Rockefeller Internationalist - Emanuel Josephson




Institute for Medical Research —
'Philanthropy', Drugs, and Treason

The "Rockefeller Institute For Medical Research" was John D.'s first bid for public favor. It was intended to allay the bitter antagonism that his activities had created and had made him "the most hated man in America". This was done by bribing public opinion through a pretended interest in their health.

This plan was first conceived by Reverend Frederick Taylor Gates, an amazing and completely underestimated character who has left an indelible stamp on world history of an entirely unclerical nature. His influence derived from his collaboration with the Rockefellers in a conspiracy for a super-Napoleonic world conquest under the sham front of philanthropy.

Frederick Taylor Gates was born on a farm in Broome County, N.Y., in 1853. His father had studied medicine, which may serve to explain the son's interest in the subject, much as the medical quackery of John D.'s father, "Doc" William Avery Rockefeller, whetted the interest of his son. Gates' father, unlike John D.'s never practised medicine, but became a pitifully underpaid Baptist minister who served in country churches at Lamb's Corner, Mott's Corner and Ovid, N.Y. In his unpublished manuscript, Autobiography, which is quoted in Professor Allan Nevins' official biography, authorized by the family, entitled John D. Rockefeller, Gates expressed his bitter resentment of the family's poverty during his boyhood and his hatred of the rigid religious discipline to which he was subjected. He wrote:

"People handed their church subscriptions to my father from time to time in cash, as it became convenient. Father's usual salary amounted to about $250 per annum, and his 'donations' added $50 more. His wood was usually furnished, and we had trifling presents. So we were always poor, and during the Civil War we became progressively poorer, because while the salary did not rise, the cost of living did. Father's was probably a typical case of the country pastor. He had to keep a horse, because his church membership was scattered, and expected the usual amount of pastoral visits and preaching at out-stations. He had to dress in ministerial broadcloth and wear a silk hat; he must take papers and magazines, and read books, and his wife and family must dress respectably. Father always had to pay a rental of not less, I think, than $50 a year for his house. He received a few wedding fees of from $2 to $5, but never, I believe, a funeral fee. Never while he lived in the State of New York did Father receive as much as $400 in money in any one year."

"The best religion had to offer me as a boy, was death and heaven, the very things I most dreaded,—being a normal, healthy boy."

Nevins recounts that "there was impatience, too, in his recollections of some crudities of rural religion—the public baptism in the creek, with hymns and prayers, and the revivals."

Gates' father was sent by the Baptists' home-mission service to Forest City, Kansas, in 1868. Fred attended Highland University, Kansas, for a brief period; and at the age of fifteen he left to teach primary school for three winters. He then went to work for a bank and proved himself to be a good money-getter. He also sold patent harrows and earned $1500 in commissions. In 1875 he entered the University of Rochester and two years later, he matriculated at the Rochester Theological Seminary. He emerged a "modernist" minister, whose prime interest was money-getting, and became pastor of a poor congregation in Minneapolis. A series of essays in the Minneapolis Tribune on the happier observance of Sunday attracted attention and drew the interest of wealthy George A. Pillsbury, who called him in to advise on the disposal of his estate in a manner that would draw public interest.

Gates shrewdly carved out a job for himself by recommending to Pillsbury that he should give the Owatonna Academy only $50,000 forthwith, on condition that the Baptist community raise an equal amount; and that he leave the additional $150,000 he had planned to give the Academy, in his will. He then took on the job of raising the funds; and was so successful that he was offered simultaneously the positions of principal of the newly named Pillsbury Academy and the presidency of the University of Rochester. He accepted neither, for in the meantime, he had attended the May, 1888 meeting of the American Baptist Education Society, and was appointed its executive secretary.

In his new post, Gates was in an excellent position to reveal and give full play to his true nature. Nevins makes it quite clear that Gates was quite as adept at using the front of religion and the ministry to advance his interests and those of his associates as was Rockefeller, and he became skillful at using the "philanthropic" fronts for the same purpose. Nevins points out that Gates was in essence "a business man with a talent for large affairs, a keen interest in the power of money . . . ", who "combined strong altruism in some directions with strong self-interest in others."

He gives the impression of having entered the ministry despite his aversion to fundamentalist religion for the primary purpose of advancing and serving himself; and he frankly acknowledged that he was attracted by Christ's "social and moral teachings . . . and . . . I wanted to side with him and his friends against the world and his enemies. That frankly was the only 'conversion' I ever had." Nevins comments that it was an intellectual rather than an emotional experience. At any rate, he states: "He was, in short, a man after Rockefeller's own heart" or lack of heart.

Considerable light is thrown on Gates' character by the rules that he drew up for a financial agent of a Western college for raising money, that Nevins cites from the records of the General Education Board.

"Keep your victim good-natured", he admonished. "Let the victim talk freely, especially in the early part of the interview, while you use the opportunity to study his peculiarities. Never argue with him. Never contradict him . . . Give your fish the reel and listen with deep interest. Appeal only to his nobler motives. His own mind will suggest to him the lower and selfish ones."

He was as cold, callous, cynical, calculating, hard and unscrupulous as any swindler. The old adage that "birds of a feather flock together" no doubt accounts for Rockefeller's attraction to Gates; and in addition there were financial advantages that Gates gained for Rockefeller in the course of his religious activities.

Gates used his position to ingratiate and serve the wealthiest co-religionist, John D. Rockefeller. It was not long before John D. recognized his shrewdness, his unscrupulousness, his inordinate ambition and his business ability. First, he employed him as adviser in his "philanthropic" investments only, but it was not long before Rockefeller retained Gates to manage his other investments as well. John K. Winkler, in his John D.—A Portrait in Oil, reports Rockefeller's tribute to Gates, as follows:

"Fred Gates was a wonderful business man. His work for the American Baptist Education Society required him to travel extensively. Once, as he was going south, I asked him to look into an iron mill in which I had an interest. His report was a model of clarity!

"Then I asked him to make some investigations of other property in the west. I had been told this particular company was rolling in wealth. Mr. Gates' report showed I had been deceived.

"Now I realized that I had met a commercial genius. I persuaded Mr. Gates to become a man of business."

As a businessman Gates managed the notorious Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. through his nephew, Bowers, whom he made president of the company.

One of the principal agencies for seducing public opinion, lulling suspicion and creating a false sense of trust, while at the same time reaping enormous profits from their victims, was medical research and practise. Gates acknowledges in his Autobiography, quoted by Nevins, that it was he who inspired and initiated the schemes to take over control of medical education and practise, beginning with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, that have progressed until today they dictate medical practise and what remedies may be used. They derive from this, unconscionable profits that levy a toll of billions of dollars on the victims for their patent medicines, whether they be good, indifferent, bad or positively harmful and lethal. It is a far cry from the shekels garnered by quack patent-medicine vendor, William Avery Rockefeller, to the billions raked in by his descendants through their I.G. Farbenindustrie and other Drug Trust concerns; the spirit, however, is the same.

Gates' story of his inception of this medical enterprise, that eventually was to prove richer than his most avaricious dreams, goes back to the days of his pastorate in Minneapolis. The homeopathic physicians of his parish, who were unaware of the allopathic medical training his father had received, appealed to Pastor Gates for his support and gave him Hahnemann's Organon to read. He regarded it, as do most allopaths, as absurd; and he reported himself as "depressed to learn that there were thirty schools teaching their doctrines in the country." When he undertook to investigate the practises of the allopathic physicians and to read Osier's Principles and Practise of Medicine, he discovered that all medical treatment of the time was empiric, and that the majority of patients recovered in spite of it. And he awoke to the realization that whereas the homeopathic remedies were harmless, not so much could be said for some of the poisons used by the allopaths in larger doses. Quoting from the Nevins biography:

"Being thus convinced that medicine as taught and practised in the United States was at best largely futile and at worst very injurious, Gates searched in Osier for proof or disproof. He thought he found a verification. Osier's pages indicated that of hundreds of diseases then recognized, the best medical practise did not as yet know any certain cure for more than four or five."

Gates' imagination was fired by the discoveries of Pasteur and Koch and the institutes established in their names; and by the profits accruing from the sale of antitoxins and sera. He also discerned the large profits derived directly and indirectly from medical schools. Here was a field closest to the hearts and purses of all men; for the desperately ill are generally willing to spend all that they have to recover their health, which for them is the most precious of all things. Gates was shrewd and hard enough to realize that the domination of medicine would inevitably prove profitable in many directions; but he was also cunning enough to invest his purposes with the sham cloak of philanthropy in the records. Gates states in his Autobiography:

"Filled with these thoughts and enthusiasm, I returned from my vacation on July 24, 1897. I brought my Osier book into the office at 26 Broadway, and I dictated for Mr. Rockefeller, who was summering, as usual, at Cleveland, a memorandum. It enumerated the infectious diseases, and pointed out how few germs had yet been discovered, and how great the field for discovery, how few specifics had been found and how appalling was the unremedied suffering and fatality. It pointed out the usefulness of the Koch Institute in Berlin and the success of the Pasteur Institute in France."

The Rockefellers, whose medical background paralleled that of Gates, as has been related, promptly recognized the value of Gates' suggestion. They delegated Starr J. Murphy, an attorney from Montclair and a neighbor of Gates, to make a survey to determine the best way to go about stimulating medical research in the country. He brought in a report that it would be most profitable to subsidize promising research workers engaged in various parts of the land, but that this procedure would not serve as well the purposes of controlling medicine that the Rockefeller-Gates team always had uppermost in mind, as would an institute which they were bent on setting up. In 1901 John D. Jr. offered a group of medical men, including Drs. L. Emmett Holt, Christian A. Herter, T. Mitchell Pruden, Hermann M. Biggs, William H. Welch, Theobald Smith and Simon Flexner, an average of $20,000 a year for ten years, increased to a million dollars the following year, for the purpose of setting up the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Simon Flexner and Abraham Flexner did "the most important work for Gates' fundamental idea".

Before considering the consequences to medical practise and advance of the Rockefeller Institute and the domination attained thereby, mention will be made of Gates' foray into the field of medical education, domination of which was essential for control of medicine. The "reorganization" of medical education along the lines Gates desired was launched by the General Education Board, in which Gates was boss. For this purpose Gates' hatchet man was Abraham Flexner, who had been employed by the Rockefeller-dominated Carnegie Foundation as an expert, and had written two books on medical education,—$Medical Education in the United States and Medical Education in Europe. The medico-political battle for the control of medical education, its prestige, its profits and its other advantages, that had raged furiously and often violently from the very beginnings of medical education in this country, was decided in the latter part of the 19th century, by Rockefeller millions, in favor of the Gates-Rockefeller team and their henchmen.

Abraham Flexner's study of medical schools, launched in 1910, was a joint venture of the Carnegie Foundation, the Rockefeller-Gates General Education Board and the American Medical Association. The American Medical Association was controlled at that time by an advertising quack abortionist by the name of "Doc" George H. Simmons, who had never had a day of medical education in his life but, after practising for decades had received his M.D. degree by mail from a diploma mill operated by the Rush Medical School. Rush later became the medical department of Rockefeller's University of Chicago. Simmons was a fit partner for the Gates-Rockefeller combine. He welcomed their cooperation in gaining monopolistic control of medicine, which was also one of the prime objects of his A.M.A. However, he reserved for himself the absolute control of the very lucrative medical advertising, in his medium, the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Competition in the medical-school business had become so keen that Simmons and his worthy associates were delighted to have the cooperation of Gates and Flexner and the support of Rockefeller in putting competitors out of business. The Rockefeller mob bought their way into control of the medical schools that they decided should survive, by "grants" from the General Education Board and the Rockefeller Foundation. Up to 1919, the Board paid out more than $5,000,000 to Johns Hopkins, Yale and Washington medical schools; and on September 20, 1919, John D. turned over to his agents more than $20,000,000 in securities "for the advancement of medical education in the United States". He earmarked additional sums at later dates for this worthy purpose.

These well-heeled forces launched a violent campaign of calumny and slander against medical schools in which the socially or religiously elect political bosses of medicine had no interest. The competing schools were represented as low-grade and inferior. While it is true that the standards of some of them were low, few were lower in calibre than many of the schools sponsored by associates of the Rockefeller-Gates gang and approved by them for reasons of self-interest. Over half of the 165 medical schools in the country were forced to close their doors, and the Rockefeller-Gates-Flexner-Simmons-A.M.A. gang were left in control of medical education in the U.S. After Simmons retired, his worthy heir, Morris Fishbein, became the "red herring" and "hatchet man" for the gang, in much the same sense as President Truman correctly pointed out that Alger Hiss was their "red herring" in other activities.

The control of medical education gave the Rockefeller interests the scope that power-mad Rev. Frederick Taylor Gates sought. Through control of medical education, he and his sponsors gained control of the right to practise medicine and the power of medical licensing. They could dictate by whom medicine could be practised and how they must practise it. Such broad powers over the health and lives of the people, gained under the pretense of "philanthropy" and "benevolence", mark the worst aspects of the most menacing dictatorships. In Nazi Germany, under the inspiration and guidance of Rockefeller henchman Alexis Carrel, such powers were used to sterilize all enemies of the ruling gang and to murder millions of humans.

The device through which these powers are enforced today, is the power to dictate "good medical practise". This "good medical practise" does not imply that it is good for the patient. On the contrary, it may mean a death warrant for the patient.

One such instance is the use of radium in the treatment of cancer despite the fact that it often causes the victim so treated untold misery and that it frequently causes cancer. Another instance is the use of testosterone, marketed under patents which Rockefeller's Drug Trust controls, for the restoration of sex vigor. Testosterone is synthesized at a nominal cost but is sold at a retail price of almost one million dollars a pound. It has caused so much cancer among its users, who are lured by false advertising, that a warning against its use has been issued by the Federal Government.

However, the doctor who follows the "good medical practise" as dictated, is free to maim and exterminate humans with absolute impunity and complete freedom from reprisals, even though it can be proved that he was aware in advance of the injury that would result from his "good practise". A case in point is the Lempert Fenestration Operation.

The Gates-Rockefeller-A.M.A. Medical Trust not only has the power to dictate how medicine shall be practised, and by whom, but it also has acquired the power to prescribe what drugs may be used in medical practise and to dictate that those drugs must be used in "good practise". This has enabled the conspirators to gain fabulous profits through their international Drug Trust, which they have been building up steadily since their organization of the I.G. Farbenindustrie. Every supposed discovery of a new remedy by their Rockefeller Institute or by agencies subsidized by the Rockefeller Foundation, and every discovery made by independent agencies of which they gain control, is promptly exploited, with or without patenting, and sensationally advertised in the best patent-medicine show tradition, hawked to the public through the entire publicity and propaganda machinery of the country, which they control, established as "good practise" and foisted upon the medical profession and the public as a "life saver", at outrageous prices that yield them enormous profits.

The entry of the Rockefeller interests into the field of medicine has materially retarded its advance. Except in the direction of the development of new drugs which they sell the public at exorbitant prices and tremendous profits through concerns owned or controlled by them, and which are marketed with all the advertising that their forces can muster without any regard as to whether they are injurious or beneficial,—with this striking exception, the advances that have been made in medicine in the past half century of their control, have taken place largely in spite of the baneful influence the Rockefeller "philanthropies" have exercised.

In the field of medical research, the Rockefellers and their agents have created the usual, unhealthy atmosphere that results from their predatory entry into any new field. Intensive commercialization and monopoly have become the keynotes of medicine and of medical research. Vested interests and frank rackets have been created or enhanced in those fields. Institutional and personal jealousies and commercial rivalries have been intensified by the power acquired by small cliques with the funds of the Institute and of other Rockefeller controlled "philanthropies" and allied organizations.

This situation was well described in thinly masked fictional form by Sinclair Lewis in his Arrowsmith, which centered about a true story of Rockefeller Institute activities. A factual exposure of the evil influence of the Rockefeller medical "philanthropies" was published by Hans Zinnser, a brilliant bacteriologist, researcher and scholar, in the February 1927 issue of Atlantic Monthly magazine.

The medical research cliques thus subsidized seek to protect their reputations and jobs, as well as the prestige of their institutions upon which both are dependent, by setting up a monopolistic control of research. Manuscripts of research results are censored by them to make sure that no researcher can publish a discovery that will enhance his reputation to the detriment or overshadowing of their own, or that will jeopardize commercial interests with which they or their sponsors are allied. For this purpose they have reestablished medieval dogmatism in many medical fields and a monopoly of medical education. They conspire to dictate "accepted medical practice". They dictate the directions which research shall take and block research by capable, independent workers whenever they can. They undertake to protect their own mediocrity and ineptitude by the device of group medical research which enables them to take for themselves the credit for the work of others. Discoveries by independent research workers, no matter how important, are suppressed, or stolen, unless it serves their purposes to permit release or publication of them.

Thus one of the most important medical discoveries of the past two decades has been the discovery of a method of successfully treating with small doses of a cheap mineral, manganese, myasthenia gravis. The disease without the treatment is hopelessly fatal. The discovery has been completely barred from mention in medical literature and has been barred from use to save the lives of the victims in institutions and hospitals of the country, by the conspirators. This is done primarily for political purposes. But it also serves to protect the investment of the drug firm of Hoffman LaRoche, one of the licensees of the Rockefeller controlled German Drug Trust, in prostigmine, a costly drug which sometimes gives temporary relief to the victims in the early stages of the disease but hastens their death in the later stages. Medical literature permits the mention of prostigmine only in a favorably endorsed light, in the treatment of myasthenia gravis; and has established this finally lethal drug as "accepted practice" in the disease. Any mention of the cheap but effective manganese in the treatment of myasthenia gravis is barred in medical or popular literature despite the fact that the disease is growing more widespread. The newspapers report tragically needless deaths from it with increasing regularity, though there is no reason for death from the disease in the present state of medical knowledge.

Another instance of the endorsement as "accepted practice" of an injurious but lucrative treatment, is the Lempert Fenestration Operation for the supposed relief of deafness. In a large proportion of its victims, the hearing is destroyed by the inflammation of the inner ear caused by the injury of the operation; and in no case does the hearing, even if slightly improved temporarily in rare cases, survive the operation more than a few years. In contrast with these ugly results of operation, unoperated cases rarely lose their hearing completely. In every case the sense of equilibrium is destroyed by the operation and in many cases the victims are unable to live a normal life or engage in their vocations because of it; and often the sense of sight is impaired by the operation. So much damage is done by the operation that it can not be regarded as being anything short of mayhem. In spite of this it has been given the status of "accepted practice"; and numerous victims are maimed by it, because it serves the commercial interests of certain medical politicians, thanks to the monopolistic control of medicine and its publications which "philanthropy" has helped to create. The victims are lured by fake favorable publicity made possible by the monopoly thus created.

As might be expected under the circumstances and from the character of its sponsorship, few significant medical discoveries have emanated from the Rockefeller Institute. In an era that has been signalized by vast strides in the chemistry of medicine, no basic discoveries and few significant ones have emanated from the Institute in spite of the vast interests of its sponsors in the chemical and drug monopolies, so detrimental has been the atmosphere of the Institute to medical discovery. Its chief accomplishments have been political.

Many so-called "medical discoveries", however, have been announced by the Rockefeller Institute. Among them have been the supposed "discoveries" of the organisms that cause infantile paralysis, smallpox, mumps, measles and yellow fever; and the "discovery" of preventive vaccines for pneumonia and yellow fever. All of these "discoveries" announced by the Institute have proved false. But most of them have served definite and profitable purposes and have been exploited commercially and intensively.

The Rockefeller Institute pretends to release its "discoveries" for the "free use of mankind". But there have come to light instances of its patenting discoveries and licensing them to specific drug firms, more especially those controlled by the Rockefeller interests. An example is the dangerous arsenical drug, tryparsamide. This drug is so poisonous that its use was virtually abandoned in the treatment of syphilis, except for animal experimentation, by its original discoverer, Paul Ehrlich, in favor of the relatively non-poisonous drug salvarsan. Tryparsamide causes permanent blindness or death in a high percentage of the victims on whom it is used. Clinically its use was regarded as justified only in hopeless cases of trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, before the discovery of a less poisonous remedy.

An improvement in the commercial method of production of tryparsamide was developed by one of the employees of the Rockefeller Institute, which patented it. The Institute licensed the patent to Merck & Co., one of the German chain of drug concerns, which marketed it. At the time of the "social hygiene", anti-venereal campaign, launched in the early days of the "New Deal", that was sponsored by the Rockefeller and allied interests which control the chemical firms that produce salvarsan and the other anti-venereal drugs, orders were issued to the doctors engaged in the treatment of venereal diseases in clinics set up for the purpose, that a certain percentage of the victims had to be treated with the blinding tryparsamide. The clinics of the Health Department of the City of New York employed eye doctors to examine the victims for the damage and blindness caused by the drug. This was not done as a precautionary measure, because once the blindness had set in, nothing was known to stop its progress. It was done as a matter of commercial research on human guinea pigs.

The Rockefeller Institute licensee, Merck & Co., sold much tryparsamide for this purpose. Many victims of the treatment were blinded by it. But, as far as can be determined, Merck & Co. paid the Rockefeller interests the royalties due on the tryparsamide patents. Inquiries directed to the Institute elicited no answer from it on the royalties or the manner in which they were paid. The Institute, unlike most foundations, publishes no information on the stocks which it holds, so that it is not possible to state if it or its sponsors hold Merck stock. At any rate, it conferred on pathetic victims the "philanthropic" gift of blindness.

How many of the fake "discoveries" have been patented and exploited for the advantage of the Rockefeller Institute or its sponsors, has not been revealed by them. It is a matter of record, however, that the Lederle Laboratories, subsidiary of Rockefeller controlled American Cyanamid Co., intensively exploited the worthless "anti-pneumococcus" serum "discovery" by the Institute's workers; and though it was known in scientific circles to be worthless, enough of it was unloaded on the sucker public, at exorbitant prices, to make the Company and its stockholders a sizeable fortune.

Through similar exploitation of other products, Lederle has become one of the most profitable divisions of American Cyanamid, and one of the most profitable drug concerns in the country. Within the past year the stock has more than doubled in value on the basis of exploitation of drugs of supposed or real value, to sell at approximately one hundred dollars a share, and earnings have risen from a bit over $2.00 per share on its 3,931,000 shares of common stock in 1945 to an estimated $12.00 per share in the current year. It required merely a rumor of its marketing of a supposed preventive of infantile paralysis to bring about a bull market in the stock, that raised its price from a low of approximately $72 a share to more than $131 per share in the past nine months, so enormous have been the profits in drugs and antibiotics.

The Rockefeller interests have steadily expanded their holdings in the drug industry to the point at which they control the major drug concerns in the world, and are rapidly absorbing new ones by the process of merger. They have all been integrated into a cartel that maintains an absolute monopolistic control of the drug industry.

Control of the Food and Drug Administration, health departments and other government agencies have given the Rockefeller Drug Cartel a virtual monopoly of marketing of drugs, especially of new drugs. They are free to exploit any patent medicines they wish, in any manner they might choose to use. Thus the anti-histaminic fraud which would have landed any less powerful drug vendors in jail, they were able to exploit as crudely as any of the most vicious quack patent medicines of the past half century. The spurious claims made were known to be false from the start. The brief, high-pressure and cunning advertising campaign netted many millions of the sucker public's money in profits; and only a few of the victims died, fewer than are usually claimed by these quack medicine campaigns.

The profits of these newer patent medicine monopolies are fabulous. Sulfanilamide tablets that cost a fraction of a cent, for instance, were sold as high as thirty cents a piece when they originally launched them on the market with a publicity release on their use by a Roosevelt. Generally the stunt of withholding the use of the drug from the rank and file of the medical profession under the guise of complying with F.D.A. regulations, together with intensive newspaper publicity worth millions of dollars, in which grossly exaggerated claims are made, for which they pay their controlled press nothing, serves to whip up a frenzied public demand. This permits them to exact exorbitant prices.

In the case of cortisone, their overrated remedy and panacea for arthritis, for instance, they have even brought the government into the picture to give them millions of dollars of free advertising for their product. They have made it an excuse for another raid on the public treasury by way of ECA and Point 4 grants of tens of millions of dollars for the supposed quest in Africa, which they are now beginning to exploit for oil and other products, of raw materials for the production of the drug, many of which are plentifully available on this continent. Fabulous prices have been paid for the drug by victims, as much as one hundred dollars a dose; and the current list price is one dollar a tablet. The direct and indirect profits to the Cartel from this patent-medicine exploit has run into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Also the political and oily business objectives of the Rockefeller Empire in Africa have been materially furthered by it. In the end it has proved that cortisone may do more harm than good for the victims of arthritis and other diseases, after an initial boost in some cases.

The Rockefeller subsidized "authorities" who established "good practise" in the use of sulfanilamide dictated such huge dosage in order to increase the sales of the vendors, that they poisoned their patients and in some cases killed them. These "authorities" who alone were decreed to be competent to observe the effects of the drug and advise on its use, made enormous incomes from its exclusive use for a long period. They also established as "good practise" the administration of the large and poisonous doses. When it was brought to light that the drug acts as a posion that interferes with the utilization of the essential vitamin, nicotinic acid, and precipitates pellagra in many victims, the discovery was barred from publication in medical journals in the U.S. and abroad; and it only appeared in the British scientific publication Nature because censorship in that direction had been overlooked. These instances could be multiplied indefinitely.

Thus ruthless exploitation of the public by the Cartel has become a fixed practise. Each year there are scheduled by it a number of new "wonder drugs" to be launched as a device for the merciless exploitation, mulcting and victimization of the sick, the halt, the lame and the blind. Following cortisone, for instance, came ACTH, an even more dangerous drug. When administered to young children, as has been done in some hospitals, it distorts the shape of the head and face by interference with growth; and makes the child victim "moon-faced". But these injuries are carefully hushed up by the Cartel with cooperative, complacent and unscrupulous medical bosses.

The fabulous profits roll in to the tune of millions of dollars. The Wall Street commentators seize upon each new patent medicine of the Cartel to bull the stock of the company that will market it. With the Cartel's control of the nation, enormous profits, high dividends and stock splits inevitably flow from the "benevolent" swindling of the nation's sick through the "philanthropy" dominated Drug Trust. The profits from it are even more fabulous than those that flow from oil. This tale is told at length in YOUR LIFE IS THEIR TOY.

It is reasonable to expect that an institution operating with the efficiency and spirit of the Rockefeller "philanthropies" would not be so unbusinesslike as to cast to the winds the large profits which devolve from drug and other products touching on the interests of the Institute. Gates, as Rockefeller discerned when he employed him, was indeed a "business genius" of the rarest foresight and discernment.

The extensive Rockefeller chemical and drug interests include American Home Products, Sterling Products, Winthrop Chemical, American Cyanamid and its subsidiary Lederle Laboratories, and many other companies. They are all highly profitable enterprises. They also have very large holdings in the German Dye Trust, the I.G. Farbenindustrie, on the directorate of which the Standard Oil of New Jersey was represented by its president, the late Walter Teagle. The Chase National Bank, which is controlled by the Rockefellers, has floated Dye Trust securities on the American market. Dillon Read & Co., of which former Secretary of War, and later Secretary of Defense James Forrestal was head, and General Wm. H. Draper Jr., head of the staff of General Lucius Clay, Military Governor of Occupied Germany, was an executive, joined the Rockefeller interests in floating I.G. Farbenindustrie securities in the American market.

Dillion Read & Co. floated the issue that financed the building of the I.G. skyscraper office-building in Frankfort, Germany, that by curious coincidence was the only building in Frankfort the American and Allied forces were ordered not to shell or bomb, and that came through the war practically intact. It was the executive office of the I.G. Farbenindustrie, one of the principal factors in the military might of Germany and her allies.

The legal representatives of the I.G. Farbenindustrie in the U.S. are Rockefeller's attorneys. One firm is Sullivan & Cromwell, which is headed by kinsman John Foster Dulles, Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, who to all effects and purposes, is the State Department. Another is Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy, which is headed by A. G. Milbank, Chairman of the Board of the Borden Co. and President of the Milbank Memorial Fund. It also numbers among its partners John J. McCloy, Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, son-in-law of August Zinnser who was a factor in the German Dye Trust, and former Assistant Secretary of War; his appointment to the post of U.S. High Commissioner in Germany signalized the end of the Berlin Blockade simultaneously with the end of the dismantling of the I.G. Farbenindustrie plants, for which the Berlin Blockade served as an excuse, and it signalized the beginning of the return of the I.G. and its Nazi henchmen to power.

Five hundred thousand shares of the American I. G. Corp., the direct American subsidiary of the German holding company, I.G. Farbenindustrie, were issued in the name of Walter Teagle at the time of its formation by a merger of General Aniline works and the Agfa-Ansco Corp. When questioned by the Securities and Exchange Commission, Teagle denied that the stock that had been issued in his name was his stock. He refused to divulge the ownership of the stock by the Rockefeller interests, saying that he did not know who was the actual owner. In view of subsequent events there can be little doubt that the Rockefeller interests were the principals in the deal. It is a practice in which they regularly engage to hold control of corporations through dummies and nominees.

The deal was a part of the gigantic conspiracy of the German Dye Trust to recover property seized during World War I by the Alien Property Custodian, A. Mitchell Palmer, and of the preparation for throttling U.S. defenses in a future war. Through the aid of Earl I. McClintock, an attorney in the Alien Property Custodian's office, Sterling Products was enabled to start the reacquisition of the sequestered property for ultimate retransfer to the newly formed I.G. Farbenindustrie. So pleased was Sterling Products president, William E. Weiss, with McClintock's deal that he hired McClintock at many times the salary he had earned in the APC's office.

Sterling Products organized Winthrop Chemical Co. Inc. and transferred half of the stock to the I.G. Farbenindustrie. It, in turn, was given I.G. representation in the U.S. They also brought the DuPont interests into the deal by selling them half of the stock of the Bayer-Semesan Co. With the money thus acquired, Sterling proceeded to buy up numerous nationally advertised remedies, including Fletcher's Castoria, Phillips' Milk of Magnesia, and others. With Louis L. Liggett, they formed Drug Inc., a holding company for Sterling, Bayer, Winthrop, United Drug Co. and the Rexall Liggett stores; and then proceeded to buy up Bristol Myers, makers of Sal Hepatica; Vicks Chemical Co.; Edward J. Noble's Life Savers Inc. and others. Numerous other chemical and drug firms were absorbed steadily over the years until the Cartel gained control of the entire fabulously rich and profitable drug and chemical industry of the nation.

Through Walter Teagle, the Rockefeller interests played a key role in building the I.G. Farbenindustrie and the Dye Trust. It was he who paved the way for the entente between I.G. and the resistive DuPont interests. In 1930, Dr. Bosch of the I.G. wrote Teagle to thank him for his assistance, as follows:

" . . . the deadlock in the negotiations between duPont and I.G. has now been overcome . . . thanks to your personal interest."

As a matter of record, Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey had sat in at the birth of the I.G. Farbenindustrie in 1926. It then insured the combine of the success of their conspiracy by entering into an agreement with them as partners, and for an exchange of patents. This was stated in a letter by Frank A. Howard, head of the Standard Oil Development Co., as follows:

"The I.G. may be said to be our general partner in the chemical business as to its developments arising during the period beginning in 1929 and expiring in 1947." (Ambruster, Treason's Peace)

The Cartel divided the chemical and drug market of the world amongst themselves and conspired to maintain prices that yielded them fabulous profits. Later they took over control of the Federal Food and Drug Administration, as well as local food and drug agencies, through their control of the governments and political machines, as well as by bribery and corruption of the officers of those agencies. For example. Dr. Theodore G. Klumpp was head of the Federal Food & Drug Administration in 1940, at the time that Winthrop Chemical Co. shipped 400,000 tablets labelled as "sulfathiazole", that were found later to contain 5 grains of luminal each. They are known to have killed by poisoning 17 victims in various parts of the country.

Winthrop Chemical Co. failed to notify the public immediately of the fatally poisonous character of the pills. Instead, the Company, with the aid or approval of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association and of intensive advertising in the Journal of the American Medical Association, ruthlessly pushed the sale of the "sulfathiazole" pills, thus increasing the number of fatalities. Dr. Klumpp, as Food and Drug Administrator, was very helpful to Winthrop Chemical Co. and very sympathetic toward them. Exercising his bureaucratic powers as head of that agency, he refrained from prosecution for the deaths, helped hush up the matter and merely revoked Winthrop's license to ship the "sulfathiazole" for three months, on April 22, 1941, after it had glutted the market with the product and overstocked the trade with it. The suspension of shipment for three months was an utterly meaningless gesture. Shortly thereafter, Dr. Klumpp became president of Winthrop Chemical at many times the salary that he had received from the Government.

Since no real penalty had been imposed on the Winthrop Chemical Co. to induce it to exercise rudimentary caution to protect the lives of American "peasants", it is not surprising that the Company has made no effective effort to avoid recurrence of such fatal incidents, but has depended upon the political control of its bosses and its ability to "induce" public officials to overlook its criminal negligence and to suppress publicity with regard to it in the press. On June 15, 1951, physicians throughout the country received the following telegram from Winthrop-Stearns Inc., which is the name adopted by it since it has merged with Stearns, reading as follows:

"Until further notice, discontinue using sulfamylon hydrochloride solution one percent. Contamination with bacillus pyocyaneus found in some bottles. Advise patients for whom you prescribed to discontinue use and discard unused portions. Return for credit bottles of one percent you may have. All other forms of sulfamylon safe to use. Winthrop-Stearns Inc."

The story is entirely different when the manufacturer or marketer of a remedy is not a member of the Trust. The same Dr. Klumpp who saw no serious violation of the law or infraction of the regulations and arbitrary and dictatorial ukases of the Food & Drug Administration by the Winthrop Chemical Co., which subsequently provided him with a high salaried job, when it killed off humans with its gross negligence, expressed grave concern when the Iodobor Co. sought to label its product Iodine and Boric Acid Powder, as it is labelled in Johns Hopkins Hospital Formulary. The powder, which permits the use of finely dispersed iodine on even the most delicate tissues such as the ear and the urethra, and is an ideal and harmless antiseptic and prophylactic, contains 1% iodine and 99% anhydrated boric acid, as stated on the label. But Dr. Klumpp was gravely concerned with what he called the "misrepresentation" involved in the correct labeling of the product. He put every impediment in the way of its marketing. Iodobor Co. is not controlled by the Rockefeller interesta and is not a part of the Drug Trust.

Dr. Louis Koch has undertaken to provide the profession with glyoxylide which, in the author's, nowledge and experience, has never done anyone any harm or killed anyone. Many competent physicians state that they have obtained results with its use in conditions such as carcinoma, which had been pronounced to be hopeless. Certainly no humane individual would wish to deprive the victim of such a pathetic condition as hopeless cancer, of any ray of hope or possbility of relief. But the gang which we are describing are neither humane nor human. They do not regard Koch's remedy as "rational". They have undertaken to prosecute and persecute mercilessly Koch and all who use this harmless remedy, as has been pointed out rightly by Dr. G. B. Winrod, in preference to the remedies which Reverend Frederick Taylor Gates, his Rockefeller sponsors and their heirs and associates do regard as "rational", and which do yield them a profit, which is far more important.

The Food & Drug Administration was converted by the Drug Trust into a device that would leave them free to engage in any type of skulduggery with impunity, but would enable them to drive competitors out of business by hampering regulations and excessive expense involved in compliance with arbitrary rulings and harassments. Thus Winthrop Chemical Co. was permitted to market sulfathiazole in spite of the fact that it is a harmful drug that causes the formation of kidney stones in a large proportion of patients that take it. But many completely harmless, but useful, preparations that are produced by less powerful and wealthy firms are completely barred from sale by the arbitrary rulings of the Administration. The products of the Drug Trust, no matter how worthless and injurious they may be, invariably get by; and many of them, such as cortisone, are actually boosted by the Government. One of the officers of Schering Co., an affiliate of the Drug Trust, openly has stated that the maintenance of a drug monopoly is one of the objectives of the Food & Drug Administration.

The Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey and the I.G. entered into numerous agreements and formed the Joint American Study Co. (called Jasco Inc.). This later was proved to be nothing less than a conspiracy to paralyze the rearmament and defenses of the U.S. Dr. A. Mitchell Palmer, Alien Property Custodian, had warned the nation after World War I:

"The next war . . . will be a chemists' war, and the country which has the best-developed dye and chemical industry is the country which is going to come out on top."

As will be related presently, the Rockefeller-Standard Oil-I.G. conspiracy was not only instrumental in precipitating World War II, but also undermined our national security and threatened us with defeat by denying the U.S. the use of synthetic rubber patents, and in other ways. In the first year of World War II, a series of criminal and civil actions for treasonous conspiracy with the I.G. Farbenindustrie were started by Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold against Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, especially in connection with the direly needed synthetic rubber and chemical bases for munitions. Also, action was instituted against Sterling Products in connection with the use of its organization in South America, where Nelson Rockefeller was active as Co-Ordinator of Hemispheric Defense and the brother of Thomas Corcoran, high ranking Harvard New Dealer, represented it, for espionage and propoganda for Germany. The offenders pleaded nolo contendere, which was in reality an acknowledgement of guilt. The offenders were given small fines, and merely ordered to mend their ways.

The penalties were surprisingly light in view of the fact that the offenses constituted treason in wartime, for which the usual penalty is death. It later was stated that the Rockefeller interests had acquiesced in these actions when the treasonous conspiracy became outrageously obvious and violent public reactions threatened,—in order to protect themselves and their fellow conspirators. It appears quite clear now that their old deal with I.G. Farbenindustrie still prevails and is being carried out by their agent and attorney, High Commissioner John Jay McCloy.

It is interesting to note in this connection that the law firm of John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles, Sullivan & Cromwell, that is closely identified with the Rockefeller-I.G. interests and our Government, defended a criminal indictment of Ernest K. Halbach, one of the principals of the I.G. set-up in this country.

The I.G. situation is described in Howard Ambruster's book, Treason's Peace, published by the Beechhurst Press in 1947, an excellent book that should be read by every American.

This entire Rockefeller-Standard Oil-I.G. situation was aptly characterized by Senator Harry Shippe Truman, as chairman of the Senate Investigating Committee, as "TREASON". He said, correctly:

"YES IT IS TREASON.

"YOU CAN NOT TRANSLATE IT ANY OTHER WAY."

And the same group has provided oil, munitions and other material of war to the Russian and Chinese Communists and the North Koreans, practically entirely at the expense of the U.S. taxpayer.

IS THAT ANY LESS TREASON?

These are some of the outgrowths of Rockefeller Institute's "philanthropies".

Public suspicion anent the Rockefellers was further allayed by establishment of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission devoted to mass medicine—to spectacular cooperation with local health departments in a campaign on hookworm infestation, intended to demonstrate forcibly that Rockefeller's heart bled for the "Forgotten Man". The cost of this campaign was almost entirely borne by the victims, through the support of their local health departments. But the publicity released gave the Rockefellers credit for beneficence and a touching concern in the health and welfare of collaborator Walter Hines Page's "Forgotten Man". At the same time, it gave the Rockefeller interests entry into control of the health departments of the various sections of the country that in due time was developed into complete and absolute control of all of them from the Public Health Service of the U.S. Treasury Department to those of cities, towns, counties and, ultimately, of the smallest villages.

The control of health departments thus engineered later proved extremely profitable to the Rockefeller interests in many directions. For instance, it enabled them to gain a virtual monopoly of the production and distribution of milk throughout the nation, through health-department regulation of that industry, which was engineered by them on the pretense of protecting the public's health. Steadily, through decades, they drove independent milk distributors out of business by various devices, such as pasteurization, manipulation of milk sheds by their puppet health commissioners and dishonest and oppressive "regulation", and by numerous other devious devices.

They are able, consequently, to indoctrinate the public, at its own expense, with the idea that milk is a perfect food and an absolutely essential element of the diet, which it is not. They progressively adulterated the milk distributed to the public until the bulk of it is, partly or wholly, a synthetic concoction, such as "homogenized" milk, of types that had previously been barred from sale for human consumption. Of the adulteration of milk, one can readily convince oneself by placing a bottle of milk on the window sill for a week. In olden days the milk would turn sour and curdle; but today it merely becomes putrid, slimy and stringy. The price of the adulterated milk was progressively raised from an average of six cents a quart for real milk to an average of twenty-two cents a quart for watered, synthetic and adulterated milk.

Far from being a source of health and strength, milk has become a licensed spreader of disease and death. Milk transmits more diseases than any other one beverage or food. It carries tuberculosis, scarlet fever, such streptococcus infections as septic sore throat and acute kidney and heart disease, undulant fever, infantile paralysis and many other deadly diseases. Milk can be one of the most dangerous substances we put into our stomachs. Needless and excessive consumption of milk has been correlated to childhood ills, to hardening of the arteries, to premature senility and to cancer. But these facts have been suppressed and the public has been urged through official channels to drink ever more milk "for their health", in order to boost further the profits of the Milk Trust.

Corruption of public health officers on a wholesale scale has been resorted to in connection with Milk Trust activities. Henry Wallace, was the first to launch a consistent attack on the milk cartel, in the Wallace Farmer, and named it the Milk Trust. He applied that name to the undercover combination between Borden Co. and National Dairy Products Co., that was later exposed in reports of the Department of Agriculture, but kept out of the press. The reports indicate that though the two companies pretend to be competing, they are actually working in concert, as a cartel. The Borden Co. is directly controlled by the Chase National Bank and the Rockefeller interests represented by the Milbanks. National Dairy Products is controlled by the Rockefellers, through Lehman Brothers.

Henry Wallace was silenced by an appointment as Secretary of Agriculture in Roosevelt's Cabinet; and he was later made Secretary of Commerce and Vice President. When denied the Vice-Presidential nomination in 1944, he was given the job of editor of the New Republic, with a salary reported to be $75,000 a year, a greater sum than the magazine ever earned and largely paid by Nelson Rockefeller. Though Wallace has been closely identified with the Rockefellers, there is no published record of the extent to which they backed his Progressive Party as a phase of the activities of their Rockefeller-Soviet Axis.

Control of the public-health activities of the nation was readily maneuvered by the Rockefeller interests by subsidizing the activities of the U.S. Public Health Association, the trade organization of the public-health officers of the country. Interlocking directorates were established from the start between that organization, through its officers (including as a rule the Health Commissioner of New York City), and one or another of the Rockefeller "philanthropies". Subsidies for these activities were arranged through various dominated organizations and foundations. Thus the Milbank Foundation, headed by Jeremiah Milbank and his son A. G. Mil- bank, a Rockefeller attorney and agent, and financed by 3 percent of the Borden (Milk) Co. stock, subsidized "public health" activities. The policyholders' moneys of controlled insurance companies, especially the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, were diverted into these channels of corruption.

Domination of official health agencies also implies control of the food and drug industries which they "regulate", and of the enormous profits which they yield. Such control makes possible the sale, with impunity, of inferior products or, even, of products that are actually deleterious to health and life, but yield extraordinarily large profits. For instance, mineral oil, a product of petroleum oil, was marketed by a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, as a remedy for constipation. In many cases it caused chronic malnutrition by robbing the body of fat-soluble vitamins. It was sold also as an ingredient of nose drops, and in many cases, caused lung abscesses. But the profits were enormous.

Far larger than the direct profits derived from domestic "health" activities and those gained in the international field through the International Health Commission, that was set up later to extend these activities abroad, were the indirect benefits derived from the good-will created by the pretense of benevolence, and by abuse of the powers vested in the public agencies thus taken over. The story has often been told how Colombia was blackmailed into permitting Standard Oil to develop the Barco concession by the establishment by the U.S. Public Health Service of a prolonged quarantine of Colombian shipping for yellow fever.

The incubation period of yellow fever is about six days and the length of the voyage from Colombia generally was about two weeks. This meant that if anyone on board the vessels had been exposed to yellow fever, he would have developed the disease before coming into port and there was no justification for quarantining the vessels. Nevertheless, the vessels were quarantined for prolonged periods on their arrival at American ports. Perishable cargoes spoiled during the quarantine, threatening the Colombian merchants with ruin. This abuse of the powers of the U.S. Public Health Service was employed to force the Colombian government to relax its prohibition of development of the concession by Standard Oil interests.

The Rockefeller Institute announced falsely at this juncture that its Hideyo Noguchi had discovered the cause, remedy and preventive of yellow fever. And the International Health Commission offered to Colombia the services of Noguchi in clearing up the yellow fever and lifting the unwarranted quarantine, with the implication that unless the Standard Oil interests had their way, the quarantine would not be lifted. The Colombian government was forced, in the interest of its merchants and its trade, to accede to this international blackmail. The Standard Oil Co. shared the concession with Gulf Oil Co., controlled by Andrew Mellon who, as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, controlled the U.S. Public Health Service. Yellow fever is still endemic in Colombia, just as it was before the quarantine was imposed. But there is now no quarantine because the Rockefeller interests have their way in Colombia. The profits to the Rockefeller Empire of international "philanthropy" are great. The world cannot be blamed for mistaking Rockefeller imperialism for American imperialism.