City of the Seven Hills - S. B. Harding




Summaries of Chapters


I.—The Peninsula of Italy


  1. Position, size, and shape; comparison with Greece and Spain.
  2. Climate.
  3. Surface: the valley of the River Po; the Apennine mountains; the plains.
  4. Rivers: general character; the Ricer Tiber.
  5. Coast lands: in the northwest; about the mouth of the Tiber; in the south; the eastern coast; the lands about the mouth of the Po.
  6. Early governments in Italy; the city of Rome.

II.—Romulus and the Beginning f Rome


  1. Difficulty of learning how and when Rome was founded; the belief of the Romans.
  2. Early life of Romulus.
  3. Founding of the city.
  4. Seizure of the Sabine women; war; the Sabines settle at Rome.
  5. The rule of Romulus.
  6. His disappearance.

III.—Numa, the Peaceful King


  1. Election of Numa.
  2. His character and policy.
  3. The Roman religion; the gods Jupiter, Mars, Juno, Minerva, Vesta, and Janus.
  4. The worship of the gods arranged by Numa: the Vestal Virgins; the dancing priests of Mars.
  5. Death of Numa.

IV.—The Last of the Kings


  1. New wars: their lesson for the Romans; Alba Longa destroyed.
  2. New walls; sewers; the temple on the Capitol.
  3. The Sybilline books.
  4. Tarquin the Proud, the seventh king.
  5. Tarquin driven out, and a republic set up.

V.—The War with Lars Porsena


  1. Plot of the young nobles to restore Tarquin; the judgment of Brutus.
  2. Lars Porsena aids Tarquin.
  3. Horatius at the Bridge.

VI.—The Stories of Mucius snd Cloelia


  1. The story of Mucius.
  2. Lars Porsena makes peace.
  3. The story of Cloelia.
  4. The last war with Tarquin; Castor and Pollux.

VII.—Secession of the Plebeians


  1. Patricians and plebeians.
  2. The grievances of the plebeians.
  3. Struggles between the classes.
  4. The secession to the Sacred Mount.
  5. Tribunes appointed to protect the plebeians.
  6. Continued struggles.

VIII.—The Story of Coriolanus


  1. Early life of Caius Marcius.
  2. How he gained the name Coriolanus.
  3. His struggle with the plebeians; he is sent into exile. He leads the Volscians against Rome.
  4. Rome saved by Veturia.

IX.—The Family of the Fabii


  1. Roman families.
  2. The Fabii and the plebeians.
  3. The Fabii march against the Veientians.
  4. Destruction of the Fabii.

X.—The Victory of Cincinnatus


  1. The wars with the Aequians.
  2. A Roman army entrapped.
  3. Cincinnatus made Dictator.
  4. His victory over the Aequians.
  5. Cincinnatus lays down his power.

XI.—The Laws of the Twelve Tables


  1. The early Roman law; grievances of the people.
  2. Struggle to have the laws made public.
  3. The "Ten Men" chosen.
  4. The Twelve Tables published..
  5. Their provisions.
  6. Growth of the Roman law; its influence.

XII.—How Camillus Captured Veii


  1. Rome's wars with Veii; the long siege.
  2. The Alban lake and the oracle of Apollo.
  3. Draining the Alban lake.
  4. Camillus captures Veii.
  5. Removal of the gods to Rome.
  6. Camillus and the treacherous schoolmaster.
  7. Camillus quarrels with the people; his exile.

XIII.—The Coming of the Gauls


  1. The home of the Gauls.
  2. Their appearance and manner of fighting.
  3. Settlement of the Gauls in northern Italy.
  4. The Gauls before Clusium; action of the Roman ambassadors.
  5. The Gauls march upon Rome.
  6. The battle; defeat and flight of the Romans.

XIV.—The Gauls in Rome


  1. Dismay in the city; the Roman plans.
  2. The Gauls enter Rome; the old men in the Forum.
  3. Slaughter of the old men; burning of the city.
  4. Siege of the Capitol.
  5. Camillus's victory over a band of the Gauls; the messenger to the Senate.
  6. The attempt of the Gauls to surprise the Capitol; its failure.
  7. The Gauls agree to depart from Rome; their terms.

XV.—Rebuilding the City


  1. Despair of the people; proposal to remove to Veii.
  2. Speech of Camillus.
  3. Decision to remain at Rome.
  4. Rebuilding the city.
  5. Wars with the neighboring peoples; victories of Camillus.
  6. The last war of Camillus; his noble spirit.
  7. Death of Camillus; his services to Rome.

XVI.—The New Rome


  1. Recovery of Rome from her misfortunes.
  2. End of the struggle between the plebeians and patricians.
  3. The building of aqueducts.
  4. Roman roads; the Appian Way.
  5. What Rome learned from other nations.
  6. Devotion of the Romans to their city: the story of Marcus Curtius; the sacrifice of Decius Mus.

XVII.—The War with Pyrrhus


  1. The Greeks of Southern Italy.
  2. Rome's quarrel with Tarentum,
  3. Tarentum calls in King Pyrrhus.
  4. The first battle with Pyrrhus; the Roman and the Greek modes of fighting; defeat of the Romans.
  5. Embassy of Cinias to Rome; speech of Appius Claudius.
  6. Fabricius and Pyrrhus.
  7. Second battle with Pyrrhus; the Romans again defeated.
  8. Pyrrhus in Sicily.
  9. The third battle; victory of the Romans; Pyrrhus leaves Italy.
  10. Capture of Tarentum; Rome the ruler of the peninsula.

XVIII.—Rome and the Carthaginians


  1. The Carthaginians: their mother-country; their voyages; their inventions; the city of Carthage.
  2. Rivalry with Rome in Sicily; beginning of the first war.
  3. Strength of the two peoples.
  4. The Romans build a fleet; the "crows"; Roman victories.
  5. Regulus in Africa; his capture.
  6. Embassy of Regulus to Rome; his death.
  7. Length of the war; Roman misfortunes.
  8. The Romans build a new fleet; its victory.
  9. The treaty of peace.

XIX.—The War with Hannibal


  1. Civil war at Carthage; Hamilcar.
  2. Hamilcar goes to Spain; the oath of Hannibal.
  3. Carthage conquers Spain; Hannibal becomes commander of the army.
  4. Beginning of the second war between Rome and Carthage.
  5. Hannibal's plans.
  6. His march across the Alps.
  7. Arrival in Italy; his successes.
  8. Roman fear of Hannibal.
  9. Causes of Hannibal's failure; his recall.
  10. Scipio Africanus; defeat of Hannibal at Zama.
  11. Terms of peace.
  12. Last years of Hannibal; his death.

XX.—Rome Conquers the World


  1. Rome's gains from Carthage.
  2. Conquest of Northern Italy and Southern Gaul.
  3. Conquest of Macedonia.
  4. The Romans in Asia Minor and in Egypt.
  5. The third war with Carthage; destruction of the city; Roman power in Africa.
  6. Good results of Roman rule.
  7. Effects of the conquests on the Roman generals; on the common soldiers.
  8. Aemilius Paullus: his reforms; his victories over Macedonia; his just dealings.
  9. The triumph of Aemilius.

XXI.—The Gracchi and Their Mother


  1. Roman marriage customs.
  2. Marriage of Tiberius Gracchus and Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africanus; death of Gracchus; Cornelia and her children.
  3. Young Tiberius Gracchus; his service in the army.
  4. Troubles of the Roman farmers; slavery; decay of the people.
  5. Tiberius Gracchus elected tribune; he attempts to cure these evils.
  6. Mistakes of Tiberius; he is put to death; character of the new party struggles at Rome.
  7. Caius Gracchus; his election as tribune; his reforms; his death.
  8. Conduct of Cornelia.

XXII.—The Wars of Caius Marius


  1. Caius Marius; the eagle's nest; the saying of Scipio Aemilianus.
  2. Marius and the war against Jugurtha; his first consulship.
  3. The invasion of the Germans.
  4. Victories of Marius over the Germans.
  5. Marius's sixth consulship; his failure as a statesman.
  6. Civil war between the parties of Marius and Sulla.
  7. The victories of Sulla; wanderings of Marius; departure of Sulla.
  8. Return of Marius to Rome; his cruelties; his seventh consulship and death.
  9. Return of Sulla; his terrible vengeance; sufferings of Italy.

XXIII.—Cicero, the Orator


  1. Birth of Cicero; his home life and training.
  2. Roman schools; Cicero's life till he was fifteen.
  3. Cicero in the law-courts.
  4. His first case; his fear of Sulla's anger; travels in Greece.
  5. Cicero enters politics; trial of Verres.
  6. His election as consul; Catiline's conspiracy.
  7. Evils of Roman government; Cicero's plans.
  8. New civil wars; Cicero's course.
  9. Cicero's death; his character.

XXIV.—Julius Caesar, the Conqueror of Gaul


  1. Caesar's youth; Sulla wishes to put him to death.
  2. Caesar in the East; his first training in war.
  3. His adventure with the pirates.
  4. Caesar at Rome; his habits.
  5. Caesar made overseer of the public games.
  6. Character of the games: the chariot races; the wild beast hunts; the gladiatorial combats.
  7. Caesar and Pompey; Caesar elected consul, and made governor of GauL
  8. Condition of Gaul.
  9. Caesar's victory over the Swiss.
  10. His march against the Germans; trouble with his soldiers.
  11. Extent of his conquests; expeditions into Germany and Britain.
  12. Caesar's character as a general.

XXV.—Caesar and the Beginning of the Empire


  1. Failure of the government of Rome; the remedy.
  2. Pompey joins the party of the Senate; plans against Caesar.
  3. Caesar crosses the Rubicon; the second civil war begins.
  4. Flight of Pompey to Greece; Caesar goes to Spain.
  5. Caesar follows Pompey to Greece; defeat and death of Pompey
  6. Further conquests of Caesar; mutiny of his soldiers.
  7. Caesar's four-fold triumph.
  8. Caesar as Emperor; his reforms.
  9. Plot against Caesar; his death.
  10. His character.

XXVI.—Rome in the Time of Augustus


  1. Struggles after Caesar's death; his nephew becomes Emperor.
  2. The good rule of Augustus; boundaries of the Empire.
  3. Literature under Augustus; the poet Horace.
  4. A day in Rome: clients and the morning reception; the business in the Forum; the mid-day rest; exercise in the Field of Mars; the baths; the banquet.

XXVII.—The Empire After Augustus


  1. The successors of Augustus; Nero.
  2. The Good Emperors: Trajan; Hadrian; Marcus Aurelius.
  3. Decline of the Empire; danger from the Germans; the emperor Diocletian.
  4. Constantine the Great; the Christian religion; Constantinople.
  5. Division of the Empire; attacks of the Germans; fall of the Empire of the West.
  6. The German conquest paves the way for modern Europe.

XXVIII.—The Christians and the Empire


  1. Spread of Christianity in the Empire.
  2. Attitude of the government; "To the lions with the Christians!"
  3. Persecution under Nero.
  4. The Catacombs.
  5. Bravery of the Martyrs; Polycarp.
  6. Failure of the persecutions to check the growth of Christianity.
  7. The Empire becomes Christian; Constantine; end of the old religion.

XXIX.—The Remains of Rome


  1. Roman remains: language, laws, ruins.
  2. Eruption of Vesuvius, 79 A. D.
  3. Discovery of the buried cities; Pompeii.
  4. Streets and public buildings of Pompeii.
  5. The private dwellings.
  6. Pictures and furniture.
  7. Pompeiian shops.
  8. Writings on the walls.
  9. Disappearance of the ancient remains at Rome.
  10. The old in the new.