 80,000 British and Imperialists, under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and 100,000 French, under the Duke of Burgundy and Marshal Vendome. The French, who were besieging Oudenarde, raised the siege on the advance of the allies, and marched to meet them, but were totally defeated with a loss of 3,000 killed, 7,000 prisoners, and 10 guns. The allies lost 2,000.
  
1708  
Siege of Lille (rhine-france ) imperials victory
This city was besieged August 12, 1708, by the Imperialists, under Prince Eugene, and was defended by a French garrison, under M. de Bouflers, which after repulsing several determined assaults, surrendered October 25. The besiegers lost in the course of the siege 3,632. The French lost about 7,000.
  
1708  
Battle of Wynandael (rhine-belgium ) British victory
Fought September 28, 1708, between the British, under General Webb, and the French under the Comte de la Motte. The French, with 40 battalions and 40 squadrons, attempted to intercept a convoy of supplies for the army besieging Lille, and were totally defeated, by a far inferior force, with a loss of 7,000 men.
  
1709  
Siege of Tournay (rhine-france ) British victory
The town was besieged by the British, under the Duke of Marlborough, July 8, 1709, and was defended by a French garrison under M. de Surville. After 56 days of open trenches, the garrison surrendered, having suffered a loss of 3,000 men.
  
1709  
Battle of Rumersheim (rhine-strasborg ) French victory
Fought August 26, 1709, between the French, under Marshal Villiers, and the Imperialists, under Count Mercy. Mercy was defeated and driven out of Alsace.
  
1709  
Battle of Malplaquet (rhine-france ) Allies victory
Fought September 11, 1709, between the British and Imperialists, under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French, under Marshal Villars. Villars offered battle with the object of relieving Mons, which the allies were besieging, but while they were waiting for reinforcement from Tournay, he was enabled to entrench himself strongly on the ground he had chosen. After desperate fighting, however, the French position was carried from end to end, and they were driven out with a loss of 17,000 killed and wounded. The allies lost, according to most accounts, about 8,000, though some contemporaries assert that their losses were even heavier than those of the French.
  
1710  
Siege of Douai (rhine-germany ) Allies victory
This place was besieged by the allies under Prince Eugene, April 25, 1710, and was defended by a French garrison, 8,000 strong, under General d'Albergottf. The place was obstinately defended, numerous sorties being made, but, the French army being unable to relieve it, d'Albergotti was forced to surrender June 26. The besiegers lost 8,000 killed and wounded.
  
1712  
Battle of Denain (Italy ) French victory
Fought 1712, when the camp of the allies, held by 10 battalions under the Earl of Albemarle, was attacked by 130 French battalions under Marshal Villiers. Prince Eugene made an effort to relieve the Earl, but was unable to cross the Scheldt, and the allies were overwhelmed by superior numbers, only about 4,000 making good their retreat. Five generals were killed or captured.
  
1705  
Siege of Barcelona (Spain ) British victory
This city, which was held for Philip V of Spain by a Spanish garrison, was besieged September 14, 1705, by the British under the Earl of Peterborough. After a short bombardment, the place surrendered, October 9.
  
1706  
Battle of Alcantara (Spain ) British victory
Fought 1706, when a force of British and Portuguese under Lord Galway attacked and drove out of Alcantara the garrison, consisting of a portion of Marshal Berwick's army. Ten French battalions laid down their arms, and 60 guns were captured.
  
1707  
Battle of Almanza (Spain ) French victory
Fought April 25, 1707, between the French under Marshal Berwick, and the British and Portuguese under Lord Galway and the Marques das Minas. Galway, though inferior in cavalry, attacked at first with success, but the Portuguese on the right broke and fled, and the British centre, attacked in front and flank simultaneously, was routed and forced to surrender. As a consequence of this defeat, the whole of Spain was lost to Charles with the exception of Catalonia.
  
1710  
Battle of Almenara (Spain ) British victory
Fought July to, 1710, when the British contingent of the Archduke Charles' army, under General Stanhope, attacked and defeated the Spaniards under Philip V, after severe fighting. So complete was the rout that Philip's army was only saved by the fall of night from complete destruction.
  
1710  
Battle of Saragossa (Spain ) Allies victory
Fought August 20, 1710, between 25,000 Spaniards, and a force of Austrians, British, Dutch and Portuguese troops, 23,000 in number, under the Archduke Charles. The Portuguese in the right wing gave way, leading a large force of Spaniards in pursuit, but the left and centre stood their ground, and finally repulsed the enemy, with a loss of 4,000 prisoners, besides killed and wounded. The Archduke at once took possession of Saragossa.
  
1710  
Battle of Brihuega (Spain ) French victory
Fought 1710 between the British under Stanhope, and the French under the Duc de Vendome. Stanhope, who was retreating from Madrid to Catalonia, was surprised and surrounded, and, though he made a gallant stand, fighting till all his powder was spent, and then leading a bayonet charge, his force was at last reduced to 500 men, when he surrendered.
  
1710  
Battle of Villa Viciosa (Spain ) British victory
Fought December 10, 1710, when 13,000 Imperialists, under Staremberg, retreating into Catalonia, after the defeat of Stanhope at Brihnega, were attacked by 20,000 French, under Philip of Anjou and Marshal Vendome. Staremberg's left wing was cut to pieces, but his right and centre more than held their own, driving back the French with considerable loss, and capturing some guns. Staremberg was, however, too weak to take advantage of this partial success, and continued his retreat after the action.
  
1714  
Battle of Barcelona (Arcadian War ) Spanish victory
French-Spanish forces surrounded the city in July 1713, but were not strong enough to take the city until they received reinforcements of 20,000 men. The assault resumed under the Duke of Berwick, and the city was taken on August 30, 1714.
  
1702  
Battle of Vigo Bay (Naval ) British victory
Fought October 12, 1702, when the combined fleet of 30 British and 20 Dutch ships, under Sir George Rooke, forced the boom at the entrance to Vigo Harbour and destroyed the French and Spanish fleet anchored therein. Of the men-of-war, If were burnt and 10 captured, while 11 Spanish galleons, with treasure, were taken. This action is generally called the affair of the Spanish Galleons.
  
1704  
Siege of Gibraltar (Naval ) British victory
This fortress was captured, July 24, 1704, by a combined British and Dutch fleet, under Sir George Rooke, from the Spaniards under the Marquis de Salinas. The resistance of the garrison lasted 2 days only, during which the allies lost 12 officers and 276 men killed and wounded.
  
1704  
Battle of Malaga (Naval ) British victory
Fought August 13, 1704, between the combined British and Dutch fleets, consisting of 45 sail of the line, under Sir George Rooke, and the French fleet of 53 line-of-battleships, under the Comte de Thoulouse. The French admiral was endeavoring to effect a junction with the Spanish fleet, which was engaged in the siege of Gibraltar, and was brought to action by Sir George Rooke off Malaga. The fighting was severe, and though no ships were lost on either side, the British gained an important strategic victory as the junction of the two hostile fleets was prevented. The British lost 6 officers and 687 men killed, and 18 officers and 1,645 men wounded. The French lost 191 officers and 3,048 men killed and wounded.
  
1706  
Battle of Alicante (Naval ) British victory
On June 29, 1706, Alicante was taken by a British squadron of 5 ships under Sir George Byng. The fleet attacked the city walls, while the suburbs were occupied by a landing party of marines under Sir John Jennings. The place was captured with a loss to the British of only 30 killed and 80 wounded.
  
1718  
Battle of Cape Passaro (rhine-belgium ) British victory
Fought July 31, 1718, between a British fleet of 21 ships under Sir George Byng, and a Spanish fleet of 29 ships under Don Antonio Castafleta. Admiral Byng attacked the Spaniards in the Straits of Messina, and, after a very severe action, in which both sides lost heavily, captured or destroyed no less than 15 of the Spanish ships. Castaneta died of wounds received in the action. This battle is also known as the Battle of Messina.
  

Peninsular War — 1808 to 1814

Napoleonic Wars on the Iberian Peninsula. Britain helps Spain drive out the French.



DateBattle Summary
1808  
Battle of Rio Seco (Stealth War ) French victory
Fought July 14, 1808, when Marshal Bessieres, with about 14,000 French, defeated 26,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards lost about 6,000, while the French loss was only 370 killed and wounded. Following upon this victory, Joseph entered Madrid.
  
1808  
Battle of Baylen (Babylonian Revolt ) Spanish victory
Fought July 19, 1808, between 15,000 Spaniards under Castaflos, and 20,000 French under Dupont. The French were totally defeated with a loss of over 2,000 men, and Dupont surrendered with his whole army.
  
1808  
Battle of Rolica (First British ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 17, 1808, when Wellington, with 14,000 British and Portuguese, of whom only 4,000 came into action, attacked the French, 3,000 strong, under Laborde, and after a half-hearted resistance drove them from their position, with a loss of 500 men. The allies lost about 400.
  
1808  
Battle of Vimiera (French Invasion ) Portuguese victory
Fought August 21, 1808, between 18,000 British and Portuguese, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 14,000 French, under Junot. The French were signally defeated, losing 2,000 men and 13 guns, but the victory was not followed up by Sir Harry Burrard, who was in supreme command, and the French were allowed to evacuate Portugal unmolested, under the Convention of Cintra. The British lost 720 killed and wounded.
  
1808  
Battle of Espinosa (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 10, 1808, between 18,000 French under Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards under Blake. The Spaniards were routed, and Blake's army scattered. The French lost about 1,100 men.
  
1808  
Battle of Tudela (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought November 23, 1808, between 30,000 French, under Lannes, and 45,000 Spaniards, under Castanos and Palafox. The Spaniards were totally defeated, with a loss of about 9,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 prisoners and 30 guns. The French losses were small.
  
1808  
Battle of Moline del Rey (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought December 21, 1808, between 26,000 French, under General St. Cyr, and the Spaniards, about equal in strength, under Reding. The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 10,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 50 guns, at very slight cost to the victors.
  
1808  
Siege of Saragossa (French Invasion ) French victory
In June, 1808, siege was laid to this city by the French, under Marshal Lefebvre. A successful defense was made, and the marshal's forces being insufficient to effect a prompt capture, he raised the siege in August. In December of the same year it was again besieged by the French, under Moncey and Mortier, and defended by a Spanish garrison, under Palafox. A most heroic defense was made, notable for the bravery of Agostina, the maid of Saragossa, who took the place of her wounded lover on the ramparts, and helped to serve the guns, but despite all the efforts of Palafox, the place was stormed, and, after very severe house to house fighting, captured, February 21, 1809.
  
1809  
Battle of Coruna (French Invasion ) British victory
Fought January 16, 1809, between 14,000 British under Sir John Moore, and 20,000 French under Soult, who was endeavoring to prevent the British from embarking. The French attacks were uniformly repulsed, and the troops safely embarked, with a loss of about 800, including Sir John Moore. The French lost about 2,000.
  
1809  
Battle of Medellin (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, between the French, under Marshal Victor, and 30,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards soon gave way, and were mercilessly sabred in the pursuit by the French cavalry, losing, it is said, 18,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 300 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Oporto (French Invasion ) French victory
Fought March 28, 1809, when the French, under Soult, completely defeated the Portuguese under Lima and Pareiras, outside the city of Oporto. Soult followed up his success by storming Oporto, with horrible slaughter, it being computed that 10,000 of the inhabitants perished. The French lost 500 only.
  
1809  
Battle of Douro (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought May 12, 1809, when 12,000 British under Wellesley (the Duke of Wellington) crossed the Douro and drove the French under Soult out of Oporto. The French numbered about 24,000, of whom 5,000 were killed, wounded or captured, mainly during the pursuit. In the action itself, the French lost 500, the British, 116.
  
1809  
Siege of Gerona (French Invasion ) French victory
This fortress, held by 3,000 Spanish regulars, under Mariano Alvarez, was besieged, June 4, 1809, by General Verdier, with 18,000 French. Though ill-provided with food, medicines, and money, and receiving but little assistance from outside, Alvarez held out gallantly till December 10, when he capitulated, and the garrison marched out with the honours of war.
  
1809  
Battle of Talavera (French Invasion ) Allies victory
Fought July 28, 1809, between 19,000 British and 34,000 Spaniards, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 50,000 French, under Marshals Jourdan and Victor, with Joseph Buonaparte in nominal command. The British repulsed all the attacks on their position, at a cost of 6,200 killed and wounded. The Spanish losses were returned at 1,200, but the figures are doubtful, as they took practically no part in the fighting. The French lost 7,389 killed, wounded and missing, and 17 guns.
  
1809  
Battle of Ocana (Spainish Resistance ) French victory
Fought November 19, 1809. In this action, at which Joseph Buonaparte was present, Soult, with 30,000 French, defeated 53,000 Spaniards, under Areizaga, with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 26,000 prisoners, including 3 generals, 45 guns, and all their baggage and transport. The French only lost 1,700 men.
  
1810  
Battle of Busaco (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought by Wellington, September 29, 1810, to secure his retreat to Torres Vedras. He occupied the heights of Busaco with 25,000 men and was attacked by 40,000 French under Massena. The actual assault was delivered by the corps of Ney and Reynier, but they could make no impression, and were repulsed with a loss of about 4,500. The British lost 1,300 killed and wounded.
  
1811  
Battle of Gebora (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
Fought February 19, 1811, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and 12,000 Spaniards, under Mendizabal, The Spaniards were routed with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, 5,000 prisoners and all their guns.
  
1811  
Battle of Barosa (British Second ) Allies victory
In the course of the operations for the relief of Cadiz, General Graham, with 4,000 British troops, defeated Marshal Victor with 9,000 French, March 5, 1811. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded, including two generals, 6 guns, 2 eagles, and 400 prisoners. The British losses amounted to 50 officers and 1,160 rank and file. A large Spanish force under La Pena stood idly by, and took no part in the action.
  
1811  
Battle of Sabugal (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 3, 1811, between three British divisions, under Wellington, and the French, consisting of Reynier's corps. Reynier held the salient angle of the French position on the Coa, and was driven back after less than an hour's fighting, with a loss of about 1,500. The British lost 200 only.
  
1811  
Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 5, 1811, in the course of Massena's attempt to relieve Almeida. Wellington, with 34,000 men, occupied a position behind Fuentes d'Oiloro, which was attacked by Massena with 34,000 troops and 36 guns. He failed to capture the position, and finally retired, in good order. The British lost 1,200 killed and wounded, and 300 prisoners. The French losses are variously estimated, but were certainly heavier.
  
1811  
Battle of Albuera (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought May 16, 1811, between the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish forces, numbering 46,000, of whom 7,000 only were British infantry, the whole army being under the command of Marshal Beresford, and 33,000 French under Marshal Soult. The French attacked Beresford's position, and the Spaniards offering but a poor resistance, defeat was only averted by the extraordinary valour of the British troops, especially of the Fusilier Brigade, which came into action when the day seemed lost, and drove the French from the field. Of the 7,000 British, but 1,800 were left standing. The French lost over 8,000, including five generals.
  
1811  
Siege of Sagunto (Spanish Resistance ) French victory
This fortress, held by a Spanish garrison, was besieged by the French, 22,000 strong, under Soult, September 23, 1811. Built on the heights above Murviedro, the place was accessible on one side only, and an attempt to escalade this was repulsed September 28. A regular siege was then commenced, and a second unsuccessful assault was made on October 18. On the 25th General Blake, with 30,000 Spaniards, made an attempt to relieve the place, but was defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and wounded and 4,000 prisoners. the victory costing the French about 800 men. On the following day the garrison surrendered.
  
1812  
Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (British Second ) Allies victory
This town was invested by Wellington January 8, 1812, and carried by assault twelve days later. The besiegers lost during the siege 1,290 killed and wounded, of whom 710, including Generals Craufurd and Mackinnon, fell in the storm. The French lost 300 killed and wounded, 1,500 prisoners, and 150 guns.
  
1812  
Siege of Badajos (British Second ) Allies victory
On March 17, 1812, this fortress, held by a garrison of French, Hessians and Spaniards, 5,000 strong, under Phillipon, was invested by Wellington. The breaches were declared to be practicable on April 5, and an assault was ordered. After terrible slaughter, the town was taken, with a loss to the assailants of 3,500, the total British losses during the siege exceeding 5,000. Fearful excesses were committed after the assault, and for two days the troops were completely out of hand.
  
1812  
Battle of Salamanca (First British ) Allies victory
Fought July 22, 1812, when Wellington, with 46,000 British and Spanish troops, encountered 42,000 French, under Marmont. The battle was forced on by Marmont, who was endeavoring to interrupt Wellington's retreat, but the Marshal was severely wounded early in the day, and the conduct of the action was in the hands of General Bonnet. The result was a signal victory for the British, the French losing 12,500 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 12 guns. The British and Spanish loss amounted to about 6,000. These figures include the skirmishes of the days preceding the battle, during which the armies were in touch.
  
1813  
Battle of Castalla (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought April 13, 1813, between 17,000 allied troops under Sir John Murray, and 15,000 French under Suchet. The French were defeated. The allies lost 600 killed and wounded; the French, according to Suchet, 800 according to Murray, 3,000, but the former figure is probably nearer to the truth.
  
1813  
Battle of Vittoria (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought June 21, 1813, between 80,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish troops, under Wellington, and about 70,000 French, under Joseph Buonaparte. After severe fighting the French were defeated at all points and made a somewhat disorderly retreat, losing 6,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, 143 guns, and almost all their baggage and treasure. The allies lost 5,000. This battle finally closed the era of French domination in Spain, and opened to Wellington the road to the Pyrenees.
  
1813  
Siege of San Sebastian (British Offensive ) Allies victory
This town was besieged July 10, 1813, by the British, under General Graham, and was defended by a French garrison, under General Rey. An assault on July 25 was repulsed, and pending the arrival of heavy guns from England, the siege resolved itself into a blockade. Active operations were resumed, and on the 31st the town was taken by storm. Rey, however, still held out in the citadel, and it was only after further bombardment that he surrendered on September 9. The besiegers' losses amounted to over 2,500 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Maya (British Offensive ) French victory
Fought July 25, 1813, between a British division, under General Stewart, and the French divisions of d'Armagnac, Abbe and Maransin. The French, at a cost of 1,500 men, forced the pass of Maya, driving back the British with a loss of 1,400 men and 4 guns.
  
1813  
Battle of Roncesvalles (British Offensive ) Allies victory
One of the actions known as the "Battles of the Pyrenees," fought July 25, 1813. Soult, at the head of Clauset's division, attacked the British, consisting of three brigades, under General Byng, but was unable to carry their position, and after severe fighting was repulsed with a loss of 400. The British lost 181 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Pyrenees (British Offensive ) Allies victory
The engagements fought between Wellington's lieutenants and Soult's army, which was endeavoring to relieve San Sebastian, are known as the Battles of the Pyrenees. They include the fighting from July 25 to August 2, 1813, and specially the actions of Roncesvalles, Maya, Santarem and Buenzas. The British loss in these battles amounted to 7,300, while the French lost fully double that number.
  
1813  
Battle of Nivelle (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought November 10, 1813, when the French, under Soult, were driven from a very strong position by the British, under Wellington, and forced to retire behind the Nivelle. The French lost 4,265, including about 1,200 prisoners, 51 guns, and all their field magazines. The British lost 2,694 killed and wounded.
  
1813  
Battle of Nive (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought December 13, 1813 between 35,000 French, under Soult, and 14,000 British and Portuguese, under Wellington. Having crossed the Nive on the 10th, Wellington took up a strong position on the heights near the village of St. Pierre. Here he was attacked by Soult, but repulsed him, and occupied the French position in front of the Adour. The French losses in this battle and the combats which preceded it, amounted to 10,000 men. The British lost 5,019 killed and wounded.
  
1814  
Battle of Orthez (British Offensive ) Allies victory
Fought February 27, 1814, between the British under Wellington, and the French, under Soult. The French were driven out of Orthez and across the Luy de Warn, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 6 guns.
  
1814  
Battle of Toulouse (British Second ) Allies victory
Fought April 10, 1814, between 38,000 French, under Soult, and 24,000 British and Spaniards, under Wellington. The French entrenchments in front of Toulouse were attacked by the British, who after severe fighting captured some of the outworks. The victory, however, was incomplete, and was in effect of no value, as Napoleon had on this date already surrendered to the allies in Paris. The French lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, the allies, 4,659, of whom 2,000 were Spaniards.
  

Carlist Wars — 1836 to 1872

Civil war in Spain between a modern liberal monarchy and the traditionalists.



DateBattle Summary
1823  
Battle of Trocadero (Civil War of 1820 ) Royalists victory
Fought August 31, 1823 a French force led by the Duke of Angouleme besieged the fort of Trocadero, defended by 2000 Spaniards on the outskirts of Cadiz. The fort was taken after a bayonet attack, resulting in 400 French and 600 Spanish casualties. As a result, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne of Spain.
  
1836  
Siege of Bilbao (First ) Cristinos victory
This fortress was besieged by the Carlists November 9, 1836, and was defended by a small Christino garrison. The besiegers took possession of some of the suburbs, which were recaptured by a sortie. Finally, after several unsuccessful attempts, Espartero, at the head of about 18,000 Christinos, drove off the besiegers, December 25, and relieved the city, capturing the Carlist artillery of 25 pieces. In the action the Christinos lost 714 killed and wounded, while the losses of the garrison during the siege amounted to about 1,300.
  
1836  
Siege of San Sebastian (First ) Cristinos victory
This fortress, held by a garrison of Cristinos and a small detachment of the British legion, under Colonel Wylde, was besieged by the Carlists, under Sagastibelza, February, 1836. The siege was carried on in desultory fashion, with constant fighting between the outposts, till June, 1836, when General Evans, with 10,000 British and Spanish troops, occupied the advanced Carlist positions, and forced them to withdraw.
  
1837  
Battle of Hernani (First ) Carlists victory
Fought March 15 and 16, 1837, between the British legion, and a small contingent of Cristinos, under General Evans, and about 17,000 Carlists, under Don Sebastian, strongly posted on the Hernani road. On the 15th, Evans attacked the Carlists on the Venta heights, and after five hours' fighting occupied the position. On the 16th, when the conflict was resumed, the Carlists retired into Hernani, but reinforcements arriving, they took the offensive, and forced Evans to retreat.
  
1837  
Siege of Irun (First ) Cristinos victory
This fortress was captured, May 18, 1837, by 10,000 Cristinos and British, under General Evans. Evans appeared before the place at noon, and summoned it to surrender. On the Carlists refusing, an assault was ordered; by 1 p.m. the fortress was taken, with very small loss to the assailants.
  
1837  
Battle of Huesca (First ) Carlists victory
Fought May 23, 1837, between 20,000 Carlists, under Don Carlos and Don Sebastian, and 12,000 Cristinos and British under General Irribarreu. The British legion behaved unsteadily and the Cristinos were driven from the field, though the pursuit was checked by a brilliant cavalry charge, in which Irribarreu fell. The Cristinos lost over 1,000 killed and wounded, of which number the British legion lost 297.
  
1837  
Battle of Herrera (First ) Carlists victory
Fought August 23, 1837, between the Carlists, under Don Carlos, with General Moreno in actual command, and the Cristinos, under General Buerens. Don Carlos, who was marching upon Madrid, attacked Buerens before he could effect a junction with Espartero, and severely defeated him, the Cristinos losing 50 officers, and 2,600 men killed, wounded and missing. Don Carlos, after this victory, advanced to within twelve miles of Madrid, when the appearance of Espartero, at the head of 20,000 troops, obliged him to retire.
  
1837  
Battle of Hernani (First ) Carlists victory
Fought August 29, 1836, between the British legion, under General Evans, and the Carlists. Evans was defeated.
  
1838  
Siege of Pena Cerrada (First ) Cristinos victory
This fortress, held by a Carlist garrison, under Gergue, was captured by Espartero with 19,000 Cristinos, June 21, 1838. After shelling the place for 7 hours, Espartero attacked the Carlists, who held the heights outside the town, and dispersed them, capturing 600 prisoners, and all their guns. The remainder of the garrison then abandoned the place.
  
1840  
Siege of Morella (Second ) Cristinos victory
This fortress, the last stronghold of the Carlists, was besieged by Espartero, with 20,000 Cristinos, May 23, 1840. It was defended by a garrison of 4,000 veterans, under Cabrera, who on the 30th attempted to break through the besiegers' lines. His plan, however, had been betrayed, and he was met and driven back, whereupon the place surrendered. Cabrera, however, with a portion of the garrison, made a second and this time a successful attempt to cut his way out.
  
1873  
Battle of Puente de la Reyna (Third ) Carlists victory
Fought October 6, 1873, between 50,000 Carlists, under Ollo, and about 9,000 Republicans, under Moriones. The Republicans were defeated after hard fighting, and were at last driven in disorder from the field by a bayonet charge. The Carlists lost 113 only; the losses of the Republicans were far heavier.
  
1874  
Siege of Bilbao (Third ) Republicans victory
This fortress, held by government forces, was besieged by the Carlists between December 1873, and May 1874. When a relieving force, led by Francisco Serrano arrived, they broke the siege and moved on to Estella.
  
1874  
Battle of Abarzuza (Third ) Carlists victory
In a three day series of battles, the Carlists forces entrenched in their strongholds near Estella forced back a large Republican force under General Concha. The Republicans lost 1000 men before being driven from the region.
  
1876  
Battle of Montejurra (Third ) Republicans victory
Fought February 17, 1876 between a large Republican army under Fernando Rivera and a defending force of 1600 Carlists under Calderon. The Carlists, who had withstood assaults for over 18 months, were finally forced to withdraw from their stronghold near Estella.
  

Spanish American War — 1898 to 1898

America defeated Spain and gained control of Cuba the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.



DateBattle Summary
1898  
Battle of Manila (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought May 1, 1898, between the American squadron of 6 ships, under Admiral Dewey, and 11 Spanish vessels, chiefly small, and unarmored. The Spanish fleet was totally destroyed, the Americans suffering no loss.
  
1898  
Battle of Cardenas (cuba ) Spanish victory
Fought May 11, 1898 off the coast of Cuba between 3 American ships, and 5 Spanish ships. Two American ships were disabled and the Americans suffered 11 dead and wounded.
  
1898  
Battle of Guantanamo Bay (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought June 6-10, 1898 between a Spanish force of 800 and 623 American Marines, and resulted in the American conquest of a important bay on the East coast of the Cuban mainland.
  
1898  
Battle of San Juan Hill (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought July 1, 1898, when 12,000 Americans, under General Shafter, captured from the Spaniards, after heavy fighting, the strong position of El Caney and San Juan Hill, commanding Santiago de Cuba. The Spaniards made various attempts on the 2nd and 3rd to dislodge them, but without success. The American losses during the three days amounted to 115 officers and 1,570 men killed and wounded.
  
1898  
Battle of Santiago (cuba ) Americans victory
Fought July 3, 1898, between the American fleet of 4 battleships and 3 cruisers, under Admiral W. T. Sampson, and the Spanish fleet of 4 armoured cruisers and 3 torpedo-boats, under Admiral Cervera. The Spaniards endeavoured to escape from the blockaded harbour of Santiago, but were unsuccessful, the whole squadron being destroyed. The Americans suffered hardly any damage, the Spanish gunnery being very inefficient, and lost only 1 man killed.
  
1898  
Battle of Santiago (philippines ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by American and Cuban ground forces soon after the Naval battle of Santiago opened the ports to American ships. The city was blockaded by the American force while a combined force of over 20,000 Cuban nationals and American regulars fought under General Shafter assaulted the town. The Spaniards, under General Toral were well fortified, and the besieging forces suffered 1600 casualties. After two weeks of fighting, the Spanish general surrendered to the Americans.
  
1899  
Battle of Manila (philippines ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by American and Philippino forces. The Spanish residents agreed to surrender on conditions that the Americans, rather than the Philippino rebels took possession of the city. A mock battle was staged to keep up appearances, but the Philippinos were not permitted to take part. This event undermined the American-Rebel alliance.
  
1899  
Battle of Zapote Bridge (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought June 13, 1899 between a force of 3000 Americans, led by Major Lawton, and a force of 5000 Filipinos, led by Pio del Pilar. The native forces were entrenched in elaborate breastworks, but in spite of a valiant defense did not have the firepower needed to resist the Americans superior firepower. The Americans suffered 15 dead and 60 wounded, while the Filipinos suffered over 500 casualties.
  
1899  
Battle of Tirad Pass (philippines ) Americans victory
Fought Dec 2, 1899 between a force of only 60 Filipinos, under Gregorio del Pilar, and 500 Americans under General March. The purpose of the action was to prevent the capture of the Philipino rebel leader Aguinaldo, and the Filipinos fought to the last man, entrenched in a mountain pass. The delaying tactic was successful, although the Americans eventually prevailed at a loss of over 30 men.
  
1900  
Battle of Mabitac (Bavaria ) Filipinos victory
Fought September 17, 199 between a force of 800 Filipino insurgents and an American force of 145. The battle began when a small force of Americans advanced into difficult terrain held by the native forces. Seriously outmanned and unable to maneuver, the Americans sustained heavy casualties, including 21 killed and 23 wounded.
  

Spanish Civil War — 1936 to 1939



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Conquest of Mexico — 1519 to 1521

Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire of Mexico.



DateBattle Summary
1519  
Massacre of Cholula (Conquest of Mexico ) spanish victory
In October 1519, Cortez and his army of Spaniards and Tlaxcalans marched on Cholula and were received into the city. On the report that the Cholulans planned to destroy the Spaniards by treachery, the army massacred 3,000 citizens and burned the city.
  
1519  
Battle of Tlaxcala (Conquest of Mexico ) spanish victory
Fought September 1519 between the Spaniards under Cortez and an army of Tlaxcala warriors under Xicotencatl. After numerous engagements, and an attempted night ambush, the Tlaxcalans submitted to the Mexicans and were thereafter faithful allies.
  
1520  
Battle of Narvaez (Conquest of Mexico ) cortez victory
Fought May 24, 1520 when a small force led by Cortez made a night attack on the Camp of Narvaez, a Spanish army of 900 sent by Cortez's enemies in order to arrest him and assume control of Mexico. The forces of Narvaez were caught completely off guard and captured. On hearing the tales of Cortez's men, the agreed to join him in his march back to Tenochtitlan.
  
1520  
Battle of La Noche Triste (Conquest of Mexico ) Spanish victory
Fought June 20, 1520, when the Spaniards, under Cortez, who were evacuating Mexico during the night, were attacked by the Aztecs, and suffered heavy loss. The Spaniards called this event the "Noche Triste."
  
1520  
Battle of Otumba (Conquest of Mexico ) spanish victory
Fought July 8, 1520, between 200 Spaniards, with some thousands of Tlascalan auxiliaries, under Cortes, and a force of about 200,000 Aztecs. The Spaniards, wearied by a long march on their retreat from Mexico, were intercepted by the Aztecs, and after many hours' fighting, were on the verge of defeat, when a charge of a few cavaliers, headed by Cortes, into the very heart of the Aztec army, so discouraged them that they fled in disorder. It is said that 20,000 Aztecs fell.
  
1521  
Siege of Tenochtitlan (Conquest of Mexico ) spanish victory
The capital of Mexico was besieged by the Spaniards and their allies in May, and defended by the Aztecs, who had sworn not to surrender. The city was surrounded by canals, and too large be taken by storm without horrendous casualties, so the Spaniards systematically destroyed sections of it, razed them too the ground and filled up the canals. The Aztecs held out until the last section of the once beautiful city was in ruins.
  

Mexican War of Independence — 1810 to 1821

War for independence between Spanish Royalists and Mexican Nationalists.



DateBattle Summary
1811  
Battle of Calderon Bridge   Royalists victory
Fought Jan 17, 1811 between 80,000 poorly armed insurgents under the revolutionary priest Miguel Hidalgo, and a much smaller but better armed Royalist force under Calleja. The independent forces could not withstand the cannon fire of the better trained and equiped royalist army. After a munitions wagon exploded, the insurgent army was dispersed.
  
1812  
Battle of Cuaulta   Patriots victory
In March of 1812, the forces of Jose Morelos, the leader of the Mexican independence movement, was besieged by a Spanish army led by Felix Calleja. Morelas broke through the siege on May 2, and continued his campaign by taking the towns of Oaxaca and Acapulco.
  
1827  
Battle of Tampico (liberal rising ) Mexicans victory
On July 31, 1827 a force of 1500 Mexicans under Santa Anna laid siege to 3,000 Spanish and Cuban soldiers, under Barradas, who landed in Tampico, with the intention of overthrowing the Mexican government. The Spaniards were cut off from reinforcements and surrendered September 11.
  

Texas War of Independence — 1835 to 1836

Texas rebels against the Mexican government and declares itself an independent republic.



DateBattle Summary
1835  
Siege of Bexar   Texans victory
On October 12, 1835 a force of 600 Texans under Stephen Austin besieged a Mexican garrison of 1200 under Martin de Cos stationed at San Antonio de Bexar. The siege was a disorderly one, with considerable attrition on both sides. However, the Texans were able to receive reinforcements, while the resources of the Mexicans continued to dwindle. Cos eventually moved his base of operation to the Alamo, a nearby fortified mission. On Dec 5, the Texans launched an assault, resulting in 150 Mexican casualties. Soon after Cos realized his position was hopeless and agreed to surrender.
  
1836  
Siege of Alamo   Mexicans victory
On February 22, 1836, General Santa Anna, with the advance guard of the Mexican army, appeared before the walls of the Alamo, a fortified mission station held by 145 Texans under Colonel Travis, who replied to a summons to surrender by a cannon shot. On March 1 the garrison was reinforced by 30 men, Santa Anna's force at this date being 4,000. On the 6th 2,500 Mexicans assaulted the fort, and at the third attempt effected an entrance. The building was defended room by room, the church within the enclosure being the last building captured, when all the survivors were put to the sword. The victory cost the Mexicans 400 killed and many wounded. "Remember the Alamo" became the watchword of the Texans.
  
1836  
Battle of San Jacinto   Texans victory
Fought April 2, 1836, when the Mexican army, under Santa Anna, about 5,000 strong, was routed and almost destroyed by the Texans, under General Houston. The survivors, with Santa Anna and his staff, were taken prisoners, and Texas was freed from the Mexican yoke.
  

Mexican American War — 1836 to 1847

War between America and Mexico in which large territories of California and the Southwest were ceded to the U.S.



DateBattle Summary
1846  
Battle of Palo Alto (rio grande border ) Americans victory
Fought May 8, 1846, between the Americans, under General Taylor, and the Mexicans, under Arista. The Mexicans were completely routed, at very small cost to the victors.
  
1846  
Battle of Resaca de la Palma   Americans victory
Fought May 9, 1846, between the 1700 Americans, under General Zachary Taylor, and 4,000 Mexicans, including newly arrived reinforcements, under Arista. The battle was hard fought but the tide turned for the Americans after a successful cavalry attack forced a retreat. The Mexicans suffered 350 killed and wounded, and 150 captured. The Americans suffered 33 killed and 90 wounded.
  
1846  
Battle of Monterey (rio grande border ) Americans victory
This town in southern California was captured from the Mexicans, September 23, 1846, by the Americans, under General Taylor, and this success was followed by the occupation of the whole of Northern Mexico by the American army.
  
1847  
Battle of Angostura (coahuila ) Americans victory
Fought February 21, 1847, between the Mexicans under Santa Anna and the Americans under General Scott, when the Mexicans were totally defeated.
  
1847  
Battle of Buena Vista (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
Fought February 22, 1847, between 18,000 Mexicans under General Santa Anna, and 4,500 Americans under General Zachary Taylor. The Americans occupied a series of heights commanding the Angostura pass, and were there attacked by Santa Anna, who failed to dislodge them, the day ending with the combatants occupying the same ground as in the morning. On the 23rd, however, Santa Anna retired. The Americans lost 746 killed and wounded; the Mexicans admitted a loss of 1, 500 killed, but it was probably heavier.
  
1847  
Battle of Veracruz (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
This city was besieged by a naval assault force of over 12,000 Americans, led by Winfield Scott and Matthew C. Perry. The highly fortified port was defended by 3,360 Mexicans under Juan Morales, and held out for over 20 days before being over-run. The Americans suffered 18 killed and 62 wounded; the Mexicans suffered 180 killed and wounded.
  
1847  
Battle of Molino del Rey (mexico city offensive ) Americans victory
Fought September 8, 1847 just outside of Mexico city. 2,800 Americans under Winfield Scott charged a Mexican fortification at just outside Mexico city. Heavy guns were used to destroy the Mexican fortifications, and the Mexicans were driven from their position. The American losses included 116 killed and over 600 wounded. The Mexicans suffered 270 killed and 500 wounded.
  
1847  
Battle of Chapultepec (nuevo leon ) Americans victory
Fought September 12, 1847 when 13,000 Americans stormed the Castle of Capultepec, headquarters of the Mexican army. The fortifications were protected by 4000 Mexican who suffered over 1800 causalities before yielding to the American charge. Six Cadets refused to retreat and wrapped themselves in Mexican flags before jumping to their death. The result of this battle was that the Mexican army retreated, leaving Mexico city in American hands.
  

Mexican War of Reform — 1857 to 1861

Civil War between anti-clerical Liberals and pro-tradition conservatives.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Franco Mexican War — 1862 to 1867

French attempts to establish a Mexican Empire with the cooperation of the conservative party.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Mexican Revolution — 1910 to 1921

War between the Federal and Constitutionalist parties for control of the Mexican government.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

Conquest of Peru — 1532 to 1546

Spanish Conquest of the Incan Empire of Peru



DateBattle Summary
1530  
Battle of Chimborazo (Civil War of the Incas ) atahualpa victory
Fought 1531, between a northern army supporting Atahualpa, led by his generals Quizquiz and Chalcauchimac and the southern Incas, supporting the Huascar, the rightful heir, led by Atoc. The superior forces under the Atahualpa's generals won the day and captured and tortured Atoc.
  
1532  
Battle of Ambate (Civil War of the Incas ) atahualpa victory
Fought 1532, between the two Peruvian chiefs Atahualpa and Huascar, in which the latter suffered a complete defeat.
  
1532  
Battle of Quipuaypan (conquest ) atahualpa victory
Fought 1532, between the rival Peruvian chiefs, Atahualpa and Huascar. Huascar was totally routed, and taken prisoner.
  
1531  
Battle of Puna (conquest ) Spanish victory
Fought April 1531 when 3000 native warriors on the island of Puna attacked the camp of 160 Spaniards. The superior arms and discipline of the Spaniards won the day and over 3000 natives were slaughters with the loss of only three Spaniards.
  
1532  
Battle of Caxamalca (conquest ) spanish victory
Fought 1531, between 160 Spaniards under Pizarro, and 30,000 Peruvians, forming the escort of the Inca, Manco-Capac. The battle was nothing but a butchery, Pizarro, who had invited the Inca to visit him, falling upon the unsuspecting Peruvians, seizing Manco-Capac, and slaughtering 4,000 men, without the loss of a single Spaniard.
  
1533  
Battle of Cuzco (conquest ) Spanish victory
Fought August through November, 1533 between300 Spaniards, led by Pizarro and his brothers, and a large force of Incas, led by the Incan general Quizquiz, fighting on his own volition after Atahualpa was killed. Quizquiz ambushed the Spaniards at a mountain pass on the approach it Cuzco, and inflicted considerable casualties, but was ultimately overcome by the smaller force. The battle continued outside the capital until Quizquiz fled.
  
1534  
Battle of Maraycalla (conquest ) Spanish victory
Fought in early 1534 several months after the fall of Cuzco, between the Spaniards, led by the Pizarro brothers and Incas led by Quizquiz. The battle went badly for the Incas and Quizquiz was slain by his own men who opposed continued resistance of the Spaniards.
  
1534  
Battle of Chimborazo (conquest ) Spanish victory
Fought between an army of Spaniards, led by Belalcazar, and an Incan army, who still held Northern capital of Quito, led by Ruminahui. After a fierce fight, the Incas were defeated, but Ruminahui burned the town and refused to divulge the location of the Incas gold even under torture.
  
1536  
Siege of Cuzco (conquest ) spanish victory
This city was besieged 1536, by 200,000 Peruvians, under Manco Inca and was defended by 250 Spaniards under Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro. After a siege of five months, Almagro, to whom certain of the conquered territories had been assigned by the king of Spain, arrived with his troops, and attacked and totally routed the Peruvians. He then laid siege to the place on his own account, and shortly afterwards compelled Gonzalo Pizarro to capitulate. Juan died in the course of the siege.
  
1537  
Battle of Ollantaytambo (Inca Rising ) incas victory
Fought between 100 Spaniards under Hernando Pizarro, and 30,000 Incas under the rebel Manco Inca who led an attack against the Spanish-held city of Cuzco. After Spanish reinforcements arrived, they attacked Manco's headquarters at the town of Ollantaytambo, but failed to dislodge the Incas.
  
1538  
Battle of Las Salinas (Aftermath ) pizarros victory
Fought April 20, 1538, between the forces of Francisco Pizarro and those of Almagro. The latter were totally routed, and Almagro captured and executed.
  
1542  
Battle of Chupas (Aftermath ) Royalists victory
Fought September 16, 1542 between forces loyal to Diego Almagro, and royalist forces under Alvarado. Almagro was defeated and executed.
  
1546  
Battle of Anaquito (Aftermath ) pizarro victory
Fought January 8, 1546, between the troops of the Viceroy, Blasco Nunez, and those of Gonzalo Pizarro. Pizarro gained a signal victory, the Viceroy being among the slain, and in consequence the Government of Peru fell into Pizarro's hands.
  
1548  
Battle of Jaquijahuana (Civil War of the Incas ) Royalists victory
Fought April 9, 1548, between forces led by Alvarado, representing the viceroyalty of Peru, and those led by Gonzalo Pizarro, who claimed the governorship. The last of the Pizarros were defeated and the governorship of Peru placed under the Spanish crown.
  

Raids of the Buccaneers — 1670 to 1687

Important battles involving the Pirates of the Caribbean



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

South American War of Independence — 1813 to 1826

South America freed from Spanish control by Generals Bolivar and San Martin.



DateBattle Summary
1811  
Battle of Huagui (Argentine ) Royalists victory
Fought Fall 1811 between a force of Argentine patriots led by Saavendra, and royalist forces. The victory went to the royalists.
  
1813  
Battle of San Lorenzo (Argentine ) Patriots victory
Fought February 3, 1813 between a royalist force of about 250 men, and a patriot cavalry of about 125 led by San Martin. The royalists lost about 40 men and retreated.
  
1815  
Battle of Sipe-Sipe (Chilean ) Royalists victory
Fought Nov 29, 1815 between a royalist force of 5000 under Pezuela, and an Argentine division of 3000 under Jose Rondeau. The Argentine army was almost destroyed, suffering the loss of 2000 men and all their artillery. As a result, the region of upper Peru, (now Bolivia), was lost to the insurgents, and came under control of the royalist forces of Peru.
  
1817  
Battle of Chacabuco (Chilean ) Patriots victory
Fought February 12, 1817, between the Chilian patriots under San Martin, and the Spanish royalists. The Chilians won a complete victory.
  
1818  
Battle of Maypo (Chilean ) Patriots victory
Fought April 5, 1818, between the Chilian Patriots, 9,000 strong, under San Martin, and 6,000 Spanish Royalists, under General Osorio. The Spaniards were totally defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and 2,350 prisoners, the Chilians losing over 1,000 killed and wounded. The result of the battle was the establishment of the independence of Chili.
  
1818  
Battle of Concha Rayada (Chilean ) Royalists victory
Fought March 18 1818, between the Spanish Royalists, 5,000 strong, under General Osorio, and the Chilians and Colombians under San Martin. The Spaniards gained a complete victory.
  
1820  
Battle of Callao (Chilean ) Patriots victory
On the night of November 5, 1820, Lord Cochrane, who with three Chilian frigates was blockading the Spaniards in Callao, rowed into the harbour with 240 seamen and marines, and cut out the Spanish frigate Esmeralda from under the 300 guns of the shore batteries. He lost in the enterprise 41 killed and wounded, while the whole of the crew of the Esmeralda, including the Spanish Admiral, was captured or killed.
  
1826  
Battle of Chiloe (Gran Columbia ) Patriots victory
On January 19, 1826, the small group of islands, held for the Spanish crown by a garrison under Quintanella, was surrendered to a force of Chilians, 4,000 strong, with a small squadron of warships under Freyre.
  
1812  
Battle of San Mateo (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Royalists victory
Fought July 25, 1812 between the Royalists, under Monteverde and the patriots under Miranda. Miranda surrendered, but the conditions of the cease-fire were not honored, Miranda was imprisoned, and many republican sympathizers were slaughtered.
  
1813  
Battle of Betioca (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought 1813, between the Colombian patriots under Simon Bolivar, and the Spanish royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.
  
1813  
Battle of Caracha (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought 1813, between the Colombian Patriots under Bolivar and the Spanish Royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.
  
1813  
Battle of Niquitas (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought 1813, when the Colombian Patriots, under Bolivar, completely defeated the Spanish Royalists.
  
1813  
Battle of Varmas (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought 1813 between the Colombian Patriots, under Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists. The latter were defeated.
  
1813  
Battle of Barquisimeto (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought Nov 10, 1813, between the Colombian patriots under Simon Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.
  
1814  
Battle of La Victoria (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought Feb 12, 1813 between an army of llaneros under the Spanish general Boves, and a greatly outnumbered patriot garrison led by Ribas. The patriots drove the army of Boves out of town and forced a retreat, after heavy losses on both sides.
  
1814  
Siege of San Mateo (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
This place was a patriot stronghold whose garrison was led by Bolivar. It was besieged by a force of Royalists 10 times in number, but held out for several months. Although the Spanish eventually withdrew the Patriots were sorely weakened by the siege.
  
1814  
Battle of Carabobo (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought Spring 1814, between the patriots led by Bolivar, Ribas, and Marino, and a much larger army led by the Spanish general Gagigal, the battle resulted in a patriot victory.
  
1814  
Battle of La Puerta (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Royalists victory
Exhausted and nearly starving from the month long siege of San Mateo, Bolivar's army of patriots, approximately 3000 in number, could not stand against an onslaught of Spanish and llaneros led by Boves. Bolivar scarcely escaped from the field.
  
1814  
Battle of Aragua (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Royalists victory
Fought December, 1814, between the Spanish royalists, under Bover, 8,000 strong, and the American patriots, under Ribas. Ribas was totally defeated, and taken prisoner, and in revenge for the death of Bover, who fell in the battle, he was beheaded, and his head publicly exposed in Caracas.
  
1815  
Siege of Cartagena (Venezuela-2nd Rep ) Royalists victory
This important seaport of New Granada was besieged by the royalists under Morillo in August of 1815. The independents surrendered the city on December 6 of the same year.
  
1816  
Battle of Puente (Argentine Civil War ) Royalists victory
Fought February 16, 1816, between the Colombian Patriots, under Lorrices, and the Spanish Royalists, under Morillo. The Royalists gained a complete victory.
  
1819  
Battle of Pantano de Vargas (Gran Columbia ) Patriots victory
Fought July 24, 1818 between a republica force under Bolivar, which had just crossed the Andes mountains in mid-winter, and about 3,800 Spanish forces. In spite of their near exhaustion, the victory went to the republicans, and the Spanish were prevented from returning to Bogata.
  
1819  
Battle of Boyaca (Gran Columbia ) Patriots victory
Fought August 17, 1819, between the Colombian patriots under Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists, 2,500 strong, under Colonel Barreiro. Bolivar crossed the Cordilleras, under incredible difficulties, and, eluding Barreiro, took up a position at Boyaca, cutting him off from his base at Bogota. The Spaniards attacked him, and were routed with heavy loss, Barreiro and 1,600 men being captured. The patriots lost 66 only.
  
1821  
Battle of Carabobo (Gran Columbia ) Patriots victory
Fought June 24, 1821, between the Colombian patriots, 8,000 strong, under Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists, about 4,000 in number, under La Torre. The Royalists were utterly routed, barely 400 reaching Porto Cabello. This battle determined the independence of Colombia.
  
1823  
Battle of Lake Maracaibo (Peru ) Patriots victory
This naval battle was fought on July 24, 1823 between the patriot nave under Admiral Padilla, and a royalist fleet under Laborde.
  
1824  
Battle of Junin (Peru ) Patriots victory
Fought 1824, between the Spanish Royalists, under General Cauterac, and the Colombian Patriots, under Sucre. The Spaniards were completely defeated.
  
1824  
Battle of Ayacucho (Peru ) Patriots victory
Fought December 9, 1824, between the South American patriots, 5,780 strong, under Sucre, and the Spaniards, 9,310 in number, under Laserna. The latter were routed with a loss of 2,100 killed and wounded, and over 3,500 prisoners, including Laserna, in addition to 15 guns. The Patriots lost 979. This engagement, which is also know as the Battle of Candorcanqui, practically decided the question of South American independence.
  
1825  
Battle of Potosi. (Venezuela-1nd Rep ) Patriots victory
Fought April, 1825, between, the Bolivians, under Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists, under Olaneta. The Spaniards were completely defeated.
  

Paraguayan War — 1865 to 1877

Paraguay breaks away from Bolivar's South American Empire.



DateBattle Summary
0  
Battle of    victory
  

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