From Empire to Republic - Arthur H. Noll




Appendix A:


CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS RELATED TO MEXICAN HISTORY



1469  Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, union of Aragon and Castile, and virtual beginning of Spanish national history.
1481  Inquisition established at Sevilla.
1492  The Great Voyage of Discovery.
1493  The Papal Bulls of Partition.
1501  Papal Bull entitling Spanish sovereigns to tithes in the colonies.
1503  Casa de Contratacion established.
1508  Papal Bull giving to King of Spain right of collation to benefices in the colonies.
1511  Consejo de las Indias  instituted by Ferdinand.
1518  Expedition of Grijalva to Yucatan.
1519  Carlos I. of Spain elected Emperor and becomes Charles V. of Germany. Cortes lands in Mexico.
1520  Retreat of Cortes from Tenochtitlan.
1521  Tenochtitlan captured and destroyed by Cortes and virtual subjugation of Mexico.
1522  Cortes Governor, Captain-General, and Chief Justice of New Spain.
1523  Pedro de Alvarado sent by Cortes to Guatemala.
1524  Consejo de las Indias  perfected by Charles V. Arrival in Mexico of the Franciscan "Twelve Apostles."
1527  Bishopric of Mexico created. Juan de Zumarraga, Bishop.
1528  First Audiencia  in New Spain.
1529  Second Audiencia  in New Spain.
1530  "La Puebla de los Angeles" founded in Mexico.
1531  Alleged apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico.
1534  Four Bishoprics created in New Spain.
1535  Antonio de Mendoza, first Viceroy of New Spain. First printing-press and first book published in the New World, in Mexico. Peninsula of Lower California discovered.
1536  Cabeza de Vaca and three companions, survivors of the Narvaez expedition of 1528, meet Spanish explorers in northern Mexico.
1540  Expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in search of the "Seven Cities of Cibola."
1541  Guadalajara founded in New Spain.
1542  Death of de Soto on the Mississippi. Valladolid (now Morelia) founded in New Spain.
1544  Las Casas Bishop of Chiapas in Mexico.
1545  Archbishopric of Mexico created.
1550  Mendoza promoted from vireinate of New Spain to that of Peru. Luis de Velasco, "the Emancipator," Viceroy of New Spain.
1551  Alonso de Montufar, Archbishop of Mexico.
1552  Santa Hermandad established in New Spain.
1553  University of Mexico founded.
1556  Abdication of Carlos I. and accession of Felipe II.
1563  City of Durango founded in New Spain.
1566  Gaston de Peralta, Viceroy.
1568  Martin de Enriques de Almanza, "the Inquisitor," Viceroy.
1571  Inquisition established in the New World.
1572  Arrival of the Jesuits in Mexico.
1574  First Auto-de-fe  in Mexico.
1577  Drake lands at Bodega Bay and takes possession of California for England calling it "New Albion."
1580  Lorenzo Juarez de Mendoza, Viceroy.
1584  Pedro Moya de Contreras Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy.
1585  Humana's expedition into New Mexico results in the settlement of Paso del Norte. Alvaro Manrique de Zuniga, Viceroy.
1590  Luis de Velasco, son of "the Emancipator," Marquis of Salinas, Viceroy.
1595  Gaspar de Zuniga y Acevedo, Count of Monterey, Viceroy. One of the dates assigned for the foundation of Santa Fe, New Mexico.
1596  Expedition of Sebastian Viscayno along the Pacific coast.
1598  Death of Felipe II. and accession of Felipe III. First Spanish settlement in New Mexico by Juan de Onate.
1602  Second expedition along the Pacific coast reaches point two degrees north of Cape Mendocino on coast of California.
1603  Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marquis of Montes Claros, Viceroy.
1607  Velasco, Marquis of Salinas, Viceroy a second time.
1608  Probable date of founding of Santa Fe.
1612  Diego Fernandez de Cordova, Marquis of Guadalcazar, Viceroy.
1621  Diego Carrillo Mendoza y Pimentel, Marquis of Gelves, Viceroy.
1624  Rodrigo Pacheco Osorio, Viceroy.
1635  Lope Diaz de Armendariz, Viceroy.
1640  Diego Lopez Pacheco Cabrero y Bobadillo, Viceroy.
1642  Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, Bishop of Puebla and Royal Visitor, Viceroy for about five months and then succeeded by Garcia Sarmiento Sotomayor, Co ant of Salvatierra.
1648  Marcos Lopez de Torres y Rueda, Bishop of Yucatan, Viceroy.
1650  Luis Enriques de Guzman, Count of Alba Liste, Viceroy.
1653  Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, Viceroy.
1660  Juan de Leiva y de la Cerda, Viceroy.
1664  Diego Osorio Escobar y Llamas, Bishop of Puebla, Viceroy for a few months and then succeeded by Antonio Sebastian de Toledo.
1665  Death of Felipe II and accession of Carlos II.
1673  Pedro Nuno Colon de Portugal y Castro, Viceroy for six days and then succeeded by Fray Payo de Rivera, Archbishop of Mexico, who proves one of the best of Viceroys.
1680  Tomas Antonio Manrique de la Cerda, Viceroy.
1686  Melchor Portocarrerro Laso de la Vega, Count of Monclova. Viceroy.
1688  Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza, Viceroy.
1696  Juan de Ortega Montanez, Bishop of Michoacan, Viceroy, quickly succeeded by Jose Sarmiento Valladares, Count of Moctezuma (more properly Moteczuma).
1700  Death of Carlos II., end of Hapsburg line of Spanish Kings; accession of Felipe V. and beginning of the Bourbon dynasty.
1701  Montanez, Bishop of Michoacan, Viceroy a second time, succeeded in a few months by Fernandez de la Cuevas Enriques.
1711  Fernando Alencastro Norona y Silva, Viceroy.
1716  Baltasar de Zuniga Guzman Sotomayor y Mendoza, Viceroy.
1718  Casa de Contracion transferred to Cadiz.
1722  Juan de Acuna, Viceroy.
1734  Juan Antonio de Vizarron y Eguiarreta,Archbishop of Mexico, Viceroy.
1740  Pedro de Castro Figueroa y Salazar, Viceroy.
1741  Jose Antonio Villasenor y Sanchez, "Cosmographer of New Spain."
1742  Pedro Cebrian y Agustin, Viceroy.
1746  Death of Felipe V. and accession of Fernando VI. Juan Francisco de Guemes y Horcasitas, Viceroy.
1747  City of Mexico reported by Villasenor, the "Cosmographer," to contain fifty thousand families of Europeans and Creoles, forty thousand Mestizos, mixed castes and negroes, and eight thousand Indians.
1755  Agustin de Ahumada y Villalon, Viceroy,
1759  Death of Fernando VI. and accession of Carlos III.
1760  Francisco Cajigal de la Vega, ex-Governor of Cuba, Viceroy for a short time, succeeded by Joaquin de Monserrat.
1763  Louisiana acquired by Spain.
1766  Carlos Francisco de Croix, Viceroy.
1767  Expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and Spanish America.
1771  Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua, Viceroy; the best of rulers in New Spain.
1779  Martin de Mayorga, Governor of Guatemala, becomes Viceroy.
1783  Matias de Galvez, "the Diligent," Viceroy.
1785  Bernardo de Galvez, Viceroy.
1787  Alonso Nunez de Haro y Peralta, Archbishop of Mexico, Viceroy for a few months; succeeded by Manuel Antonio Flores, Governor of Bogota.
1788  Death of Carlos III. and accession of Carlos IV.
1789  Juan Vicente Pacheco de Padilla, Viceroy.
1794  Miguel de la Grua Talamanca, Viceroy.
1798  Miguel Jose de Azanza, "the Bonapartist," Viceroy.
1800  Felix Berenguer de Marquina, Viceroy.
1801  Retrocession to France of Louisiana by secret treaty.
1803  Jose de Iturrigaray, "the Monarchist," Viceroy.
1808  Intervention of Napoleon Bonaparte in Spanish affairs. Revolution in Spain. Abdication of Carlos IV. and accession of Fernando VII. Joseph Bonaparte usurps the throne. National revolt and establishment of Juntas. English Alliance and Peninsula War. Iturrigaray deposed and Pedro Garibay, "the Revolutionist," made Viceroy ad interim.
1809  Francisco Javier Lizana, Archbishop of Mexico, Viceroy.
1810  Pedro Catani, President of Audiencia, Viceroy ad interim, succeeded by Francisco Javier Venegas. Grito de Dolores (September 16).
1811  Execution of Hidalgo and other Revolutionists.
1812  Liberal Constitution in Spain.
1813  Congress of Chilpantzingo. Mexican Declaration of In dependence and first Mexican Constitution.
1814  Release of Fernando VII. from captivity. Absolutism reestablished in Spain.
1815  Capture and execution of Jose Maria Morelos,—"the last victim of the Inquisition."
1816  Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, "the Unfortunate," Viceroy.
1817  Freebooting expedition of Mina into Mexico.
1820  Restoration of Constitution of 1812 in Spain. Inquisition finally abolished. Vicente Guerrero becomes formidable Independent chief in Mexico.
1821  Francisco de Novella, Viceroy ad interim. Plan de Iguala and Treaty of Cordoba. Independence of Mexico. Iturbide, the Liberator. Regency installed. Juan O'Donoju, the last of the Viceroys.
1822  Mexican Congress organized. Bourbonista, Republican and Iturbidista political parties formed. Iturbide, Emperor.
1823  Abdication of Iturbide and collapse of the First Mexican Empire. Centralist and Federalist parties formed. Monroe Doctrine proclaimed.
1824  Federal Constitution proclaimed. Mexican United States organized. Guadalupe Victoria, President.
1828  Yorkino and Escoces party names become prominent. Rise of High Liberal or Radical, Conservative and Moderate parties. Election of Manuel Gomez Pedraza as President.
1829  Vicente Guerrero proclaimed President. Spain's effort to reclaim Mexico. Jose Maria Bocanegra, , Acting President.
1830  Anastasio Bustamante, President.
1832  Melchor Muzquiz, Acting President. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President; Valentin Gomez Farias, Vice-President.
183i  Gomez Farias proclaims program of Government Reforms.
1835  Constitution of "Las Siete Leyes" replaces Constitution of 1824. Central Republic established.
1836  New Constitution proclaimed. General Barragan, Acting President, followed by Jose Justo Corro as Acting President. Spain acknowledges the Independence of Mexico. Revolt of Texas.
1837  Anastasio Bustamante, President.
1840  Gutierrez de Estrada's letter proposing an Empire/
1841  Santa Anna, Provisional President.
1842  Javier Echavarria, Acting President pending the Plan de Tacubaya; succeeded by Santa Anna, Provisional President.
1843  Bases Organicas Politicas de la Republica Mexicana and final centralization of the government.
1845  Revolutions culminate in deposition and impeachment of Santa Anna and elevation of Jose Joaquin Herrera to the Presidency. Annexation of Texas to the United States. War between Mexico and the United States.
1846  Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, President with Monarchical tendencies. Advance of General Taylor to Monterey. California and New Mexico captured by the United States. Paredes succeeded by Nicolas Bravo and the latter by Mariano Salas, pending the election of Santa Anna as President.
1847  Presidential functions exercised by Santa Anna, Gomez Farias, and others. Constitution of 1824 in force for a short time. American army under General Scott advance from Yera Cruz to the Capital.
1848  Jose Joaquin Herrera elected President. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends war with the United States.
1851  Mariano Arista, President.
1852  Juan Bautista Ceballos, President, succeeded by Manuel Maria Lombardini as Acting President.
1853  Santa Anna, President,—Absolutism triumphant. Santa Anna decrees himself Perpetual Dictator.
1854  General Juan Alvarez pronounces in Acapulco. Plan de Ayotla proclaimed. Final deposition and exile of Santa Anna.
1855  Alvarez Provisional President under Plan de Ayotla, succeeded by Ignacio Comonfort. Ley Juarez proclaimed.
1856  Ley Lerdo proclaimed. Constituent Congress adopts "Estatico Organico Provisional de la Republica Mexicana," as tentative Constitution.
1857  Final Constitution adopted and Ignacio Comonfort elected and installed as Constitutional President. Reactionary movement headed by Felix Zuloaga.
1858  Comonfort abandons Presidency and is succeeded by Benito Juarez as Constitutional President. Reactionaries elect Zuloaga and he, Miguel Miramon and others attempt to control the Presidential office and are known as Anti-Presidents.
1859  Juarez finally establishes his government in Vera Cruz. War of the Reform.
1860  Juarez issues Reform Decrees from Yera Cruz. Decisive Battle of Calpulalpam, collapse of Reactionaries, and return of Juarez and Constitutionalists to the capital.
1861  Juarez constitutionally elected President. Decree suspending for two years' payment of foreign debts. Forces of England, France, and Spain arrive in Vera Cruz to carry out provisions of Treaty of London.
1862  Convention of Soledad and Conference at Orizaba. Treaty of London dissolved. England and Spain withdraw from Mexico. French army advances and is defeated at Puebla in battle of Cinco de Mayo.
1863  French capture Puebla and advance to the capital. Republican government retires to San Luis Potosi, thence to Saltillo, and thence to Monterey. French organize government at capital and elect Maximilian of Austria Emperor.
1864  Maximilian arrives in Mexico. Juarez at Chihuahua.
1865  Juarez at Paso del Norte. United States Government demands withdrawal of French troops from Mexico. Maximilian's famous decree of October 3.
1866  Withdrawal of French troops from North of Mexico. Republican forces, recruited and re-organized, advance toward the South. Juarez returns to Chihuahua.
1867  French troops withdraw from Mexico. Collapse of the Second Mexican Empire. Execution of Maximilian. Juarez returns to the capital and is re-elected Constitutional President.
1871  Juarez again elected Constitutional President.
1872  Death of Juarez and accession of Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada to the Presidency.
1873  Reform Laws incorporated in the Constitution of 1857.
1876  Successful Plan de Tuxtepec and Provisional Presidency of Porfirio Diaz.
1877  Porfirio Diaz elected Constitutional President.
1880  Manuel Gonzales elected Constitutional President.
1884  Porfirio Diaz elected Constitutional President.
1888  1892, 1896, 1900. Diaz again elected President.