Greatest Nations: Spain - C. F. Horne

Chronology of Spain

British at Gibralter


1100 B.C.(approx)Cadiz founded by the Phoenicians.
800 B.C.(approx)Rhodia founded on the coast of Catalonia.
264-241First War between Rome and Carthage.
236 B.C.Hamilcar entered Spain to make it a Carthaginian province.
228 B.C.Hasdrubal continued the work of subjugation.
218 B.C.Hannibal captured Saguntum; beginning of the Second Punic War.
206 B.C.The Carthaginians driven from the Peninsula by Romans; who divide the country into Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
190 B.C.Cato put down rebellion.
154 B.C.The Romans defeated by the Lusitanians.
133 B.C.Scipio destroyed Numantia; the growth of Roman civilization promoted.
105 B.C.Great invasion from the Cimbri; the country saved by the Celteberi.
97 B.C.The Celteberians rose against Rome, under Sertorius.
71 B.C.Pompey reconquered the country for Rome.
61 B.C.Caesar was governor of Further Spain.
49 B.C.Civil war with Pompey.
45 B.C.Caesar defeated Pompey's sons near Cordova, and became master of the Roman world.
27 B.C.Augustus won decisive victories over the wild northern tribes.
19 B.C.The Roman conquest of Spain complete; the country divided into three provinces; Tarraconensis, Baetica, and Lusitania; many Roman towns established.
256 A.D. Spain ravaged by the Franks.
409After a long period of prosperity, a tide of barbarism swept over the country.
414The Visigoths entered Spain, under Ataulfus.
415Wallia succeeded Ataulfus, conquered the barbarians and founded the Visigothic kingdom.
456Theodoric II. defeated the Suevi.
466Euric made the country still more independent of Rome and framed the Gothic Code.
483Alaric II. became King.
506The Story of the Greatest Nations Amalaric ruled; the kingdom declining before the Franks.
586Recared, the first Catholic King of Spain, gave great power to the ecclesiastics; persecution of the Jews.
709Roderick ruled all Spain.
711The Saracens, under Tarik, entered Spain and overthrew the Gothic dominion; battle of Xeres.
718The Christian Pelayo was made King in Asturias.
720Battle of Covadonga.
731Battle of Toulouse.
732The Saracens defeated at Tours by Charles Martel; retreat of the Moors to southern Spain.
755Abderahman landed in Spain and took command of Andalusia, making Cordova a splendid city and an independent Caliphate.
777Unsuccessful invasion of Charlemagne.
778Defeat of the Franks by the Basques at Roncesvalles.
788Death of Abderahman.
837The kingdom of Navarre founded.
910Leon made the capital of the Spanish King, Garcia.
932Fernan Gonsalez asserts the independence of Castile.
976Beginning of the remarkable career of Almanzor, who conquered Leon, Barcelona, and Pampeluna, and was caliph in all but name till 1002.
1035Ramirez I. established the Kingdom of Aragon.
1072The King of Leon becomes King of Castile also; the Cid quarrels with him.
1085Alfonso VI. of Castile captures Toledo.
1095The Cid captures Valencia; Portugal taken from the Saracens by Henry of Besancon; dynasty of the Almoravides set up at Cordova.
1096Pedro I. of Aragon defeats the Moors and Castilians at Alcoraz.
1099Death of the Cid.
1137Catalonia and Aragon united.
1144Alfonso of Leon defeated the Moors; dynasty of the Almonades at Cordova.
1212Victory of the Christians at Las Navas de Tolosa decided the fate of Spain.
1228James of Aragon captures the Balearic Isles.
1230Castile and Leon finally united.
1232Fall of the Almonades.
1235Ferdinand III. captured Cordova.
1238The kingdom of Granada begun by the Moors.
1248Ferdinand III. captured Seville; work on the Alhambra begun.
1274The crown of Navarre passed to the royal family of France.
1367Battle of Navarrete saves Pedro the Cruel.
1369Death of Pedro.
1469Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella united the Christian dominions of Spain.
1481Establishment of the Inquisition.
1492Granada captured; Columbus sent to explore the western ocean.
1504Death of Isabella.
1506Death of Columbus.
1512Ferdinand conquered the greater part of Navarre.
1516Death of Ferdinand; accession of the House of Austria to the throne of Spain.
1519Charles V. Emperor.
1522The communes defeated at Villalar.
1556Abdication of Charles; Philip II. reigned.
1571Great sea-fight of Lepanto.
1572Beginning of the long wars with Holland.
1580Portugal successfully claimed.
1588Destruction of the Spanish Armada.
1598Philip III. became King.
1610Expulsion of the Moors from Spain, with disastrous consequences to the country.
1620Spain became involved in the Thirty Years' War between Bohemia and Austria.
1621Philip IV. succeeded his father.
1631The Treaty of Cherasco extorted by Richelieu; the Spaniards driven from the Rhine.
1640Internal dissensions; Catalonia formed itself into a republic; revolt in Lisbon and the Portuguese crown assumed by John of Braganza.
1648Spain transferred the districts of Brabant, Flanders and Limburg to Holland, and surrendered her claims to sovereignty over the northern provinces.
1659By the Treaty of the Pyrenees, Spain gave Roussillon and Cerdagne and other possessions to France, while France recognized Catalonia as a province of Spain.
1665The Spanish forces routed by the French at Villaviciosa; Charles II. became King, under regency of Maria Anna.
1668Spain purchased the restoration of Franche-Comte by ceding part of Flanders to France in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1668Independence of Portugal acknowledged.
1680France secured more Spanish territory.
1686Spain became a member of the league of Augsburg.
1697The war between France and Spain concluded by the Treaty of Ryswick; the Spanish succession became an important question.
1700Charles II. died, bequeathing the succession to Philip of Bourbon, who became Philip V. of Spain.
1701War of the Spanish Succession.
1705Charles III. was acknowledged in Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia.
1713Treaty of Utrecht, between England, France, Spain and Holland; Philip V. acknowledged; administration of Alberoni; the Queen's ambitions.
1729England, France and Holland formed an offensive and defensive alliance with Spain.
1739Maritime war with England.
1745Ferdinand IV. became King.
1748Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1759Accession of Charles III.
1779Spain allied herself with the American colonists.
1788Charles IV. became King; Spanish fortunes influenced by the French revolution; schemes of the Queen and Godoy.
1801Spain attacked Portugal in the interests of France.
1803Bonaparte compelled a burdensome treaty, involving Spain in a new war with England.
1808Charles IV. abdicated and the crown of Spain was conferred by Napoleon on his brother Joseph; the people infuriated.
1814Ferdinand VII. was released from captivity and permitted to become ruler of Spain.
1818Ferdinand sold Florida to the United States.
1820The Inquisition abolished by the Cortes and other reforms instituted.
1823The King revoked all acts of the Cortes.
1833Isabella proclaimed Queen, with her mother regent; the Carlist struggle; faction and intrigue during the reign.
1868The people revolted and Isabella fled to France; Serrano regent during the interregnum.
1870Assassination of General Prim.
1871Amadeus became constitutional king.
1873Amadeus resigned and a provisional republic was formed.
1874The monarchy restored and crown accepted by Alfonso XII.
1876Termination of the Carlist War.
1885Death of Alfonso XII.
1886Birth of a posthumous son to Alfonso XII. and Maria Christina; regency of the Queen.
1897Canovas, the prime minister, assassinated.
1898Disastrous war with the United States.
1901Marriage of the Infanta Maria and Prince Charles of Bourbon.
1902Coronation of Alfonso XIII.
1903Death of Prime Minister Sagasta.

Hispanic History