Contents 
Front Matter A Name to be Proud of Ready for Sea The King's Gift Why I am an Adventurer The Signal for Departure A Lad's Portion The Allotment of Land An Unexpected Delay Our Arrival at Cowes We Put to Sea The Dove Disappears A Second Tempest An Unseemly Christmas The Port of Barbadoes The Arrival of the Dove Under Sail Again The Land of America The Land Given by the King Fear of the Brown Men Where to Build the City Taking the Island A Voyage of Discovery Visiting the Indians An Unexpected Meeting Captain Fleet's Story An Indian Werowance Indian vs. English Claims Seeking a Place for the City The Bargain The Village of Yaocomico What the Indians Look Like Indian Weapons and Tools Landing the Goods Counting Our Blessings The Susquehanoughs A Land of Abundance Buying Cattle Storehouse and Fort A Visitor from Virginia A Talk with the Indians Running up the Colors Settling Down Master William Claiborne Lord Baltimore's Claims Stirring up the Indians Winning Back the Indians Busy Times Indian Women as Servants Making a Canoe A Boat of Bark Indian Money A Generous Harvest Trouble at Plymouth Strange Religious Service The Dance Begins An Odd Ceremony William Claiborne's War Settlement on Kent Island We Prepare for War The Army leaves St. Mary's In Command of the Guard A Flag of Truce Captain Fleet Repents The First Prize of War A Battle is Fought The Return of the Fleet William Claiborne's Flight The City of Saint Mary's A Cruel Murder Mystery Remains Unsolved Master George Evelin A Fatal Accident Preparing for Action Ready for a Man's Duty I Wear the Uniform My New Name On Board the Pinnance Indians in War Paint The Arrival at Kent Island The Capture of the Fort Butler and Smith Captives Back to Claiborne's Fort I am Assigned New Duties A Narrow Escape Words of Praise

Calvert of Maryland - James Otis



A Name to be Proud of

Now that it is fully decided I am to journey with my father to that far-away world called America, it seems right I should set down, as far as may be possible, all which befalls me from the time we leave dear old England, and then, if so be I never come back from the wonderful adventure because of having met death, people will know there was once an English lad, by name Calvert, who, much the same as taking his life in his hands, went overseas to the strange country where, it is said, none but savages dwell.

Yes, my name is Calvert, and I am proud of it because it was given me by the first Lord Baltimore, near to thirteen years ago, when he stood my godfather.

As of course you know, the family name of the Baltimores is Calvert, and the old, lord was George of that line; but there are so many Georges in this world that no one could have picked me out from a crowd simply by hearing my name, whereas, when a person calls another "Calvert," people prick up their ears, wondering whether it be one of the Baltimores who is addressed, which is much to my liking.

The young lord, Cecilius, who has but lately come into the title through the death of his father, is a near friend of my father, and it was because of his fair words and promises that I am waiting here in an inn near the waterside of our goodly city of London, until word shall be sent that I may go on board the ship Ark, which lies at anchor close by.

Do you remember that in the year of grace, 1627, Lord Baltimore and I am now speaking of the old lord, George Calvert had a colony in that part of America called Newfoundland, and that' he visited it in order to learn why the tenants were displeased with the land? Well, it was in this selfsame ship Ark that he journeyed.



Ready for Sea

And now that he is dead, and the colony known as Avalon in Newfoundland has been abandoned, a number of gentlemen, among whom is my father, together with their servants, are to sail for a certain part of the New World which is to be under the rule of Lord Baltimore, and to be called Mary Land, in honor of Henrietta Maria, who, as all people in the world know, sits on the throne with our good King Charles I.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

What is more, we are to journey in the old lord's ship Ark, of near to three hundred tons burden, and in our company will be the Dove, a pinnace of fifty tons or more.

When I heard my father speak of the Dove  as a pinnace, I was puzzled to understand what kind of vessel she might be, for I am not versed in the ways of the sea, nor accustomed to hearing sailors speak their peculiar language.

Therefore it was I asked what kind of vessel a pinnace might be, and was told that any craft with two masts, rigged like a schooner, but capable of being propelled, in addition to her sails, by oars, was given such a name.

The Dove, which is now at anchor near by the Ark, seems a small ship to sail so far overseas as is America, but John, who is my father's serving man, declares that she will carry herself as well as does the Ark, although, mayhap, give more of discomfort to those who are on board, because of leaping about to a greater degree on such enormous waves as are to be found in the middle of the mighty ocean.

It may be well to set down here how it chanced that my father, together with sixteen other gentlemen, had any right to that new land of America of which many Englishmen, some Dutchmen, and a few Swedes had already taken possession.



The King's Gift

The first Lord Baltimore, meaning George Calvert, in the year of grace, 1620, bought for himself a plantation on the island of Newfoundland, in America, and, naming it Avalon, sent there sixty or seventy laboring men and their wives to build up for him a town; but it was found to be a cruel country for weather, being biting cold a goodly portion of the year, and the old lord brought all his people back to England in the Ark  and the Dove  lest they die of homesickness, frost, and starvation.

When King Charles, who had a great love for the old lord, heard that he had failed of settling a colony in Newfoundland, and had thereby wasted a goodly portion of his money, he gave him as a free gift a certain lot of land which was supposed to be situated north of the Virginia colony, and westward from the settlements at Plymouth and Boston.

Being only a lad, and not accustomed to such matters as the building up of a new world, it seemed strange to me that the king did not know how much land he laid claim to, and where it was located; but I afterward came to understand that no one in England had any idea as to how large was this country in which the brown-skinned men lived. Therefore it was that the bounds of our Province of Maryland were changed no less than three times before they were finally settled to the pleasure of our governor and the people of Virginia. Even then, so John declared, we did not really know how far to the northward our grant extended.

Because of all I have heard spoken between my father and his friends, I doubt if any man knew just how much land the king really gave to the old lord; but certain it is there must be an enormous extent, for it is proposed to build many towns and cities in such part of the New World as belongs to my Lord Baltimore.

Well, as is well known, the old lord died before he could take any steps toward gaining benefit by the king's gift, and his eldest son Cecilius, as was right and lawful, came into the title and the estates.

The young lord is no more than twenty-seven years old; but he counts on building up a country for himself in the land of America, and is to-day, the seventeenth of October, in the year of grace, 1633, so far prepared to carry out the plans made by his father, that the Ark  and the Dove  are, as I have already said, lying here in the Thames River, within view of the tavern where I am writing, ready for sea as soon as the word shall be given.



Why I am One of the Adventurers

Already are the serving men on board, save John, who has me in his care, and he claims that before the sun shall set again our gentlemen will be here, eager to set off on what can be no less than the bravest kind of an adventure, during which we shall see all the strange things that are to be found on the wide ocean, as well as wild savages, who go about naked, seeking to kill any who are not of their kind.

I am not overly brave, so John declares, but I am burning with the desire to see these wild men, whose skins are brown, if so be it may be done without too much of danger to myself.

And now it may be asked how it chances that I, a lad but just turned thirteen years, count to journey on such a venture in the company of gentlemen, especially if I be faint-hearted, as John claims.

That part of the story is quickly and easily told. My mother died so many years ago that I do not even remember her face, and of relatives I have none in all this world save my uncle, who also is of our company.

My father could not well leave so young a lad behind him, trusting to the care of strangers, and since John has had charge of me these two years past, and is the kindliest-hearted serving man in all England, what more natural than that he and I should go with Lord Baltimore's adventurers?

I may be faint-hearted, as John claims; but surely I am not so much of a coward that I would remain in a place of safety while my father was exposed to such dangers as will be found in the New World, for weaker arms than mine have been able to strike a heavy blow in defense of loved ones.

I have been speaking of young Lord Baltimore as if he were to be 'of our company, and yet such is not the case.. Because of certain people who have striven to prevent him from benefiting by the king's gift to his father, and who are yet enemies, Lord Cecilius must perforce remain here in England; but he is to send both his brothers out to Maryland, Leonard being named governor of the land, and George simply one of the adventurers.



The Signal for Departure

I had hardly more than finished writing these last lines, when John, his honest face aglow with anticipation and excitement, burst into the tavern with word that the signals had been set for our departure. The gentlemen of the company are already gathering on the river bank, and I must lose no time lest my father be vexed because of my tardiness.

I shall linger only long enough to gather up the sheets on which I have written, while John puts into the traveling bag such of my belongings as have been in use while I stayed here, and then will have come, perhaps, my last moment in this land of England.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

My heart should be sad, and yet it is not, for I am eager to see those brown savages, and all the other strange things to be found in the New World, where is to be my home.

I have come on board the Ark, and am in the great cabin where the gentlemen are to be housed during the voyage. John has quarters forward among the other serving men, where he will remain during the night; but at all other times, so my father commands, he is to be with me, although it seems needless thus to provide a nurse for a boy of thirteen years, who should be doing the work of a man.

There was so much to be seen during our journey down the river, that I remained on deck until the ship came to anchor off the town of Gravesend, where we are to remain until morning.

Surely it seems as if this ship of ours was overcrowded, for one can move about on deck only with difficulty; but it is possible to see that the people aboard the Dove  are stowed even more snugly, for that vessel is carrying a full third of our company of nearly three hundred, although she is but one sixth the size of the Ark.

The first night on shipboard was not pleasant. It sounded as if half a dozen people were walking to and fro on the deck just above my head all night long, and our gentlemen in the great cabin were extremely noisy, celebrating, so John declared, the beginning of the voyage.

Much to my comfort, I learned that we are to have among us three priests, Father White, Father Altham, and Brother Gervase, and John believes they will do much toward keeping the younger of our gentlemen in good behavior, for true it is that some are inclined to be overly boisterous when laying plans for the settlement of that new land of ours.



A Lad's Portion

It seems, from what I have overheard of the conversation since we came to anchor here off Gravesend, that even a lad like myself may have a certain portion of the king's gift, for it is set down in the documents to which the gentlemen referred, that to all children under the age of sixteen years who shall be taken to Maryland at the expense of their parents, or guardians, twenty-five acres of land shall be given for their very own.

Therefore it is that I am even now the same as a New World planter, for my father is paying all the charges of my journey, and already have I begun to ask what I shall do with such an estate.

It is also set down in the documents, that each adventurer shall provide himself with one gun having a snaphance lock; ten pounds of gunpowder; forty pounds of leaden bullets, pistol and goose shot, of each sort some; one sword and belt, and one bandolier and flask.

At the first opportunity I shall ask my father if he has provided all these things for me, otherwise it may chance that I be not allowed to claim the land which Lord Baltimore has said shall be given to each child under the age of sixteen, and it would grieve me sorely to lose by any oversight that portion of the New World which is mine by right, or will be as soon as I have come to the country of Maryland.

It comes to my mind that perhaps some who may read what I am setting down, not being accustomed to the use of firearms, will fail to understand what is the meaning of a snaphance lock, for it is less than a year since it was invented. You who read doubtless think of a gun as being a firelock only, and perhaps have been vexed time and again at being forced to carry a slow match in order to discharge the weapon; but all that has been done away with by the lock of which I speak, for it is made with a spring, and affixed to the hammer is a piece of flint, which, when the trigger is pulled, strikes against the steel bar of the barrel, thus producing a spark which gives fire to the powder.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Mayhap some, not being versed in the art of war, will fail also to understand the meaning of the word "bandolier." It is, however, nothing more than a broad belt to be worn over the shoulder and across the breast, at the lower end of which can be fastened a bag or powder-flask, if, perchance, one does not carry his ammunition made up into cartridges, in which last case the cartridges are hung from the bandolier, as are also the flint and steel, priming horn, and such other articles as a man of arms may need.



The Allotment of Land

Perhaps it will be as well, since I have already said that every child under the age of sixteen who is taken to Lord Baltimore's colony shall be given, twenty-five acres of land, for me to explain further, that every gentleman who, at his own expense, carries over to the Province of Maryland twenty people, men or women, shall be given not less than two thousand acres of land, for which no other price is to be paid than a rental of forty shillings, either in money or goods, each year.

And also, each person over sixteen years of age whom the gentleman may bring, shall have for himself or for herself five acres of land, by paying therefor twelve pennies each year to his lordship.

I believe I have now set down everything concerning his lordship's colony in America that would be of interest; but if, peradventure, in the excitement of the moment, and because of the confusion everywhere around me, I have neglected aught of importance, it shall be written at a later date, perhaps after we are well out on the broad ocean, where, as John says, there will be nothing for us, who are not seamen, to do, save twiddle our thumbs and wish time away.

We lay at Gravesend all night, and I had not yet come on deck because of having given full sway to the slumber which weighed heavily on my eyelids, when the Ark  and the Dove  were gotten under way for the long journey, which it is understood will not come to an end until we are set ashore in that part of the New World owned by the Calvert family.



An Unexpected Delay

It had been in my mind when we left Gravesend, that the voyage would be continued as fast as the wind might permit, and yet here we are at anchor off Tillbury Hope. I do not exactly understand why we have returned so near to our starting-point, nor can John explain it to me.

Certain it is, however, that before we were four and twenty hours in the Channel, one of his Majesty's ships, with Edward Watkins on board, came in pursuit, firing a gun as signal that we must heave the vessel to, as the sailors say when they speak of stopping a ship.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Master Watkins is the king's officer in London whose duty it is to search after any who may be wronging his Majesty, and he is known as the London Searcher.

Then it was that the captain was ordered back into the Thames, and I heard Governor Calvert, who had gone on board the king's vessel to learn the cause of the trouble, say to my father that false information had been given concerning the purpose of our voyage. The Ark  and the Dove  were commanded by his Majesty to return until every man and boy on board both vessels had signed written oath declaring that he was loyal to the king and counted himself a subject of England.

One would not suppose many hours would be spent doing such a thing, but yet a full ten days have we lain here at Tillbury Hope, and only within an hour has permission come for us to sail again.

John tells me that most like some of Lord Baltimore's enemies had given false information to his Majesty in order to detain us, and, perchance, put an end to the carrying of a colony to that portion of America which shall *be called the Province of Maryland.



Our Arrival at Cowes

It was on the twenty-ninth day of October, as I have already set down, that we were at liberty to leave Tillbury Hope, and then were the ships steered for the Isle of Wight; for what reason I did not understand until we had arrived at Cowes.

From the time I first came on board the Ark  I had been looking around, hoping to see the priests, for it was in my mind that they would be of much aid in describing that which was spread before us, and prove better companions for a lad than the high-spirited gentlemen who made up our company. Greatly was I surprised at failing to find them, for John had said, without any question of doubt, that they would sail with us.

It was when we arrived at Cowes that I understood why my search had been in vain, for here Father White, Father Altham, and Brother Gervase came on board, which explained why we had put in at this place.

Then was it made plain to me concerning the stopping of our ships by Edward Watkins. As you know, the established religion in England is Protestant, and we who are Catholics are under a certain disfavor with those gentlemen who frequent the court; therefore was it possible for Lord Baltimore's enemies to make head against him. Also, perhaps, it was to learn if the reverend fathers were with us that we were called back, and thus would Lord Baltimore be charged with counting on building up a Catholic colony, when, as an Englishman, he should favor the Protestants. This, likewise, was the reason why the priests boarded the vessels at Cowes, instead of when we lay in the Thames.

Lord Baltimore himself came to see us at Cowes, and because of his visit, during which much business was transacted, such as receiving his commands for the establishing of the province, we did not leave port until the morning of Friday, November twenty-second.



We Put to Sea

Then, after having been delayed more than a month, did it seem as if we were in good truth on our journey, and yet before many hours had passed the northerly wind died away until we were of necessity come to anchor at Yarmouth, which caused no little fear among the gentlemen of our company, for if we were long detained on the coast of England, his lordship's enemies might find opportunity of throwing yet further troubles in our way.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Fortunately, however, a strong wind, which was almost a gale, sprang up during the night, causing confusion among the ships in the harbor. A French bark was blown from her anchorage and fell afoul of the Dove, which vessel was forced to put to sea immediately, otherwise she would have been driven on the shore, and, lest we be separated from her, the Ark  was obliged to follow.

The wind increased in strength until it was to me at times as if our ship stood upright, first on one end and then on the other, and again rolling to and fro until it seemed certain she would be overset. John, who had the same sickness in his stomach as had I, declared that because of our having sailed on Friday morning, were we sure to come to disaster by shipwreck.

Again and again, while the gale raged, did I say to myself that he had spoken truly, for of a verity it seemed as if nothing that had been fashioned by man could withstand the pounding of the enormous waves or the fury of the wind which I could hear screaming amid the rigging.



The Dove Disappears

Not until eight and forty hours had passed was the tempest so far abated that it was possible for me to go on deck.

Only then did I learn that the Dove  was no longer to be seen. Captain Lowe, the master of our ship, believed that she had gone to the bottom, the wind and the waves proving too much for her, and John declared it was a judgment upon us because of our having set sail on Friday; but Father White tells me it is wicked to give ear to such foolish superstitions. The good God would not allow that one of the days of the week should be evil, and another good; but that all are alike to our advantage, if so be we live according to His laws.

I had believed when the sickness in my stomach was so great, that nevermore in this life would I desire to look upon food, much less taste it, and yet, strange as it may seem, I had no sooner become able to move about, or, as the sailors say, "got my sea legs on," when hunger beset me until it was as if there could not be food enough in all the ship to satisfy my desires.

But for the belief that the Dove  and all on board had gone to the' bottom of the ocean, the first portion of our voyage, when the winds were favoring, and no greater in strength than was needed to carry our ship swiftly along, would have been pleasing.

As it was, however, we who were in the midst of that mighty ocean, where was to be seen no token of land, could but be saddened by the sudden taking away of such a large portion of our company, and there was ever present in my mind the thought that before we might reach that far-away country where we hoped to make a new home and live amid plenty, the Ark  would suffer the same fate as that of the Dove.

Many a time and again did I check myself when in dined to mirth, almost fearing to laugh at a moment when we stood, as it seemed to me, so near death.

Because of my fears did Father White chide me severely, saying that the God in Heaven had the same care over us whether we were on the sea or on the land, and that we should put our trust in Him for the continuance of life, knowing that when it was His will should we die, and not until then, however tempests might rage and monsters of the sea rise up against us.



A Second Tempest

It was as if I had hardly more than regained my courage through the pious advice of the priest, before another storm came up, equal in fury to three or four such gales as we had first experienced, and I was not the only member of that company who believed our final day had come.

Even Captain Lowe, who had declared that the Ark  was so seaworthy as to make fair weather even in great storms, meaning she was a stanch sea boat, admitted that only by God's mercy could we hope to live through the tempest.

Even while the ship was rolling and pitching as if bent on tearing herself asunder, and all our gentlemen, together with many of the serving men, were in the great cabin holding fast to everything which was firmly fixed, in order to avoid being thrown violently about, did John whisper in my ear that of a verity Friday was an unlucky day. At the same time he reminded me that this was Friday, the twenty-ninth of November, and I was not heartened when I heard Father Altham say it seemed as if all the spirits and witches of Maryland were battling against us.

One of the gentlemen, I think it was my uncle, declared that the sailors had seen sunfish swimming against the sun's course, which was a sure sign of a furious storm, and verily it was a tempest such as one may not see, and live, more than once in a lifetime.

There poured forth such a force of wind as would seemingly blow our ship under water at every blast, and before midnight came the Ark  was stripped of her mainsail, it having been torn from the boltropes and carried away on the wings of the storm.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

I question if there was one in the great cabin, save Father White, who was not on his knees in prayer when the captain came below, saying there was no reason why he or his crew should remain on deck, since they were powerless in every way.

The helm had been lashed, and the ship was left to blow about on those fearful waves like a helpless raft, while we who were beneath the decks looked death in the face during every second of each minute that passed so slowly.

But God, who holdeth the waters in the hollow of His hand, took heed to us even as He does to the sparrow's fall, and when the winds were spent and the waves had subsided, not one of all our company was missing, while, save for the loss of the mainsail, the Ark  was in as seaworthy a condition as when we left Cowes.

It was as if the witches of Maryland, having tried to overwhelm us by tempests, were wearied of their efforts, for from that time until we were come to land, the weather could not have been sweeter. Each day was the wind favoring, and, until Christmas came, our voyage was much like some excursion for pleasure.



An Unseemly Christmas Celebration

Then came that disaster brought about entirely by those who suffered, and if, when I am older grown, there be need to put a check upon a sinful appetite, then have I only to send my mind back to that gruesome day in the year of grace, 1633.

Because we had been so favored in the voyage after the second tempest, Governor Calvert believed we should make special rejoicings on the day which marks the birth of our Saviour, and to the end that all might make merry, he gave orders for wine to be dealt out to each person, as much as he desired to drink.

We ate heartily, for the noonday meal was a veritable feast, being made up of the best from out all our stores, but it shames me to say that among us were those who drank of the wine until they were like unto beasts, yea, worse, for brutes satisfy their hunger or their thirst, and then are done, whereas these companions of ours drank until they fell upon the decks unable to move.

Then came that which seemed to me was a punishment direct from God, for thirty-one of the people in the Ark  sickened on the day after Christmas with a fever, and before the new year had come, one of the gentlemen and eleven serving men had died, and had been buried in the sea.

There is little need for me to say that we were saddened and sore at heart because of this disaster, which might well be called a judgment.

The casting of the bodies into the ocean, while the priests stood near the rail saying the prayers for the dead, was to me something so dreadful that before the second body had been dropped over, I fled into the great cabin, hiding my face in the coverings of my bed while I stopped my ears, lest I should hear even those holy words which were being spoken by the servants of God. When all was over, and I at in the cabin shivering with terror, Father White came to my side, whispering words of cheer and promise, or reminding me of the loving care of the Almighty, until the veil of sorrow and of fear was swept away.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Verily do I believe that that which seemed at the time so dreadful, was of a benefit to us, for surely no man could, with the remembrance of that awesome day upon him, offend as did those who had gone to their judgment.



The Port of Barbadoes

It was but a few days after this that Captain Lowe told Governor Calvert that our store of food was running low, and asked permission to make port at the island of Barbadoes, where were settled Englishmen, whose governor, Master Harvey, was a brother to the governor of Virginia.

There, so Captain Lowe believed, we should be made welcome, and be able to buy of provisions as much as we might need, at fair prices.

Governor Calvert could do no less than give the master of the Ark  permission to sail into this port, which it seemed was near at hand, and, therefore, the bow of the ship was turned in, that direction; but it puzzled me greatly to know how the captain, being upon the sea with no land in sight, could say where one island or another might be found.

However that might be, we sailed as true for Barbadoes as if the way had been marked out by sign-posts, and verily I was rejoiced at the prospect of being able to stretch my legs on land, thinking it would be possible for me to go ashore in the first boat which put out from the ship.

In this, however, I was mistaken, for none were allowed to land until after Captain Lowe had made certain there was nothing of danger to be met with, for in those strange countries an Englishman must needs keep his eyes open, else may he speedily come to grief.

It appeared that the island of Barbadoes was not as pleasant a haven of rest as might be found, for the governor had just discovered a plot among the slaves, which was that they rise against the white people, and seize the first vessel that came into port.

Because of this discovery, the Ark  remained at anchor a considerable distance from the shore, and orders were given that no one venture on the island until it was known to a certainty that all danger had passed.

We also learned here that had we visited Bona Vista, as was the captain's first intention, we should have come full upon a Spanish fleet, and, because of the war between England and Spain, should have been made prisoners, afterward to be sold as slaves.

Father White insisted that in thus escaping, as if by accident, the Spanish, and in not having come to Barbadoes until the plot of the slaves had been discovered, was proof that God preserved us from those dangers to the end that we might make in the New World a province where His laws would be kept to the letter, as well as to the spirit.



The Arrival of the Dove

Before three days had passed, even those who doubted Father White's words came to believe them true, for then it was that the Dove, which we all felt certain had foundered at sea, came into port with never one of her people missing.

It can well be imagined how great was the joy among us at meeting here in mid-ocean; as one might say, those whom we had so long believed to be dead!

We were eager to hear the story of those who had much the same as come to us from out the grave, and I for one was disappointed because it had in it nothing whatsoever of adventure.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

On the night of the terrible storm, when the Dove  had disappeared, so the people who were on board told us, she bore away for a refuge at the Scilly Islands, and as soon as fair weather was come, sailed in pursuit of us, stopping at Barbadoes by the merest chance.

That night we gave thanks to God for His goodness and mercy, Father White striving to impress upon all the fact that if we lived in the New World with the love of the Almighty in our hearts, we need fear no evil.

It was as if we had been sent to this island of Barbadoes simply that the Dove  might overtake us, for there was little opportunity to add to our stores because of the high prices which Governor Harvey's people put upon all their goods.

And then again, they carried themselves toward us as if we were enemies instead of Englishmen, and when, finally, some of the people, myself among the number, were allowed to go on shore, the dwellers on the island glowered upon us as if it gave them pain to speak a friendly word.



Under Sail Again

However, we remained at anchor nineteen days, and on the evening of January twenty-fourth, in the year of grace 1634, much to the relief of all, I dare venture to say, the Ark  and the Dove  were got under way.

Next day we passed the island of St. Lucia, and in the evening were come to Matalina, where we saw half a dozen strangely built boats, called canoes, in which were brown men, who, so the people of the island told us, had but lately eaten several Englishmen.

It was said that all these dark-skinned natives on the islands near about were cannibals, and truly they were not pleasing to look upon.

I had been eager to see the brown people of the New World; but this one glimpse was enough to satisfy me for all time.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

My father declares that in the Province of Maryland we shall come upon brown people who are inclined to be friendly with those whose skins are white, and who do not make a practice of eating Englishmen.

Four and twenty hours later we were at the island of St. Christopher, where is a colony of French people, and by them we were treated with exceeding friendliness, being supplied at low cost with such stores as we stood in need of.

Here we remained two days only, for Governor Calvert was eager to continue the voyage, and gentlemen, as well as serving men, lent a hand in taking on board the goods which had been bought for our comfort and well-being.



The Land of America

From the time we left St. Christopher, until the twenty-fourth day of February, there was nothing happened which need be set down here. Each day was much like another in that the winter's sun shone gratefully warm upon us, and all the winds were favoring.

Then were we come in sight of that headland in Virginia which is called Point Comfort, and the voyage was much the same as at an end.

We had crossed the mighty ocean where one might well expect to meet dangers of every kind, and yet had come safely to the land of America where were to be made our new homes.

Anchored close under the fort, we waited anxiously to learn how we might be received by those Englishmen who had, under command of one Captain John Smith, built what could well be called the first real town in the New World, although it was by no means the first settlement.

Governor Calvert and Father White were of the mind that these men of Virginia would not give us a hearty welcome, because it had been said in London that they were much opposed to the king's giving Lord Baltimore land which they believed belonged to themselves.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

However, none could have been more kind than were these same Englishmen, and Governor Sir John Harvey himself came on board to greet our Governor Calvert, looking upon him as the one who stood in the place of Lord Baltimore. Before we weighed anchor again, these people had promised to furnish us with such of provisions as might be needed, together with what of cattle and hogs, poultry and corn we should want.

They also agreed to send, as a free gift, bricks and tiles for Lord Baltimore's own dwelling, and otherwise acted in such very friendly fashion as caused us to have a certain feeling of homesickness when the time was come to continue on up that vast inland sea, which is called the bay of Chesapeake, in search of our Province of Maryland.



The Land Given by the King

Truly it was a beautiful land to which we had come! I wound I were able to set down here the same picture I saw on the westernmost shore, while we sailed slowly up the bay!

Although it was the third day of March, the air was sweet and balmy; the trees were green, and amid them sang birds of gay plumage, while all about us on this inland sea swam ducks of many kinds, and swans and herons.

From the tree tops in the distance arose such flocks of pigeons that it was as if a great veil had been stretched to cover the foliage, and I wondered where so many feathered creatures might find rest for their feet during the night, for verily it seemed as if there were more than would fill all that vast forest, if so be they alighted.

It can well be fancied that our people on both vessels were craning their necks to see this country which the king had given to Lord Baltimore, and, as Father White said, no man had ever seen a fairer sight.

Save for the wings of the birds and the harsh cries of the ducks, it was so still that now and then we of the Ark  could hear exclamations of surprise and delight from those of the Dove, thus telling that they, like us, were enchanted with all to be seen.

Before we left England I had heard it said that this world of America was fair to look upon; but all which lay before me was so beautiful that I rubbed my eyes again and again to make certain it was no fanciful dream.

I might spend all the days allotted me on this earth, trying to describe the land in which our homes are to be built, and yet have come to the grave without setting down one half the wondrous story. Therefore it is I had best give over trying, and content myself by saying that before the day was come to a close we had arrived at the mouth of a noble river which was set down on our maps by its Indian name of Potomac; but which Governor Calvert then and there changed to St. Gregory's.

Father White, who was standing near me when the Ark  was headed into this grand stream, said

"It is the sweetest and greatest river I have ever seen, so that the Thames is but a little finger to it. There are no marshes nor swamps about, so far as I can make out; but solid ground with a great variety of huge trees, not choked with shrubs, but commonly so far distant from each other that a coach and horses might travel among them without hindrance."



Fear of the Brown Man

This sweet picture, however, was not without its bitterness, as we soon came to understand when the night closed silently in around us, for then could be seen here, there, and everywhere, so far as the eye might reach, small fires kindled on both shores of the river, and around them brown men armed with guns, with spears, and with bows and arrows, as if they had made ready to prevent us from gaining a foothold upon the land which they most likely claimed as theirs, little dreaming that his Majesty of England, so far away, held to be owner of it all.

There was in my mind a fear that these brown-skinned people, who were guarding the river against our landing, might be cannibals, even as were those whom we had seen at the island of Barbadoes; but John, who claims to have heard much concerning the Indians of America from a cousin of his who lives in Jamestown, told me that we would find them friendly, if so be we were fair and honest in our dealings.

Why they had thus gathered as if to oppose our landing, John could not say, and I misdoubted much of what he told me, believing he repeated the words simply to give me courage, for I saw on his face, as I did on the faces of many others around me, a look of distrust and fear.

It is true that the people of Virginia whom we had met while lying under Governor Harvey's fort claimed that we need have no fear concerning these savages, and yet all our company must have asked this same question, which was, that if we had been told the truth, why were these brown men gathered around us armed as if for battle, and with watch fires so plentiful that a boat might not pass from the ship to the shore without being seen?

Not until we were come near to the island, which Governor Calvert at once named St. Clements, were the anchors dropped, nor was a careful guard set lest the brown men should attempt to come on board against our will. Then were those who were on other duty told that they might seek repose.

As for myself, I could no more have gone into the great cabin, shutting out the sweet odors of the land, than I could have flown. The fact that we had come, after so long a journey, to our own Province of Maryland, finding it such a delightful country, would alone have kept my feet glued to the deck.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

The beauty of it was so unexpected as to be unreal, and there was in my mind a certain fear lest it might fade away like images in a dream, if I took my eyes from it, and yet in the darkness I could see nothing save the gloom of the land and those numberless watch fires.

I must have slept somewhat before morning, however, else did the time pass unusually fast, for when the day came, all glorious with the golden light that gave to the foliage a vivid green and caused the birds to burst forth in floods of melody, it seemed as if no more than two or three hours had passed.



Where the City would be Built

Then it was that we could see clearly this island which had been chosen in the night as our first stopping place, and I asked John if it was here we were to build a city; but he was of the mind that much would be done before Governor Calvert decided such an important matter.

The land belonging to Lord Baltimore was, most likely, to be spied out in order that we might learn where it would be to our best advantage to settle, and again that the temper of the savages might be known, for surely what we had seen the night previous was proof, at least to my mind, that they would oppose our coming.

Again, as I looked, I could understand that this island of St. Clements, so lately named, would be all too small for a town of any size, and more certain was I on hearing one of the gentlemen say it did not contain more than an hundred acres in all its surface.

It was a beautiful place, however, and in all England I question if there could be found one so fair, covered as it was with tall trees, such as wild walnuts, acorns, and black walnuts, together with cedar and sassafras, among which were vines and plants in great abundance.

The first work of the day was to take from out the hold where it had been stowed, lest the heavy waves of the ocean should dash it to pieces, the shallop, and in her were sent to the island three of the serving maids that they might begin their labors in this new province of ours by washing the soiled linen.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It was like to have been a disaster instead of a task, for the water all around was so shallow that even a small boat could not come up to the firm land; therefore those who were on board must perforce wade a certain distance, and when one of the men leaped over the side to lead the way, he was so incautious as to overset the shallop, dropping the maids into the water together with all the linen, which last was lost to us for all time.

Fortunately, the maids were saved; but some of our people mourned even as if they had been drowned, for to us in a new country, where linen could not be had for the buying, to lose so many garments was a serious mishap.



Taking Possession of the Island

When the gentlemen had broken their fast, we all went on shore. Not a brown man could be seen anywhere, and certain it is there were none on the island.

I ventured to say sportively to John that mayhap we had dreamed of those watch fires, and of the armed men who marched to and fro, but he replied grimly, that unless we had a care there would soon be good proof it was no vision.

"They are hiding amid the foliage all around use, I make no doubt," he said, "to learn what is our purpose, and it will be well if we do not offend them."

Surely the wickedest brown men that ever lived could not have been offended at that which we did on this first morning in the Province of Maryland. Our gentlemen themselves, with Governor Calvert lending a hand, hewed down two large trees, fashioned both roughly into the form of square timbers, and of them made a huge cross, after which we formed in procession, serving men as well as gentlemen, marching two by two, with Father White and the governor leading. At the head were four of the gentlemen bearing the cross, which was carried to the highest part of the island.

Here a hole was dug, and the cross set therein, where it might be seen from far out over the bay.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

We recited the litanies of the. Holy Cross with great emotion, and Governor Calvert took solemn possession of the soil of Maryland in such form as must have been pleasing in the sight of the good God who had delivered us out of so many dangers.

As soon as all this had been done, and verily it seemed to me after the religious services as if we were indeed at home, I could see that it was not the purpose of our governor to waste any time before beginning to build a town wherein we might live.



A Voyage of Discovery

Immediately preparations were made for a voyage of discovery, and lest I set down too many words in the telling of the story, for to me those first things which we did, unimportant though they may be to others, were far greater than anything afterward accomplished, I will relate it briefly.

First, it was decided that the Ark  should be left off this island of St. Clements, and to that end all her 'anchors were let drop lest heavy winds should spring up.

The small pinnace, which had been hired at Virginia, was fitted with oars, and a sufficient number of seamen told off to man her.

Governor Calvert and the gentlemen made ready to go on board the Dove, and I, fearing lest I should be left behind, and thus fail of seeing all the wonders of this New World, begged my father's permission to accompany him, the which he unwillingly granted, thinking I might be brought into places of danger.

It was only when I insisted that since we two were the same as alone in the world, it were better both share every danger, than for one to remain in security, possibly to mourn the death of the other, that he finally consented, and thus, boy though I was, I joined the company that was to spy out the land.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

All the seamen of the Ark, save those who were aboard the small pinnace, together with the greater number of serving men and maids, were left on the ship, because it was not believed wise to take too large a force, since the brown men might think we were come bent on mischief.

Of the priests, only Father Altham set off with us; and, in silence—for no man could say what lay before us—we left the harbor to meet, as was believed, those dark-skinned men who dwelt in the land the king had given Lord Baltimore.



Visiting the Indians

I had hoped we would go out of the river and sail farther into the bay; but this was not Governor Calvert's purpose, for he steered directly up the Potomac, or the St. Gregory's, whichever you choose to call it, and before we had well left our mooring-place, was it possible to see the savages on either side the stream running to and fro, as if in alarm. But when our little fleet advanced, they disappeared amid the foliage.

We continued on until we arrived at an Indian village in which were two or three hundred people, mayhap; and here Governor Calvert and Father Altham, with only four men to work at the oars, went on shore alone, trusting, by so coming unattended, the Indians would understand that their intent was peace and good-will.

The Dove  lay so near the bank of the stream that it was possible for us who were on board her to hear very much of what was said by the governor and the priest, when, without showing any fear whatsoever, although the savages stood in threatening attitudes, they stepped out of the boat.

"We have come as friends," Governor Calvert said, and then, to my great surprise, I heard one of the brown-skinned men reply to him in English, whereupon, like a silly, I asked John how it could be that these savages spoke in the same tongue as white men. The explanation was simple, and my face flushed with shame as I realized there was no reason why I should ask the question, for surely these Indians had not lived so far from the settlement of Jamestown but that they would have visited it, and Captain John Smith, so it was said, had been far afoot in either direction, therefore we were by no means the first white men they had seen, nor the only ones who were then among them, as we learned very shortly.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Well, there was no little talk between Governor Calvert and the Indians, after which Father Altham much the same as preached a sermon to the people, saying that we had come to live among them as brothers, and to tell them of Christ.

He spoke a long time, and, when he was done, the head man said in his own language, which was repeated in English by some of those standing near

"It is good. We will use one table. My people shall hunt for my brother, and all things shall be in common between us."



An Unexpected Meeting

It was not yet noon when Governor Calvert and Father Altham came on board the Dove  again, and we set off farther up the river to a village of the Piscataway Indians, regarding which those on shore had told the priest.

It was yet early in the afternoon when we came around a bend in the stream, beyond which we could see the village, and there, lying at anchor, were two small pinnaces, much after the same make as was the Dove.

That there were white people on the river above us no one had believed, although we received information of a settlement of Englishmen on Kent Island, some distance farther up the bay, of which I shall tell you later, and we craned our necks in vain to see English crews aboard the pinnaces. In this, however, we were disappointed, for a dozen or more dark-skinned men were seen aboard these craft, but never a white face.

On the shore were gathered no less than five hundred Indians, so John said, all armed and seemingly ready to prevent us from making a landing.

To see the pinnaces, which were certainly of English make, frightened me as I gazed at them, for I said to myself that these brown-skinned men must have captured, and perhaps eaten, the crews who sailed them, and that we should be treated in the same manner unless we made valiant battle.

I soon came to learn how groundless were my fears, for when Governor Calvert and Father Altham went on shore alone, as before, making signs of friendship, a white man stepped out from amid the throng, and Captain Lowe shouted in a joyous tone

"Henry Fleet! By all that's good! What do you here?"

"Trading, as I have done many a month, and with license from those of Virginia," the man on shore replied in a not over-friendly tone, and asked almost immediately, "Why do you come? Are you of Baltimore's party who claim all the rights in this bay of Chesapeake?"

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Then it was that Governor Calvert spoke him fairly, and the two went apart a little way from the others, talking in low tones, until I saw this Henry Fleet strike his hand heartily into that of our governor's, as if to say they were friends, and from that moment I had no fear of those dark-skinned men who were seemingly opposed to our coming.



Captain Fleet's Story

I had best set down here what I afterward heard concerning this same Captain Henry Fleet, who, because of his acquaintance with the Indians, and owing to certain business transactions he had had with the man who later caused us of Maryland so much trouble, became of considerable importance during a time in our Province of Maryland.

It seemed, so the story went, that this man had been captured by the Indians a long distance inland on the river Potomac, as early as the year 1621. Why he was there I am not able to learn; but most like he had been one of Captain John Smith's company, and, being a willful man, had strayed away in search of adventure rather than serve under so masterful a leader as was Smith.

However that may be, he was taken prisoner by the Indians, and with them remained near to four years, by which time he had learned the language of his captors, and become acquainted with the country.

He was finally looked upon as a friend rather than as a prisoner, and on making known his desire to visit the settlement of Virginia, permission was readily given.

From that colony he found opportunity to sail to England, where he succeeded in persuading a merchant, one William Cloberry, to fit him out as a trader, and since then, with the pinnaces provided by Master Cloberry, has had no little intercourse with the Englishmen of Kent Island, who afterward gave us so much trouble, as I shall tell you presently.

When Captain Fleet had become satisfied that our Governor Calvert had no thought of interfering with his trading among the Indians, at least for the time being, he at once took upon himself the duties of guide and guardian, and it must be confessed that through his good offices we of Lord Baltimore's company gained a friendly footing with the savages far sooner than might have been possible under any other circumstances.



A Visit from an Indian Werowance

We were told that this town of Piscataway was the home of the werowance, or king of the Indians, and that if he could be induced to receive us as friends, then would all the other brown-skinned men in this Province of Maryland follow his example.

To this end Captain Fleet directed all his efforts, and very shortly the king came on board the Dove, followed by twelve or fifteen of his chief men, where both the Governor and Father Altham set about giving proof of their friendship for the brown men.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It was while this was being done that a vast throng of Indians on shore began to fear lest their werowance was being wrongly dealt with, and set up such shouts, accompanied by threatening gestures, as caused the savage ruler to send two of his followers to explain why he remained.

It was not possible, however, to free the minds of these savage people of fear concerning the safety of their chief, until he had shown himself on the deck of the Dove, and in a loud voice declared that he was remaining of his own will among friends.

When he went below again, as if eager to be once more with the white men, his people stood on the very brink of the shore, watching suspiciously as if fearing lest we might work some mischief to their king.

I cannot set down of my own knowledge all that was said and done during the visit of the werowance, for he and his followers, together with Governor Calvert and our gentlemen, held long and private conversation in the cabin of the pinnace, and when it was come to an end the visitors went on shore, whereupon our vessel, in company with those under command of Captain Fleet, made sail in order to return to the island of St. Clements.



Indian Versus  English Claims

During the voyage toward what we believed would be our new home, my father told me that the werowance of Piscataway had given permission for us to settle upon his land, for it seems that he claimed all the country roundabout as his, own, giving no heed to the king of England.

When I ventured to say that we need only show the paper from his Majesty, on which was the great seal of England, giving us lawful right to all the country, in order to prove ownership, my father replied that Lord Baltimore's instructions had been to buy from the savages whatsoever land they claimed to own, rather than risk making enemies of them by setting up rights of our own.

If this were done, then would the land be doubly ours, first by gift of his Majesty, and second through purchase from the Indians.

Before many hours had passed, all of us, even including myself, came to understand how fortunate we were in having chanced upon this Captain Fleet, who was so well acquainted with the country, for when we were arrived at St. Clements, where our people received us as if we had just come out from greatest danger, he declared that the island was by no means so suitable a spot in which to build our town as a certain place not many miles distant.



Seeking a New Place for the City

So great faith had Governor Calvert in the honest intent of Captain Fleet, that, without parley, we were all embarked once more, and the fleet of vessels, including the Ark, sailed down the Potomac to the mouth of a river which Governor Calvert named St. Mary's, and on the bank of which was an Indian village, called by the odd-sounding name of Yaocomico.

Verily it was a country fair to look upon, where a point of land ran out into the river with bold shores covered with an abundance of trees and springs of fresh water, making, so our gentlemen declared, a perfect location for fortifications in case enemies should come upon us.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

There was also in this village another werowance, and when Governor Calvert, with my father and two others of the gentlemen, went on shore in company with Captain Fleet, this savage ruler invited them into his own dwelling, where, upon mats made of grass, did they sleep all night, while the remainder of our company stayed on board the vessels anxiously awaiting the result of the visit.



The Bargain

Now as to what took place during the evening and on the following morning, I cannot say of my own knowledge; but we who remained on the water were told that Governor Calvert had offered to buy from these savages, in order that we might build upon it our first town, the point of land on the right hand side of the river, which was to be called Augusta Carolina.

It was left to Captain Fleet to arrange the terms of this bargain, and from out our store of axes, hose, knives, and clothes, such as would be used in trading with the Indians, he gave to the chief of Yaocomico and his men as much as satisfied them to part with their land.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

So well pleased were the brown-skinned people with this bargain, that they of their own will agreed to give up the houses, and the corn which was growing, to us, promising at the same time that at the end of the harvest they would move away entirely, leaving us in undisputed possession; but in the meanwhile we should live friendly and peaceably together.

About thirty square miles of land were thus bought, and, as I have said, given the name of Augusta Carolina. As to the town itself, Father White insisted it should be known as St. Mary's, in honor of the mother of Jesus Christ.

As soon as our people on shipboard heard of the trade that had been made between Governor Calvert and the Indian chief, the big guns of the vessels were discharged, and the men let off their muskets in token that we had at last taken possession of our Province of Maryland.

Although as yet nothing had been done, save in the way of talk, it seemed to me as if we had really settled down to our own, and I had a certain feeling of content that we were to live in so fair a country, of which no less than fifty acres would be my very own.



The Village of Yaocomico

You may be certain that we who had journeyed so far went on shore at once after Governor Calvert had purchased for us the right, and while the serving men were taking out from the vessels our goods and provisions, in order to establish homes in this village which the owners were so ready to desert, I found much with which to occupy my attention.

It was only reasonable that my curiosity should be greatest concerning the houses in which we were to live, at least, during a certain time, until others, more like those we knew of in England, could be built; and being told by Captain Fleet that there was no reason why I might not roam about at will, I wandered through the village, taking note of all that was to be seen.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

The dwellings, whether large or small, were oval in shape, much as if you were to cut an egg in halves, lengthwise, and built of poles, the larger ends of which were stuck in the ground to considerable depth, while the tops were bent over until they could be tied together by vines. Across and upon this network were woven of reeds, dried grass, and twigs, veritable blankets, made with such care that they would shed the rain.

These huts, call them houses if you will, were from eight to ten feet high in the center, where was left a hole both for the smoke to pass out and the light to come in.

You must know that there were no such things as fireplaces, but whatsoever of heat, either for comfort or cooking purposes was needed, came from a fire built on the ground directly under the hole in the roof, and, as you may suppose, very much of the smoke lingered inside, instead of passing freely out through the top; therefore he who remained within any length of time was put to much discomfort with his eyes because of the noisome vapor.

In order to get into these odd dwellings, a hole had been cut at what might be called the smaller end of the egg. It was no more than three feet high, therefore he who entered must do so on all fours, and in front of this was hung a skin of some kind to serve as door, in case of a storm; but at all other times it was left open that the draft of air might serve the better to carry away the smoke from the fire.

Six or seven of these odd huts were much larger than the others, and, as I afterward learned, were owned by the chief men of the tribe. These were divided into three or four rooms by means of hanging skins, or of woven grass made in the form of curtains; but whether big or little, the dwellings were not inviting to English people accustomed to well-made houses.

Even before I had got on shore one of these large huts had been given by the savages to our priests, and when I came upon it the good men were busily engaged fitting it up as a church. Thus it was that almost our first labor in the Province of Maryland was directed toward preparing a place in which we might worship God after a simple fashion.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Another of the large huts was given over to my father, my uncle, and myself, together with our serving men, and in this one, which I was to call my home during the first summer in our town of St. Mary's, had beds been made by driving four stakes into the ground with poles laid across them and lashed firmly with the sinews of animals, forming a screen on which could be placed skins and leaves until one might lie upon them with some degree of comfort.

The brown-skinned men behaved as if it was much to their pleasure that we had come among them, readily giving up their houses to us; and I believe of a verity had our company been so large as to require every dwelling in the village, these friendly savages would have slept in the open, rather than deprive us of a shelter. From this time on I had no fear that our Indians of Maryland would prove to be like those who, it was said, had eaten white people, and I went here and there among them without feeling timorous.



What the Indians Look Like

Save for the paint upon their faces and bodies, these Indians of the New World are by no means displeasing to the eye. They are tall, built like race horses, being all muscle and sinew rather than given to much flesh; but the coloring which they look upon as an ornament does not only offend the eye, but is disagreeable to the nose, for the odor arising from their almost naked bodies, mingled with the fat with which the paint is mixed, smells most vilely.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

As for clothes, they have few, and these easy of making. A mantle or cloak of skin, and an apron about their waists, with shoes of soft, yellow hide, is all they seem to need as protection against the weather.

But of ornaments they have a profusion. I have seen upon the neck of one man who appeared to be of importance in the tribe, no less than twelve strings of beads, and bound around his forehead, the image of a fish beaten out of pure copper. The hair of the men is gathered together in a clump, and tied with fancifully ornamented strips of deer hide that has been tanned in smoke, after which feathers of gay colors are fastened in, until their heads, when seen from behind, are more like those of some gaudy plumaged birds than of human beings.



Indian Weapons and Tools

I took note that only two in this village had guns of English make, and these they evidently carried as ornaments, not knowing how to use them, at least, so I judged, because when our people were discharging our weapons as token that we had taken possession of the Province of Maryland for our very own, the Indians looked upon the handling of the muskets in wonder, not venturing to charge their guns, even though powder was offered them.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Of other weapons they had plenty long, stout bows which required great strength to bend, and were corded with strips of deer hide rolled hard until they were round; and arrows barbed with horn, or sharp pieces of flint, such as must inflict a most grievous wound when piercing the body of an animal or of a man. In addition to these were heavy clubs of wood in which were many knots, and all hardened in the fire.

There were also spears of stout wood, weighing twelve or fifteen pounds, with heads of flint as large as my hand, and sharpened on two sides by being chipped away until they were like knives.

Their great axes, which must have been fashioned with infinite labor from stones, had hickory branches twisted around them for handles, and the whole bound with sinews until the stone was fixed almost immovably in its socket.

Some of our people believed that these rude weapons were to be despised, as against our powder and ball; but John tells me that he would rather stand against a man at short range who was armed even with a snaphance musket, than with one of those spears with jagged head, which, if striking one's body, must cut and mangle it fearsomely.



Landing the Goods

I had supposed that we would live on shore at once after the huts were made ready for our use; but Governor Calvert had other views, as it seemed, for when many of our belongings had been taken from the ships, orders were given that we remain on board during each night, lest the friendly behavior of the Indians should cloak some dark plot against us; and in the meanwhile a fort was to be built of heavy logs, wherein we might take refuge if so be these kindly appearing brown men proved to be wrongly disposed toward us.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

The first day was spent in landing such goods as would not be needed on shipboard, and in setting to order these Indian huts; but it was understood that on the following morning the building of a fort and a storehouse was to be begun.

The Indians seemed to enjoy the bustle and confusion of unloading the vessels, taking hold with a right good will to aid the men with the heavy packages, and carrying to and fro as directed, until it was to me as if so many gigantic ants were moving their belongings from one mound to another.



Counting our Blessings

That evening, in the great cabin of the Ark, our gentlemen gathered to sum up the advantages which had so quickly and so readily been gained, and thus it was that I, who was allowed to be present, since nothing of a secret nature would be discussed, learned how much more fortunate were we than those other Englishmen who had settled in Virginia, or round about Massachusetts Bay.

We had found homes, rude to be sure, but yet such as would shelter us from the weather, already built, and in which we might live with fair degree of comfort until the first crops had been planted and harvested.

Instead of being forced to hew down trees in order to clear away a place for our town, we had found it already prepared for us, with large fields of corn planted and growing.

Then again, instead of arriving almost on the verge of starvation, as had those other colonists, we were provided with a large supply of food brought from England, purchased at St. Christopher, or taken on board at Point Comfort, and, in addition to having as much seed as would be needed for planting, there was enough in the Ark  and Dove  to provide us with all the necessaries of life during a full year.

That the land which had been given for the building up of our Province of Maryland was in so fair a portion of the New World was not among the least of our blessings. Instead of being on a rocky seacoast, as were the settlers of Plymouth, we were on the shore of a beautiful inland sea, with water fowl of every kind at hand, and fish to be had for the catching.

Verily God had been good to us when we came into the New World, and so deeply was this fact impressed upon us all, that when Father White, in the midst of the deliberations, proposed that thanks be humbly given for all the blessings showered upon us far beyond our deserts and our hopes, every man fell on his knees without delay.



The Susquehanoughs

After this, and while the company were conversing, one or another expressed surprise because these brown-skinned men had been so ready and willing to abandon their village for our comfort, giving up at small price the fields already planted, whereupon Captain Fleet, who had been called into the council, gave us a key to the seeming mystery, at the same time declaring that what seemed like ill fortune to the Indians was greatly to their advantage.

It seems that near by, I cannot say how far away, live other brown-skinned men who belong to a tribe called Susquehanoughs, and these Indians are enemies to those of Yaocomico. More than once already had war parties come into the land, killing and carrying away as slaves these peaceful savages of ours, so said Captain Fleet, and just before we sailed up the Chesapeake Bay, it had been decided by the brown men of Yaocomico that they would leave this village, which we have bought, and move to some other place, where they might the better defend themselves from the blood-thirsty Susquehanoughs.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It caused me no little discomfort of mind to hear that there were in the land savages who, instead of being peacefully inclined like those we had already met, were given to making war, and I questioned whether, on learning that the people of Yaocomico had moved away, they might not attack us.

But this possibility did not appear to have any weight with our people, at least, not so far as I could see during this evening when we were thus assembled in the great cabin of the Ark, for they treated with seeming indifference the information given concerning the warlike tribe, and all the gentlemen, including my father, acted as if to them it was a matter of little importance what the Susquehanoughs might try to do.

Mayhap I am giving too many words to the story of these brown men whom we found in our Province of Maryland; but he who reads must remember that we had come a small company as compared with the number of natives, to build up new homes, and were, one might say, defenseless in event of a war with the savages.

Such being the case, and knowing that all our future well-being depended in a great measure upon these same Indians, it is little wonder that I dwell upon them, for to us, however indifferent our gentlemen might appear, what these savages did, or tried to do, was of great moment.



A Land of Abundance

It was while such thoughts as these were passing through my mind, that Captain Fleet entertained the company by telling of the abundance of the land, explaining that even though the harvest failed us, we had on every hand sufficient to feed all the people of the great city of London, and yet leave untasted as much again.

There were wild fowl on the waters of the bay, or in the rivers, so plentiful that a man might go out, if so be he was not niggardly with shot and powder, and fill a shallop in one day's hunting.

Fish were to be had for the catching, and in such quantities that a single person could feed all our company, and yet not overwork himself.

Beneath the waters were to be found shellfish called oysters, and exceeding sweet are they to the taste, whether eaten raw or roasted in the coals, as I already knew, having that same day feasted upon the savory meat until I could eat no more.

Large, round, green reptiles or fish called crabs, with many legs and most disagreeable to look upon, yet when boiled, turning to a bright red, and yielding flesh of a sweet flavor very pleasing to the palate, also could be had in plenty.

Pigeons in the woods, as I have already set down, were of such numbers that when a flock flies over one's head, it shields him from the rays of the sun even as does the night, and Captain Fleet assured us most positively that he had seen a flight of these birds which darkened the light of day for more than two hours in the passing. And as for other wild fowl, at that very moment we had on the table in the great cabin a huge bird which the cook of the Ark  had roasted brown, until the skin crackled pleasantly between one's teeth.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

All these were to be had for the shooting; these and birds and animals of every kind, until, if you had heard Captain Fleet holding forth that night, you would have believed we had but to reach out our hands to gather in all that was palatable and dainty in the way of eatables.

Nor did he strain the truth in thus telling, for before two days had passed our hunters proved for themselves, that he who was hungry need not go many miles from this village of Yaocomico in order to get all the meat that could be eaten not only by himself but by all our company.



Buying Cattle

Governor Calvert was not minded that we should put all dependence for food upon these wild things; but straightway the people had taken up their abode on shore, he sent the Dove, with a sufficient crew of seamen, to Jamestown in Virginia, and my uncle, representing our governor, there bought six yoke of oxen, fourteen cows, no less than thirty pigs, and a large flock of poultry, bringing the live stock back to us at St. Mary's without low.

I may as well confess here, that even though I had had no home in England when my father was elsewhere, it required I should exert all my will to prevent a certain feeling of homesickness, despite the fact that we had come to a land which was so fair, and had found the savages so friendly. That I was so far away from all those whom I had known since it was possible to remember faces, caused a pain at my heart such as I can cannot describe.

Save for my father, my uncle, and John, it seemed as if there was no one in all the world of America who stood near me, and when I laid myself down at night upon one of those Indian beds made of saplings, I could not prevent the tears from overflowing my eyelids.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

And now let him who will laugh at me; but yet it remains true, that when these cattle, with the swine and fowls, were brought to our town of St. Mary's, my sickness for home was more than half banished.

To hear the cocks crowing in the morning, even as I had heard them in England, or to listen to the lowing of the cows as they stood patiently waiting to be relieved from their burden of milk, was soothing to such a degree that straightway, and for the first time, did I feel as if I had really come to my home.



Storehouse and Fort

Because of the great number of trees to be found just outside the village, and also owing to the fact that the Indians were so eager to render assistance in whatsoever way they might, the building of the fort and of the storehouse was a short task. It seemed to me as if the work was no sooner begun, than it was finished.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

The fortification was neither more nor less than a palisade or high fence of logs, one hundred and twenty yards square, within which were mounted one heavy and six small guns, at such points as were most convenient to command the surrounding country.

This palisade was made by digging a trench four feet deep in the ground, and planting therein heavy logs twelve or fifteen feet in height, after which the earth was pounded down solidly until they stood fairly secure. Then roughly hewn planks were nailed along the top of the timbers to hold them yet more firmly in place.

Around this fence on the inside, at such a height that a man standing thereon could look over the top, was a rude platform built of puncheon planks, where defenders of the fortification, if so be we came to battle with the Indians, might stand. Here also were placed the guns of which I have spoken.

The storehouse was simply a hut of logs laid lengthwise, as a child builds a house of faggots, and notched at the ends to hold them in place, with mats of reeds, woven by the Indians, laid over the roof to prevent the rain from entering between the timbers.



A Visitor from Virginia

Before this work of building was completed, we were surprised and considerably startled by the approach of a small ship, which was not seen until the discharge of the cannon on board brought us all up standing, and aquiver with excitement and fear. But when the standard of old England was unfurled from the masthead of the stranger, we no longer trembled, but were in a fever of unrest to learn whether these visitors came from the land we had left, perhaps forever.

In a few moments, however, we knew it was Sir John Harvey, governor of the Province of Virginia, whom our gentlemen had met while the Ark  and the Dove  lay at Point Comfort, who was come to pay us a friendly visit, which to my mind was most kind of him.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Even before our people could go out to give him welcome, a fleet of canoes came around the northerly point of the harbor, bearing a vast company of savages, and I was perplexed to decide whether there might be any relation between these two bands of visitors.

Then the cannon on the vessel from Virginia roared out a salute, and in a short time it was whispered among us that Governor Harvey was killing two birds with one stone, so to speak, by making an agreement to meet the werowance of Patuxent at the same time that he paid us a friendly courtesy.

Governor Calvert went on board the ship in company with all our gentlemen and Captain Fleet. The canoes were moored alongside the vessel, and the werowance, with a dozen or more of his chief men, also boarded her.



A Talk with the Indians

Now as to what took place in the cabin of Governor Harvey's ship, I am not able to say; but John declared that it was what might be called a council of war, even though no war was threatened.

The chief of Patuxent was a big man among the savages of our Province of Maryland, and, as we heard later, Governor Harvey had thought fitting to explain to him that we who had settled at St. Mary's counted on being friendly with the brown-skinned people. Captain Fleet told these Indians that the governor of Maryland was a brother to the "great man of all," meaning Lord Baltimore, who was to come into the province later, and that we of Yaocomico were the only ones who would be allowed to trade with the natives from that time forth, intending, most like, to let them understand that the settlers of Kent Island, of whom I shall speak later, had no right whatsoever within the bounds of the gift which his Majesty had made Lord Baltimore.

Governor Harvey and the werowance of Patuxent remained four days, living on board the Dove; and while they were with us the fortification and the storehouse were finished, whereupon Governor Calvert decided that the savages should understand how grave a matter was the taking possession of the province.



Running up the Colors

To that end the Maryland colors, which are the quarterings of Lord Baltimore's coat-of-arms, were brought on shore with great ceremony, all our gentlemen attending in their gayest costumes.

It was a great show when our people, having previously gone out to the. Dove, came to shore in the small shallop, the pinnace, and the ship's tenders, with drums beating and flags flying.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Lastly came Governor Calvert, Governor Harvey, the werowance of Patuxent, and the chief of the Indians of Yaocomico, our people standing in orderly array along the shore until these officials had landed, when the line of march was taken up to the fort, and all entered, grouping themselves around the tall tree which had been trimmed of its branches to serve as a flagstaff.

Then, amid the rattle of musketry and the roll of the drums, Maryland's colors were run up, while our people stood with uncovered heads, and Father White blessed the flag, after which all the big guns of the fleet roared out a salute.

That evening, so John told me, the werowance of Patuxent warned the Indians of Yaocomico that they should keep carefully to the bargain that they had made with the white people, saying by way of caution

"When we shoot, our bowstrings give a twang that is heard but a little way off; but do you not hear what cracks their bowstrings give?"

He meant, when speaking of the "cracks of our bow-strings," the reports of the muskets and cannon as compared with the twanging of sinews when an arrow is let fly.



Settling Down

After Sir John Harvey returned to Jamestown, and the brown men from Patuxent had gone to their homes, we of St. Mary's settled down on shore, giving all our attention to planting, knowing how important it was we should make ready for the winter, when it might not be so convenient to get meat from the forest or the bay.

The brown people of the village did more than hold to the bargain they had made. The men labored with our men in the fields, and the women showed our maid servants how to prepare corn after the Indian fashion, and how to cook without a fireplace and without such pots and pans as they had at home, until it was as if brown men and white had decided to dwell together as one family.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

And now before I try to tell you how the household duties were performed, and how our gentlemen set about making an orderly town of this Indian settlement, let me speak of those English who had settled on Kent Island, and I beg that you read carefully in order to understand well the situation, for it was those same settlers who caused the first bloodshed in our Province of Maryland.



Master William Claiborne

In the year of grace, 1625, one William Claiborne of England, who had come to America to survey the land for the Virginia Company, was made Secretary of State in the province governed by that company.

Two years later, which is as if I had said in the year 1627, Governor. Yeardley, who was then ruler over Virginia, gave this same William Claiborne a license to trade with the Indians in the bay of Chesapeake, and so successful was he in such venture that, going to England, he interested a London merchant in the undertaking, who advanced to him a sufficient amount of money to carry on the traffic in a large way.

In the year of grace, 1631, which, as you must remember, was two years before my Lord Baltimore sent out the Ark  and the Dove, this William Claiborne, with the London merchant as partner, got a commission from King Charles I of Scotland, which gave him permission to trade in all parts of New England and Nova Scotia where others were not then trading.

Now a full year before our company sailed from London, William Claiborne had built a home upon the island of Kent, which is, as you know, many miles up the bay from the mouth of the river Potomac. He bought from the Indians the land of that island, and with the pinnaces and many canoes, carried on a large business among the brown-skinned men in that portion of the New World.

You will do well to keep in mind that all this was done before we of Lord Baltimore's company left London, and also to remember what I have set down concerning the gift which his Majesty made to the old lord, for that covered all the land extending north from Virginia and on both sides of the Chesapeake Bay, including the peninsula on the eastern shore.



Lord Baltimore's Claims

This, so my Lord Baltimore claimed, entitled him not only to the country on both sides of the bay, but, as a matter of course, to the islands therein; therefore, this plantation of Kent, which William Claiborne had bought from the Indians, was clearly within the limits of our Province of Maryland.

Because there was much money to be made by buying furs of the Indians, paying for them in trinkets bought at small prices in England, our Governor Calvert was not inclined to sit idly by while this William Claiborne, and the merchant who was his partner, made large profits that clearly belonged to the Calvert family.

It was this London merchant, partner of William Claiborne, who was making so much trouble in England for our own Lord Baltimore, that he could not sail on the Ark  with us, but was forced to remain at home that he might care for his just rights.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Therefore it was, that no sooner had our visitors departed than Governor Calvert sent in the Dove  my father and two other gentlemen to the island of Kent, to give notice to William Claiborne that his plantation belonged to the Province of Maryland, and that he must cease trading with the savages until after having made some kind of bargain with those who really owned the land.

This man Claiborne, instead of agreeing that his purchase of land from the Indians did not give him any lawful right to it, pretended, and with some shadow of claim, so it is said, that he was acting under orders of the Governor of Virginia, and should therefore continue as he had been doing.

But we of St. Mary's were too busy at that time to teach Master Claiborne the lesson he needed, it being necessary that we should get our seed in the ground, set about building houses which would afford better shelter than the huts given us by the Indians, and also fit out a small pinnace as a trading vessel, for during these first years the only money we could earn was by following the example set by the Englishmen on Kent Island.



Stirring up the Indians

As was soon seen, however, it would have been better had all the work been put aside, in order to show this William Claiborne what was due my Lord Baltimore, for straightway my father and the other gentlemen had departed from Kent Island, he set about poisoning the minds of the savages against us, by saying we were Spaniards, who had come to make them slaves, and declaring that all the words of friendship our people had spoken were false.

This we understood with good proof later; but at the time when the Indians of Yaocomico village suddenly left us, disappearing in the wilderness without giving any reason, we knew as a matter of course that some person had been at work among them, and it was only natural to suspect Master Claiborne.

Two days later, however, it was more than suspicion that filled our minds, for then Captain Fleet sailed away in the direction of Kent Island in his vessels, without having obtained permission from Governor Calvert.

Within a week the werowance of Patuxent told us that this same Captain Fleet, who had so lately professed such great friendship for us, had joined himself with William Claiborne, and was doing all he might to persuade the Indians to rise against the people of St. Mary's.

It can well be fancied this news caused our people much alarm, for should the savages become persuaded that we were at St. Mary's with the intent of making them slaves, there might arise such a war as would wipe us from off the face of the earth.

At the time I believed, as did John, that we should strengthen the fort, gather into it all our provisions and weapons, and otherwise make such a show of force as would give the Indians to understand we were prepared for whatsoever they might attempt.

It was well, however, that neither John nor I had any voice in the government of St. Mary's, else might we have brought about that very thing we were trying to avoid.



Winning Back the Indians

Governor Calvert and our gentlemen showed themselves wise by not striving to dispute the falsehoods told by Captain Fleet and Master Claiborne. Instead of so doing, they continued the work which had been begun, as if there was nothing to cause alarm, and every now and then, when a single Indian came among us, most likely to spy out what we might be doing, he was treated with the greatest friendliness, being allowed to wander whithersoever he would.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It is true, however, that the fort was strengthened by the building of a blockhouse to be used in case of necessity; but other than that nothing of a warlike nature could be seen within our settlement.

In order to show that we were unconcerned as to whether or no the brown-skinned men visited us, Governor Calvert caused to be fitted out with goods for barter the small pinnace which had been hired from the people of Virginia, sending it up the bay and the rivers for the purpose of trading, giving to those who had furs for sale a better price than had been paid by Claiborne.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Although it was late in the season when our pinnace was sent out, she brought back within a month two hundred ninety-eight beaver skins, fifty-three muskrat hides, and seventeen other pelts.

It was not much, even as a beginning, for, so we learned from the savages, William Claiborne and Captain Fleet had in the meanwhile bought no less than three thousand beaver skins, which made our number seem exceeding trivial.

That which we did, however, served well Governor Calvert's purpose, since by keeping to ourselves, bargaining fairly with the Indians, and living up to the bargain that had been made with those of Yaocomico; the brown-skinned people came to understand that the men of Kent Island had spoken with a double tongue, meaning that they had said what was false, for within six weeks all the Indians who had abandoned us came back, showing quite as much friendliness as before.



Busy Times

From this on, until the year was come to an end, all of us at St. Mary's, governor, gentlemen, and serving men, found work enough with which to employ our hands during every hour of daylight. We had begun to build houses, cutting timber into planks and boards by long, heavy saws with a handle at either end.

In order to do this last, the trunk of a tree was raised on uprights some distance from the ground, beneath which one man stood pulling down the saw, while another, on top of the log itself, did his portion of the work.

Also during the summer was the Dove  sent again and again to Jamestown, returning therefrom with bricks, lime, clapboards, and such like material as would be needed for the houses.

Then there were the crops to be gathered, and much hunting done in order that we might have meat during the cold season.

The task of curing venison fell upon the younger members of the company, of which I was one, and we did it in Indian fashion, first cutting the meat into strips, then drying the strips in the sun, and afterward smoking the same freely.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It was not pleasing work, and more than once would I have fretted at being set about such menial labor, but that I remembered it was for the future good of us all, and that I should do my share toward providing for our people who were striving to build up Lord Baltimore's Province of Maryland.

It is needless for me to set down all that which we did, making mention of every task, for he who reads can easily understand what it would be necessary for a company of men and boys to do who had gone into the wilderness, there to build a town in which to spend the remainder of their days.

Before we were well come to an end of the season's work, and while saying to ourselves that there was no longer any fear that evil-minded men might set the brown-skinned people against us, word was brought that William Claiborne had begun to arm one of his pinnaces for the purpose of declaring war upon us, by preventing our own trading vessels from sailing up the bay.

This news disturbed John and me not a little; but Governor Calvert and our gentlemen paid little heed to it, so far as I could see, except that they met during two or three evenings, on board the Dove, where it was said a formal council of war was held.

As the season wore on, the white and the brown-skinned people in our town of St. Mary's grew to be fast friends, until there was no longer fear that such as Captain Fleet and William Claiborne could stir up trouble between them.



Indian Women as Servants

There had come in our company as maids, three or four women, who were wives of the serving men; but so far as caring for the houses of the gentlemen, they were of little use, not understanding how to do a housewife's duty with none of the English conveniences at hand.

Therefore it was that the Indian women had taken it upon themselves to do the work of servants, not thinking it beneath them, and very well ordered under such hands were our homes, save, perhaps, not kept in as cleanly a fashion as one could have desired. The huts we were then living in could not be so orderly as houses built of wood or of stone, for with the bare ground as floor, on which must be laid everything not in use, owing to the absence of closets and pantries, it was impossible for the hard-working savages to do exactly as our gentlemen would have them.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Mayhap an English housewife would have said we lived in a slovenly fashion; but to my thinking, we were as cleanly lodged and fed as we had been on shipboard.

The woman who took charge of our home, cooking the food for my uncle, my father, and myself, had two boys nearly my own age, and with them, when there was no work on hand requiring my time, I wandered afoot through the green forests, until I came to know every path and trail, even as one knows the lanes and byways of his English home.



Making a Canoe

These lads led me to where their people were making canoes in preparation for that time when, according to the bargain, they were to leave their village of Yaocomico to find a home elsewhere.

Never before had I believed it possible for people to build such seaworthy boats with much the same as no tools!

Imagine, if you can, two men setting about to form a canoe, meaning a light boat capable of carrying three, four, or ten men, out of a huge tree trunk fifteen or twenty feet long, having nothing with which to work save hatchets of stone, and fire.

To white people, who have every kind of an implement necessary for the hewing and fashioning of wood, such a task seems impossible, and yet I have known two of these brown-skinned men to build a canoe eighteen feet long, buoyant enough to carry ten people, and of pleasing shape, within two weeks' time.

Would you know how it was done? Well, in this way: First, as a matter of course, these boat builders seek out such a tree as will best suit their purpose, and, having found it, they wrap around the trunk a quantity of dried grass and wild flags that have been thoroughly wetted. Just above these wrappings they kindle little fires by binding on dried grass, and as the tiny flame eats into the wood they chip away the charred portion with their axes of stone, working industriously, and with as little effect as does a woodpecker, until, in course of time, say, perhaps half a day, a huge tree falls to the ground.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Then, if so be a boat is to be made twenty feet long, that length is marked off, and the tree cut again in precisely the same manner as at first. Now you have a log of wood, the ends of which are rough and charred.

The bark is pulled off, and on the top, extending the whole length, are built a number of tiny fires, the workmen chip-chip-chipping with their awkward stone tools as fast as the blaze has blackened the wood, until in a week's time they have cut off the upper portion of the log to fashion the top of the canoe, and hollowed it out till it is no more than an inch in thickness.

After that, all remaining to be done is to work the two ends, by means of fire and these same awkward axes, into such form as pleases the eye, and then is finished a boat as readily handled, by those who are skilled in sailing such craft, as the fanciful vessels to be seen on the river Thames.



A Boat of Bark

The brown-skinned people have another kind of boat which requires much skill in the management, lest it be overset; and so light is one even fourteen or sixteen feet in length, that I may readily carry it on my shoulder.

It is made from the bark of the white birch tree, which does not grow here in abundance, but is found farther away, in that land bordering on the Dutch settlements.

I have never seen one made; but the Indian lads tell me that it is a task that may be performed even by one who has not had much experience, since it remains only to give shape to the canoe by means of thin ribs, or strips of wood, no thicker than the cloth of my doublet, which are attached to a light frame-work that forms what you would call the gunwale of the vessel.

When these thin strips, bent to the required form by being held in the steam of boiling water, have been fastened to the rail, or, in other words, to pieces which have been shaped like unto a couple of bows brought together with the bent parts outward, one covers this framework, or skeleton, with bark of the birch tree, fastening it in place by sewing with the sinew of the deer, and afterward covering the holes made by the needles, and the edges where two pieces of bark are set together, with pitch from the fat pine tree.

Then, across the rails are fastened light, narrow strips of wood, which serve not only the purpose of thwarts, or seats, but also form handles by which to carry the craft.



Indian Money

When we first came to this land, and I heard our people talking of trading with the Indians, it was in my mind that the brown-skinned men had nothing among them which would answer the purpose of gold and silver money; but before we had been here many days I discovered my mistake, and already do we count the value of an article in the Indian way, which is to say, that a beaver skin is worth so many strings of wampum.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

And now what is wampum?

It is the money of the Indians, and odd money, too, being neither more nor less than tiny beads; not such as we have brought over for barter, but cut from a certain kind of seashell, and of a particular color. Some are taken from conchs, and are pure white; others from the thick portion of the quahaug that has been cast up from the deep sea, and is deep purple in shade.

I cannot say of what other shells wampum is made; but there are several kinds, and so rare that when these money-makers seek them on the seacoast beyond Point Comfort, they may not find above a dozen in a week's search.

When a certain kind of shell has been found, it becomes necessary to fashion the desired parts into beads, and this, if you can imagine it, is done first by chipping with stones, and then by drilling the holes with a splinter of flint fastened to a stick of wood, after which the beads are strung on thin strips of deer hide.

I have seen a wampum maker spend nearly three hours drilling a hole through a single bead, which serves to show how valuable in the eyes of the savages must be these seeming trinkets.



A Generous Harvest

It would astonish an English farmer to see how lavishly everything grows here in this land of America. We did nothing toward enriching the soil when our corn was planted, and yet the harvest was so great as to astonish every one, save the savages who were accustomed to such generous bounty from the earth.

Not only did we gather of corn, from the fields which the brown-skinned man had planted and from those which we ourselves put under cultivation, as much as would serve our entire company a full year, however generous they might be in the use of it, but we had fifteen hundred bushels to spare.

The storehouse which we had built was all too small to contain this bountiful supply, and our people cast about to know what might be done with it.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Governor Calvert sent a message to the people at Jamestown, asking if it would please them to buy corn from us in payment of the goods we had already purchased from them, and the reply came back that the settlers of Virginia had ample store and to spare, therefore we could not hope to dispose of the grain near at home.

Then it was my uncle proposed that the Dove  be, laden with a thousand bushels of corn, and sent to those Englishmen who had settled in Plymouth, for, so some of the people in Virginia said, the harvest at that place had been scanty, therefore it would be a deed of charity, as well as a matter of business, to send there the grain which we ourselves could not use, trusting that those settlers would be willing to pay a fair price either in money, wampum, or goods.

This plan seemed to Governor Calvert a good one, and once the Dove  was fully laden, which is to say when we had put one thousand bushels of corn in her, Christopher Marten was chosen to act as merchant in selling the cargo.

He, together with the crew of the pinnace, set sail without delay, bearing letters to Master Winthrop of Plymouth, to the effect that we of Maryland were eager to open trade between the provinces.



Trouble at Plymouth

It was near to two months before we got news from our venture, and then it was not of the kind to please us.

I know not all the details of the unfortunate happenings, because they were kept to a certain degree secret; but John, who has a successful way of picking up gossip, has told me this much:"

It appears, according to his story, that the strait-laced people in Plymouth did not give to the crew of the pinnace as hearty a welcome as they believed should have been accorded them, and our people, having drunk too large a quantity of strong waters with certain seamen of Massachusetts Bay, behaved themselves unseemly, being disorderly in the streets and uttering many oaths in public.

At the same time Christopher Marten was taken sorely sick with a fever, and therefore unable to restrain the seamen, who speedily quarreled with certain of the Puritans. The result was that the Plymouth people put Master Marten under arrest that he might be answerable for the appearance of the men for punishment, if it should be decided by the magistrates that a serious offense had been committed.

All this, however, did not prevent the sale of the grain at a fair price, and by the time the Dove's  cargo had been taken out and the master of the pinnace paid therefor, Christopher Marten was dead.

When he was no longer on earth, the magistrates of Plymouth had much their own way, and our seamen were laid under such heavy fines for using oaths on the streets, as well as for assaulting some of the people, that it would have been better had we kept our corn at home.

That which served to make bad blood twixt us of Maryland and the people of Plymouth was, that after due trial, the magistrates decided there was not sufficient proof against our seamen for punishment in prison, yet at the same time did they lay such fines as seemed to us much too great, and there was no little talk among us of St. Mary's, when the Dove  returned, as to the sharp practices of those Englishmen in the Massachusetts Province.



A Strange Religious Service

Before I come to that part of my story relating to the war which did break out between us and William Claiborne of Kent Island, I am minded to tell you of a queer religious service that I saw among the Indians of Yaocomico shortly after the harvest.

On a certain day one of the brown-skinned lads came to me with much secrecy, saying that his people were about to have their annual corn and fire dance, and asking if I would go with him to see it.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

There is little need for me to say that I much the same as jumped at such a chance, and after gaining permission from my father to be absent from home until late in the night, the lad and I set out through the forest to a certain place not above five miles distant from St. Mary's, where we found more than four hundred brown men, women, and children gathered as if to take part in some festival.

Now to understand better what I saw, you must bear in mind that these savages worship one God, as do we who are Christians, and they also make offerings to an evil spirit whom they call Okee, believing it is necessary to do so in order to prevent harm from coming to them.

While believing there is but one God who rules over everything, they pay homage to a lot of little gods, such as Corn, Fire, and Water, all of which are in some way, I cannot understand well how, supposed to have an influence upon their lives, and in honor of which they dance at certain times of the year.

It is an odd kind of faith, and the longer I puzzle over it the less clear does it appear; but I am bound to admit that these brown-skinned people strive to serve faithfully all these little gods.

Now this festival, or religious service, or whatsoever you may call it, to which I had been invited, was given in honor of Corn, most like because our harvest had been so plentiful.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

When we were come to the meeting-place, we found a great fire feeding upon a stack of tree trunks that had been thrown up as high as the foremast of the Dove, and around this, forming complete circles, were all the people, with the children nearest the burning wood, and the elders in the outer rows.

Save for the crackling of the flames, the silence was profound when the Indian lad and I came up. All the people were sitting facing the fire, immovable as statues, and I gazed intently at them a full two minutes without seeing so much as a hand lifted or a head turned. I am not overly timorous; but there came what was much like a chill along my spine as I gazed at the motionless brown people, many of whom were painted most hideously, and save that the Indian lad would know of my faint-heartedness, I should have fled homeward.



The Dance Begins

Then it was from some far-away place in the forest, or so it seemed, that the voices of men chanting, with but little of music in their tones, could be heard, and this noise came nearer and nearer, until, from amid the trees, we could see fifteen or twenty savages hopping and skipping along, dressed in most ridiculous fashion, as if they were taking part in some foolish revel.

One had affixed to his head a set of deer's antlers, and covering his face was a mask of most hideous design, while hanging from his body were long strips of hide, with beads of metal at the end which tinkled like a bell when he danced.

Another bristled all over with feathers that stood upright, both before and behind, until he was like some huge bird, from the midst of which two hands could be seen, holding thin bands of copper which he struck together sharply, producing a ringing sound.

Others were dressed all in skins to represent animals, while some came out naked save for a short skirt or apron around their waists, and their bodies covered with vivid red and yellow paint.

It was a most comical, and, at the same time, to me, frightful procession which came thus slowly dancing and leaping, with many contortions of the body, from out the foliage, and those brown-skinned people around the fire still sat like statues, giving no heed to the band of mummers until they had come to the outer-most row where were the older men.



An Odd Ceremony

Here the hideous figures halted, and, after much chattering in the Indian language, a huge piece of tallow, taken from a deer, was given solemnly into the hands of the oldest Indian, who held it aloft where all might see, making his way carefully through the throng until he was come to where sat half a dozen naked boys,' whose bodies were striped and spotted with yellow paint.

With the deer's tallow still held above his head, he spoke during perhaps half a minute in gravest tones, whereupon the lads arose, took the lump from him, and advanced so near the flames that it seemed as if their bodies must be scorched, after which they threw the fatty burden into the fire.

At this moment all the people arose, raising their hands as they swayed their bodies to and fro, crying in a low, not unmusical tone:"

"Taho! Taho!"

This they continued to do for perhaps two or three minutes, and then the people fell back from the huge bonfire, leaving a broad space all around it, into which a company of small girls and boys marched, carrying pipes and bags filled 'with the herb called tobacco, singing in the meanwhile the same words:"

"Taho! Taho!"

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

After this the oldest men came into the circle, and the children gave to them the pipes, whereupon they filled them with the herb, lighted the same by taking coals from the fire, and drew the smoke through reeds which were stuck into the side of little bowls of clay that' formed the pipe. This smoke they breathed out over the bodies of the little ones, all the people swaying to and fro as if dancing, while they chanted in what seemed to me most doleful tones the one word:—

"Taho!"

How long this was continued I cannot say; but it was to me as if the Indian lad and I remained a full half hour, and still the vast throng was moving here and there like some gigantic serpent. Without raising their feet from the ground, the people swayed their bodies from side to side until I was like to have that same sickness in the stomach which beset me on the ocean, when the vessel rolled to and fro upon the heavy waves.

Asking the lad, as best I might, since he spoke but few words of English and I knew less of his language, what would come after they were tired of thus writhing back and forth, he gave me to know that it was a dance which would be kept up so long as the people had strength to carry it on, and I, not minded to watch longer, insisted on going back to St. Mary's.



William Claiborne's War

It was during this winter, at the very time when we were saying to ourselves that of a verity had no other people come into this new world of America having so little to disturb their minds as had we of Maryland, that trouble came to us.

Save for that unseemly happening at Plymouth, when the Englishmen living on Massachusetts Bay must have come to believe that we were veritable ruffians because of the behavior of the crew of the Dove, which caused us no little disturbance of mind, we had had no portion of trouble. The very land seemingly had welcomed us; the savages whom William Claiborne and Captain Fleet would have stirred up against us, were become our firmest friends; and the land and the water had yielded us stores until there was no fear of suffering from lack of food.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Therefore it was much like a shaft of lightning from out a cloudless sky, when our people who had been sent in the pinnace to trade with the Indians on the shores of the by north of us, came to St. Mary's with the report that William Claiborne was arming his largest pinnace with all the heavy guns at his command, counting to sail against us in enmity until our governor should enter into an agreement allowing the people of Kent Island to trade whithersoever they pleased.

At first this news was received by us with scorn, and more than one said to those on the pinnace who had brought the tidings, that they were dreaming; that no man in his right senses would declare war against a company which outnumbered him three or four to one.

Then when our seamen and traders protested that they had not only heard all this from the savages, but had seen William Claiborne's people at work arming the pinnaces, came the question as to how many there might be of Englishmen at that time living on Kent Island, and we were startled at learning how strong a force this trader might bring against us.

Governor Calvert had made careful inquiries, both at Jamestown and along the shores of the bay among friendly savages, until he learned very much of the history of this settlement.

Now, because this war which William Claiborne was declaring against us did result in bloodshed, and because Kent Island settlement was the only thorn in our flesh, it is well that I set down in detail all the information which came to us concerning those people who had settled upon land belonging to my Lord Baltimore.



The Settlement on Kent Island

In the year of grace, 1631, as I have already written, William Claiborne, who was at that time counted a member of the Virginia Colony, and one of its officers, brought from England seventeen servants which he settled on Kent Island, providing them with, among other things necessary, thirty caws, a large number of hogs, and much poultry.

Six of these servants died shortly after coming into the New World, and Claiborne hired ten freemen from Virginia to take their places. So large was the plantation that thirty or forty men at least were needed during the fur-trading season, which lasts from the beginning of March until the end of June, for it is necessary then to have three or four shallops or pinnaces on the water, each armed by six or seven men. A less number, say four or five, would run the danger of being cut off by the Indians, as there would be no one to guard the boats while the trading was being carried on.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Among these servants was, so John declares, the first white woman to step foot on the land of our province. She was Joan Young, and had been hired to wash the men's clothes. There was also a reader of prayers, Henry Pincke; but he broke his leg within a month after landing, and was not of great service, so it is said, though I am puzzled to know why he could not have read prayers as well after his leg was broken, as before.

At the head of this people, acting as Master Claiborne's lieutenant, was Arthur Ffiges.

One year later the numbers of the Kent Island settlement were increased by five, and among them the first Protestant clergyman in Maryland, the Reverend Richard fames, and his wife, Gertrude.

Now at this time of which I am writing, that is to say, in the year of grace, 1634, the people in Claiborne's settlement numbered not less than fifty-two servants and traders, not including three women and a boy who worked in the kitchen, nor four men who acted as hog keepers.



We Prepare for War

As you remember, one of our gentlemen, and eleven serving men, died shortly after Christmas day, which left us of St. Mary's, counting the maids as well as men, about two hundred and eighty. Of this number, so John told me, a full eighty were unable to bear arms, and at least half the remainder would prove but sorry soldiers, if it came to warfare. Therefore were we not so strong to oppose William Claiborne's attack as had at first seemed.

When the news came that the armed pinnace was being fitted out against us, Governor Calvert sent two of the Yaocomico Indians up the bay to spy out what they might concerning the warlike preparations, and after they returned, we had positive knowledge that at least fourteen fighting men would sail in the small ship-of-war under command of a trader by the name of Warren, whom Master Claiborne had elevated to the rank of lieutenant.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Lord Baltimore's written instructions, when we left England, were that every effort should be made to steer clear of quarrels; that the Indians, wherever we met them, should be treated in a most friendly manner, and that all white men, so long as they conducted themselves properly, should be welcomed among us whatsoever might be their religion.

However, in such a case as was presented to us by the arming of the pinnace at Kent Island, it would have been folly to make any attempt at following my lord's instructions, so Governor Calvert argued, and straightway all our efforts were directed toward warding off the threatened evil.

The small pinnace, which had been hired from the people of Virginia, was strengthened to such extent that she might carry cannon, and all our men who could labor with an ax, were set about building another vessel of about the same size, to protect the village of St. Mary's.

Captain Thomas Cornwallis, one of our gentlemen, had already been named in command of the Maryland forces in event of such trouble as might require the services of soldiers, and he it was who took charge of all these preparations which we were then making.

I would you could have seen our town of St. Mary's at this time when, after nearly a year of peace, and happiness, and content, save for the homesickness which assailed us at times, we were making ready to resist an enemy who had so suddenly appeared.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Already were many fair houses nearly built to replace our Indian huts. Streets had been laid out so that in time we might take on the look of a town, and, in fact, everywhere was token of industry and advancement.

When the news was brought us regarding Master Claiborne's wicked intent, all labor, save that of ship-building, ceased. Our people, boys as well as men, were hurrying to and fro like ants whose home has been disturbed, hewing timbers, dragging them to a place where the pinnace was being set in form, or overhauling the goods in the storehouse that we might come upon the powder and shot, which had been stowed away because we had no need of it, save when harmless salutes were to be fired.



The Army Leaves St. Mary's

It was a scene of warlike activity, and yet I could not bring myself to believe truly that blood would be shed in this our land, until that day when, the new boat having been launched and armed, Captain Cornwallis left the harbor of St. Mary's, with the flag of Maryland flying from both vessels, in search of the enemy who we had good reason to know was lying near by in the bay, waiting to cut off some of our people.

An hour before the departure of the fleet was spent in hearing mass celebrated by Father White, and prayers were offered up by all the good priests that God would safeguard our people in this their time of sore need. It was well we should thus appeal to Him whose ear is open even to the sparrow's fall.

All our gentlemen, save Governor Calvert, had embarked under the leadership of Captain Cornwallis, and you may well fancy how sad was my heart, when, kissing me on both cheeks ere he stepped aboard the shallop, my father bade me hold the house as a lad of the name of Calvert should.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

There came a roar from the cannon, which had been left in the fortification; a dropping of the flag of Maryland that floated over the storehouse, and an answering discharge from the guns of the pinnace, as they sailed out of the harbor, taking with them my father and my uncle, whom, perhaps, I might never see again.

Then, forgetting that I was left in our town of St. Mary's to represent the honor of our family, I threw myself upon the bed of skins, where father and I had slept together this many a night, covering my face lest John should see the tears of grief that rolled down my cheeks.

It was not because of being faint-hearted that I wept; but I put it to you whether a lad, whatsoever his age, who sees his only kin of blood leaving him, as might be said, alone in the wilderness, to venture themselves amid the heat of battle, risking their lives every moment, would not have given way to weakness even as did I, and with no shame attaching to him.



In Command of the Guard

I verily believe our Governor Calvert understood what was in my heart at that time, and because of it did he send orders that I was to be given command of the guard that would be stationed on the northern-most point of the harbor, across the creek, where, later, we were to build a fort.

There, night and day until peace was come to us once more, would a watch be kept, that we might have timely notice, if so be William Claiborne succeeded in slipping past Captain Cornwallis's fleet to do an injury to our town of St. Mary's.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

We had no more entered upon our duties, when came the opportunity for me to decide whether John was in the right when he called me faint-hearted.

We had taken station on the point, the four men assigned as guards and myself, and I had but just announced that two only should remain on duty at a time, to the end that those who were to serve in the night might be able to get some sleep, when we saw coming straight for the harbor a pinnace, which to me had much the appearance of one of those I had seen under the command of Captain Fleet. Because he had joined his fortunes to those of William Claiborne, doing us whatsoever of harm he might by telling false stories to the Indians, he surely was to be counted as an enemy.

The first thought in my mind was to leap into the canoe which lay on the shore, and myself carry word of what we had seen to the governor; but luckily I lingered long enough, while trying to make out more clearly the coming pinnace, to give myself time to remember that such act would look much as if I took advantage of the first opportunity to run from the place of danger.

Therefore it was I sent one of the guards with all speed, and the pinnace was not yet within musket-shot of the shore, when Governor Calvert, with four or five serving men, came across the harbor.



A Flag of Truce

He was not long in making out that this was indeed one of Captain Fleet's vessels, and he had but just turned to send a servant to the fort with orders to make ready to receive an enemy, when a white flag was hoisted on the pinnace.

"Captain Cornwallis must have had a ferocious look about him when he set sail, if so be he has frightened these rebels to such an extent that they are ready to sue for peace," the governor muttered half to himself in a tone of satisfaction, and because we had no flag there with which to make a signal, he went close to the water's edge, holding up both hands, palms outward, in token that he recognized the truce.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

As speedily as might be thereafter, a small boat was launched from the vessel, and, with but two oarsmen, Captain Fleet came in to us, while his ship lay hove to within a cable's length of the shore.

Our governor gave him but a sorry welcome, as if receiving a traitor, and it seemed to me that this man was neither more nor less than that, since, having been our friend, he secretly went over to the enemy.

Nothing abashed by the way he was received, Captain Fleet asked that he might speak privately with Governor Calvert, and the two men moved up the shore where, although it was possible for me to keep them in view, I was not able to overhear the conversation.

So, as to what was said during this meeting, I know not, save as I afterward heard the story from John, who had it by way of gossip from some of the serving men many days later, they claiming to have heard the governor talking with Captain Cornwallis.

I saw only that the two men talked earnestly together for upward of half an hour, when our governor's bearing toward the visitor changed entirely and it appeared to me as if they had become friends.

Certain it is they clasped hands when Captain Fleet took to his boat again, and as Governor Calvert returned to the fortification across the harbor, the pinnace sailed boldly in close to the shore under the palisade, where she remained a good two hours, putting to sea at the end of that time.



Captain Fleet Repents

Now lest my story may not otherwise be made plain, let me advance in the telling of it to that day when John claimed to know what had passed between the two gentlemen when they held the interview on the shore.

It appears, according to the story, that Captain Fleet, frightened, perhaps, because William Claiborne was the same as declaring war against Lord Baltimore, to whom the king had given the Province of Maryland, decided it was best for him to make peace with what appeared to be the stronger party, and therefore came to beg pardon for having sided with the enemy. He swore, and faithfully promised afterward to prove, that he had had no hand in striving to set the Yaocomico Indians against us, and offered his services, as well as his fleet, to us of St. Mary's.

That he succeeded in persuading Governor Calvert as to the truth of what he said, seems positive in view of the fact that his services were accepted in behalf of the colony, and when he put out again from the harbor, it was to work whatsoever of harm he might to William Claiborne's forces.

And now what else took place during this war I must set down as I heard it many days later, when the mischief had been done, for we who remained in St. Mary's saw nothing to cause alarm, nor did news of any kind come to us until after the shedding of blood.



The First Prize of War

The first step against William Claiborne was taken, singularly enough, by Captain Fleet himself, who, having left our harbor, sailed directly to the Patuxent River, and it seemed certain he had some information which guided him to that point, for there he found one of Claiborne's traders in the pinnace Longtail. Thomas Smith was in command of the vessel, and must have been somewhat surprised when Captain Fleet, coming alongside, demanded to know by what right he was there making ready for trade.

Smith claimed, as did his master, that he had license from the Virginia Company, as well as from the king himself; but Captain Fleet would not listen, and, with great show of severity, forced all the crew of the trading pinnace to go on shore, refusing to allow them a single weapon with which they might defend themselves against the Indians or wild beasts.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

He kept the trader Smith with him, however, and, taking the vessel in tow, made sail for St. Mary's, arriving at our town the next morning after having had the meeting with Governor Calvert.

This was the first prize of the war, and many of our people in St. Mary's gave themselves over to rejoicing because of what had been done.

It appears, as I afterward heard, that the trader Smith insisted that a boat should be sent into the Patuxent River to find his men, and, this done, that they and he be sent to Kent Island.

To such request, however, Governor Calvert turned a deaf ear; but offered to send them either to Virginia or to England, whichever pleased them, providing they went as prisoners who had offended against the laws of the king as well as of our Province of Maryland.

The pinnace Longtail  was anchored close under the guns of the fort, where she might be held as a prize of war, and there were many among us who believed that this would so dishearten the people of Kent Island as to put an end to their trading with the brown men contrary to the commands of Governor Calvert.



A Battle is Fought

Now as to what was done by Captain Cornwallis, and those who sailed with him:

Not until our fleet had come to the Pocomoke River, on the eastern shore of the bay, did they get sight of Claiborne's pinnace under command of Lieutenant Warren, when they found her ready for action, the crew standing at quarters, and the gunners with lighted matches in their hands, all of which went to show that the enemy had already seen our people.

I have heard it said by those who claim to know, that when Captain Cornwallis entered the Pocomoke River there was no thought in his mind that a battle would be fought, nor did he make ready to open fire, believing Lieutenant Warren would surrender as soon as he saw how much stronger than his force was ours.

It must have been a surprise when Claiborne's people discharged their cannon, and with such effect that one of our men was killed outright.

A man much less hot-headed than Captain Cornwallis would not have remained inactive after such provocation. As soon as our guns could be brought to bear upon Claiborne's pinnace, whose crew meanwhile were reloading with the utmost haste in order to fire another volley, the cannons on both our vessels were discharged, Lieutenant Warren being killed outright, as were three of his men.

The loss of life, together with the damage done the pinnace by our fire, was so great that Claiborne's followers had no stomach for further fighting, and before a second volley could be let off, they had surrendered.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It would have been well had they counted the cost before beginning the battle, for then would four lives have been saved, and surely they must have known that it would not be possible to prevail against us of the Province of Maryland, who were acting by license and under the authority of his Majesty the King. However, it was useless after the mischief had been done, to speak of how it might have been prevented.

The battle, short though it had been, was fought. The decks of the vessels were stained with blood, and whoever was the cause of such work must in due time pay the penalty.



The Return of the Fleet

As may be well understood, Captain Cornwallis took possession of the Claiborne pinnace, and within four and twenty hours after the battle had been fought, we who stood guard on the northern point of the harbor, sent word into our town of St. Mary's that the Maryland fleet was returning with a prize.

I am pleased to say that our people, after hearing that four human beings had been killed, over a matter which involved only a question of money, did not give way to rejoicing because of success.

When Captain Cornwallis sailed into the harbor, and the captured vessel was moored alongside the pinnace that had been taken in the Patuxent River by Captain Fleet, the people of St. Mary's gathered at the waterside, welcoming quietly those who had returned, but giving vent to no shouts of joy nor other tokens of victory.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It is not needed that I should set down here anything regarding the meeting between my father and myself. It had seemed to me, when he went on board the fleet, as if he were about to stand face to face with death, as really proved to be the case, and it was almost as if he had come back from the grave, when I felt his dear arms around me once more.

It was a bitter disappointment that he and I were forced to part so soon after being reunited; but duty called him to the blockhouse, where a council of war was to be held, and I could do no less than remain on watch at the point until word should come that such service was no longer needed.



William Claiborne's Flight

During eight and forty hours nothing was heard concerning those people who would hold possession of Kent Island regardless of the king's command, even at the cost of human life, and then one of the Patuxent Indians came in with the news that William Claiborne had taken refuge in Jamestown, fearing lest our Captain Cornwallis should make him prisoner.

Now you must understand that we of St. Mary's claimed that this same William Claiborne should be charged with all the mischief that had been done, since even though he was one of the officers of the Province of Virginia, he had acted in open rebellion to his king's commands, and had, like a thief, tried to steal the rights and privileges which belonged to the Baltimores.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

As soon as these tidings had been brought in, Governor Calvert sent my father and my uncle in the Dove  to Jamestown, that they might demand from Governor Harvey, as rebel and traitor, the person of William Claiborne.

Those who were of authority in Virginia refused thus to deliver a member of their council who had fled to them for protection; but agreed, however, that he, together with the witnesses against him, should be sent to England, and there tried for the offense he had committed.

This, as can readily be supposed, much the same as ended the war, and perchance those who read may say, with a smile, that I am striving to make too much out of little, in speaking of the quarrel as real warfare, yet to us of St. Mary's it was a most serious matter, and even though you judge by the loss of life as to what name shall be given this outbreak, then may you say it was in fact a bloody war, because out of three hundred and fifty people no less than four had been killed; moreover twenty-two had been taken prisoners, and one of the leaders made a fugitive.

That which to my mind caused the bloody affair to seem the more pitiful, was that it need not have come about had soft words first been spoken.

It is not pleasant to dwell upon such matters when everywhere around us is so much of beauty which the good God has permitted us to enjoy, and therefore is it with great relief of mind that I put aside all of sorrow and of pain, and tell you how we of Maryland throve, and how our city of St. Mary's grew until it was a town as fair to look upon as any you might find of its size in England.



The City of St. Mary's

After we were quieted down from warlike excitement, and the traitor Smith had been permitted by the graciousness of our governor to return to Kent Island, under the charge of two of the Yaocomico Indians, we set about building a windmill, which was sorely needed for the grinding of corn.

Millstones had been brought with us from England, but they proved to be of no service for such a mill as we now put together; therefore was one of the pinnaces sent to Jamestown, where was found all we needed, and straightway before planting time a fair building was set up on that street running back of the town which we call Mattapany, and near the creek.

This work had hardly more than been completed before the governor and gentlemen decided that we should need a water mill, as well as one driven by wind, lest, during the summer, when the air was still, there might be much grist that could not otherwise be ground, and this last was set up at a point where Mill Creek falls into the St. Mary's River.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It had been some time since decided that between that tract of land known as the "mill lot," and the street which we call Middle, should be laid out a square for the establishing of a market, and shortly after the water mill was finished, the governor and gentlemen set it down as a law, that in this same market square should be held each year a fair, where could be exhibited the fruits of the ground, so that the planters might be excited to do their best with the land.

And also at about this time was begun the building of a church, or a chapel, as Father White called it, to be used both by the Protestants and the Catholics, where "each at his appropriate hour might offer up a sacrifice to the Most High."

The land which was set apart for this place of worship lay on the east side of the fort, near where Middle and Mattapany streets cross. The bricks of which it was made were brought from Jamestown, and both the Dove  and the small pinnace were employed in freighting them. Each man who labored, whether by sea or in the building of the chapel, gave his time without pay, as was right, so John said, under the circumstances.



A Cruel Murder

It was while all the people who could be spared for the labor were at work on the chapel, that we of St. Mary's were horrified by word, passed from one to another in whispers, that William Smith, one of the ablest of the serving men, who had gathered for himself no little property before leaving England, was lying dead upon the sand near that point which we called Lookout, having been shot, and afterward cruelly hacked and cut with knives.

That it was a murder there could be no question, and that it had been done in our Province of Maryland, where it would seem white men should dwell together in brotherly love, because of being surrounded by the brown-skinned people who might rise against us at any time, caused more of horror and of fear than had the news that the lives of four men were sacrificed to William Claiborne's efforts to hold Kent Island against the rights of my Lord Baltimore.

The body of poor William Smith was left lying where it had been found, until the governor and the gentlemen could view it according to the English laws, which forbid the touching of a body that has been violently dealt with, until the officers have had opportunity to view all the surroundings with the idea of gaining therefrom some knowledge of who has committed the dreadful deed.

During the remainder of this day, and while the mangled corpse lay so near the water that spray from the harbor was blown upon it by the wind, we of St. Mary's spoke to each other only in whispers, for this thing which had come into our midst was so fearsome that one hardly dared break the silence.



The Mystery Remains Unsolved

All work in the town ceased, and men gathered here and there in little companies awaiting some word from our leaders concerning the dreadful deed, questioning, meanwhile, as to who among us could have been so wicked.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

At first they were inclined to charge the deed upon the savages, even though William Smith was the one among us who had ever been most friendly with the brown people.

Then came the knowledge of his having been killed by a bullet, and we knew that our Yaocomico Indians had no firearms, save such as were useless, and, speculate as they might, the people could make no guess as to who was the murderer.

Nor were the governor and our gentlemen any more successful. There was nothing nearabout the body which gave any dew as to how the deed had been wrought, and when all that remained of William Smith was brought from the point, to be buried on the land which we called the chapel lot, where the church was being built, the mystery was as black as ever.

Two days later, however, there was brought to the governor a will which had been made by William Smith within a year after we came to this Province of Maryland, in which he directed what should be done with his belongings, and stated that "if he should die suddenly, and the cause be not directly known, speedy inquiry be made, and that Nick and Marks, Irishmen at Piny Neck, be questioned as suspicious persons."

Now it would seem as if this which William Smith had written down when he must have had the fear of a violent death on his mind, would lead our people up to the discovery of the murderer, and straightway were the two Irishmen of whom he had spoken, taken into custody.

But the stories they told concerning what had been done by them during the day of the murder, were such as could not be disproven, and despite all the efforts of our people, nothing was ever learned concerning the dastardly deed.



Master George Evelin

It is well, perhaps, that I set down something more concerning Kent Island, lest you come to believe that after William Claiborne fled into Virginia, and was from there sent by Governor Harvey to London to answer for the crime of having begun a war against us of Maryland, the people of this settlement were left unheeded.

Such was not the case, however, for Claiborne's partner in the trading enterprise, who, as you remember, was a London merchant, sent over, immediately after hearing of the trouble into which his partner had got himself, one George Evelin to take charge of the property.

When he arrived, it was believed by our people that he would make an attempt to take the same stand concerning Lord Baltimore's rights over Kent Island, as had William Claiborne; but instead of pursuing such an unwise course, he came straightway to call upon Governor Calvert, with the result that he became our friend instead of enemy.

Captain Cornwallis accompanied him when he returned to Kent Island, and there the people who had served under William Claiborne were told that Captain Evelin counted on obeying the Governor of Maryland, and held that the island was rightfully within the bounds of the province which had been granted to my Lord Baltimore.

Thus it was that, seemingly, the dispute regarding the island was come to an end, and we of St. Mary's believed we need have no fear that trouble would come to us from those who were living there.

We were soon to learn, however, that even though it appeared as if the question whether Kent Island belonged to us of Baltimore or to the Province of Virginia, had been settled, there was yet trouble to grow out of the matter, which came about as you shall see.



A Fatal Accident

First, however, and because the accident happened at about the same time George Evelin came from Kent Island with ill tidings, I must set it down that one of our company, John Bryant, a serving man, who had brought with him sufficient of money to establish himself as a planter, was killed by the falling of a tree which crushed him beneath it.

He had taken up land on the Mattapany road, two miles or more from our town of St. Mary's, and was already accounted a most worthy citizen, being industrious, peaceful, and striving to improve the acres which had been allotted him.

It was while clearing yet more land for the planting of tobacco, that a heavy tree, thrown down by the wind while he was hewing it, deprived him of life, thus casting a gloom over our town of St. Mary's.

As if there were many dark days in store for us, and this was but a forerunner of trouble, George Evelin arrived from Kent Island, having been brought in a canoe by two friendly Indians, with word that several of the men in his settlement were conspiring with the Susquehanoughs and with other quarrelsome Indians, to bring about an uprising against us of St. Mary's.

It seems, according to what I could hear on the streets, and that which John picked up by way of gossip, that these people, regardless of the fair words spoken when Captain Cornwallis visited them to introduce George Evelin as the new governor, were much opposed to coming under the laws of our Province of Maryland; and foolishly believed that, by continuing the course which had been begun by William Claiborne, they might succeed in making of the island an independent province.

Startling and threatening as the word was that Master Evelin had brought, our people first gave heed to caring for the earthly remains of John Bryant, before attempting in council to decide what should be done regarding the mutineers.

It was the second violent death among us, and although not attended with the horrors surrounding the taking off of William Smith, caused a deeper gloom among us than would have been known had he died upon a bed of sickness.

Father White, in the presence of all our people, said over the lifeless body the prayers for the dead, and then we followed in mournful procession to where a second grave had been opened in the chapel yard, amid the litter of timbers and brick which were lying around as the builders had left them.



Preparing for Action

Immediately this was done, the governor and gentlemen went into council to hear Master Evelin's story, and but little time was spent in deciding upon a course of action.

When, within the hour, the council had come to an end of its deliberations, Captain Cornwallis, having summoned all those who were capable of bearing arms, selected from among them thirty who were considered the best marksmen, ordering that they be ready to set sail in the Dove  by daybreak on the following morning.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Within another hour we who loitered about the shore of the harbor near by, where were anchored our vessels, could see that not only the Dove, but two of the pinnaces, were being made ready for sea, and thus we knew that a force much larger than those marksmen selected by Captain Cornwallis would be sent against the Kent Islanders. Then it was I ran with all speed to Governor Calvert's house, having the good fortune to meet my father just as he was coming out from the council.

When I asked if he was likely to go with the company who would punish those evil-minded Englishmen who counted to stir up the brown men against us, he answered me "Yes," adding that the time had come when I should show myself to be a man by looking after his affairs while he was away.



Ready for a Man's Duty

Then it was that, emboldened by the fear of parting from him when he went into danger, I asked him to remember that near to three years had passed since the day when I, thirteen years old, had sailed with him from England, and called to mind the fact that I, older grown than then, being sixteen years of age, was come to the time when in good truth I should do a man's duty, instead of remaining snugly at home to be cared for by servants.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Whereupon he asked me what was in my mind, that I had so suddenly discovered the fact of having nearly come to man's estate, and I told him boldly, but with all due respect, that in this new land of ours a lad who had grown to sixteen years should no longer be counted a child, but should take upon himself full duty with his elders, so that he might the better be prepared to aid in up-building our province.

That he was not angered by my plain speaking, I understood when he laid his hand affectionately on my head, as he said that it would give him greatest pleasure to keep me a child as long as might be, for when I was come to be counted as one of those who should do all he might toward defending our province, then had he lost his baby, who had been of so much comfort to him when its mother died.

It grieves me to the, heart now to remember that my cheeks flushed red with shame when he spoke of me as a baby, and once more I asked him to remember my years, giving me the place which was mine by right because of my age, no longer forcing me to feel the disgrace of hiding behind John when there was danger afoot.

Very much more than I have set down was said between us. All my words were to the end that I should be allowed to perform a gentleman's duty in our province, and his, that he would be best pleased to hold me a child as long as he might, because of the great love in his heart.

A kinder, more affectionate father never had lad than had I, and when he came to understand that all my mind was bent upon taking part in the defense of our fair Province of Maryland, then did he give way, the tears standing in his eyes when he clasped my hands in his, as he said:"

"So be it, my son. You shall come into your manhood at the age of sixteen years, because in this new world of ours we age more rapidly than in England. I will cease to look upon you as a child, and pray the good God that you may ever reckon upon me as a true comrade to whom you can come in all trust with whatsoever of joy or of sorrow enters into your life. Remember that to be a gentleman is to be one who is honest, who is kind of heart, and who speaks no evil of another. It is not in my power to attach you to Captain Cornwallis's company of marksmen; but you shall be numbered among those who go to take such part as may be necessary in case those islanders of Kent are stiff-necked, and it will be well that John accompanies you, not for protection, but to stand by your side a comrade in arms."

There was a great joy in my heart when my father thus spoke, for I counted it an honor to be looked upon as a man rather than a child, and gave little heed to the fact, which has since come to me so strongly, that there can be no time in life so sweet as when a lad stands under the loving protection of his father, ready at all times to obey, and striving never to overrun his years.



I Wear the Uniform

On that same evening my father brought to me a musket with the newly invented lock, a bandolier, ornamented with Indian work of beads, and a smoke-tanned pouch; a cartridge bag with ample supply of ammunition; a belt for the hunting knife that Jacob Savage, the smith, had made for me out of a file; and, if you please, a uniform such as Captain Cornwallis's men wore, being made of my Lord Baltimore's colors.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

I had not counted on so much attention as this, and there was a certain tugging at my heart, as I realized that now in good truth was I become a man, and no longer a child who would receive the tender care of his father.

"You are to remember, my lad," he said to me, taking my hand in his, "that any ungentle act disgraces the uniform you wear, in addition to leaving its stain upon your character. The men of our family have always remained loyal and true, and you, being the youngest among us, must take good care to keep our name untarnished."

That night, instead of sharing my father's bed, I was given a couch by myself, and it was by no means pleasing, even though my vanity had been greatly stirred, to be thus shut off from those loving privileges which were mine before I had become a man.

It was a long hour ere I fell asleep that night, for what with gentle grief because of thus being thrown upon myself, as it were, and the keen desire to do some noble deed that would bring a flush of pride to my father's cheek, my mind was in a whirl. When finally I closed my eyes in slumber, it was to dream of struggling against overwhelming forces of Kent Islanders who were speedily getting the better of me, much to my sorrow and my shame.

The sun had not yet risen next morning when I was astir in all the bravery of uniform and equipment, forgetting the mild sorrow which had come to me the night previous, in the pride I felt because the other lads of St. Mary's gathered around in open-mouthed surprise and envy to see me thus blossomed out as a Maryland warrior.

Of the breakfast which was prepared by our Indian women, I could scarce eat a mouthful, so excited was I, and there were not above four or five of our people gathered on the shore ready to embark when I, with so much of dignity as it was possible to assume, marched gravely down to take my place among them.



My New Name

When the time came for embarking, Captain Cornwallis called out the names of all those who were to take passage in the Dove, among whom was my father, and then was read the list of those who would sail in the pinnace which we of St. Mary's had built, and, if you please, Master Lewger, who was to have command of this smaller vessel, named me first, calling me, from what whim I know not, Calvert of Maryland, instead of by my family name.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

It would have pleased me better had I gone forth in this first service as one of my father's family, and yet it was a proud title which he gave me, and I repeated it again and again to myself, saying that it stood me in hand to do more than a soldier's duty, if I was the only one of the company who was so closely knit to our fair province as to be given the name.



On Board the Pinnace

John sailed in the pinnace with me; but he was not named as one who bore arms, even though his musket, save for the ornaments upon its stock, was much the same as mine.

I believed then, and do at this day, that my father gave orders concerning his bearing toward me, now that I had, as you might say, become a man, for he treated me as one above him in station, instead of a child under his care, as he had done less than four and twenty hours previous.

The voyage up the bay was not made speedily, because of the lightness of the wind. During all that day we sailed slowly, observing with much concern small companies of brown men on the eastern shore, who were gathered there as if to spy upon us, and I questioned John as to whether he believed those mutinous men of Kent Island had already succeeded so far in stirring up the savages, that we were likely to have them as enemies before we returned.

Because there were no signs of enmity, save on the eastern shore, he was of the belief that, seeing with what force we were coming, the brown people would think twice before yielding to the advice of those Englishmen who counted to take from my Lord Baltimore, by force of arms, a portion of that land which the king had given him.

John's opinion was not shared by all who were on board the pinnace, and I heard, with much of inward fear, more than one of the men give it as his belief that there would be blood shed ere we were come again to our town of St. Mary's.



Indians in War Paint

Before nightfall, and while we were standing well in to the eastern shore, we saw a party of Susquehanoughs in a canoe close under the shelter of the land, who wore their war paint, which is to say that their faces and bodies were covered with lines of red and black, giving to them a most hideous appearance, and causing much alarm among our people, for it was seemingly good proof that all the brown men of that tribe had risen against us.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

Master Lewger, however, perhaps only with the view of quieting our fears, claimed that those whom we had seen were the younger men, and mayhap had put on the war paint without the knowledge of their chiefs.

"Whether it has been done by some of the hot-heads among the brown men to frighten us, or whether the whole tribe be keen for bloodshed, still must we go on," John said to me in a low tone, as if fearing I might show the white feather at a time when my elders were watching closely to see how I bore myself, and I answered him, that while my heart was faint at thought of danger, he need feel no anxiety that I would disgrace the family to which I belonged, or the province whose name had been given me.

When the sun went down and night came, watches were set and kept during all the hours of darkness, lest an attack be made upon us. Meanwhile we carried a light at our masthead, as did the Dove, to the end that the vessels might not go far one from the other.



The Arrival at Kent Island

I was called upon to do full share of standing guard, as was to be expected, and because my time of duty ended at midnight, I yet remained in the small cabin sleeping, when, just as the day broke, we came to anchor close under the southerly end of Kent Island.

Already had our breakfast been cooked, and we were bidden to eat quickly, that there might be no delay on our part in the landing.

Nor did we of the pinnace keep Captain Cornwallis waiting, for the instant the signal to go ashore was shown from the Dove, our shallops were alongside, and we tumbled into them.

It so chanced that when we were drawn up in line to prepare for the work of day, my station was less than six paces, behind my father, and it is not possible for me to say, in such words that it may be thoroughly understood, how much I was heartened by such close companionship with him whom I loved most dearly.

As silently as might be, with no word spoken in the line, and under orders that never a gun should be discharged whatever the provocation, until due command had been given, we marched a full mile from our place of landing, to the palisade which William Claiborne called his fort, arriving there without having, so far as we knew, disturbed any of the people on the island.



The Capture of the Fort

Because of being the lightest in weight of the party, Captain Cornwallis directed me to climb on his shoulder until I could grasp the top of the logs, and then pull myself up until it was possible to clamber over, when I was to drop on the inside, and unbar the gate, all of which I did without mishap.

The Kent Islanders must have been slothful men, for never one was astir when we marched inside the palisade around the house, calling upon those within to surrender.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

As a matter of course, this command was obeyed, for being thus surprised it would have been folly for those in the dwelling to make any resistance, and we found on marshaling our prisoners that the two men, Butler and Smith, whom Claiborne had left in charge of the settlement when he fled to Virginia, were at their own homes some distance away.

Thus far we had accomplished very little, for those who stood shivering with fear in line, under the muzzles of our guns, were only serving men and laborers.

It was Butler and Smith who had, so it was claimed, been foremost in urging the Indians to make an attack upon us of St. Mary's, and therefore was their capture most important.

Six of our people were left in charge of the fort, with orders to shoot down any who should attempt to escape, or try to force an entrance, and then the remainder of the company, myself among them, marched up the island a full five miles, to where the man Butler lived.



Butler and Smith Made Captives

Governor Calvert, although not taking upon himself the command, since it was Captain Cornwallis's by right, kept his place in advance of the line, much against the wishes of our gentlemen, who claimed that he had no right to put himself in a position of danger, since, if anything of evil befell him, it would be worse, because of his being at the head of the province, than if another of our company suffered death.

But he insisted upon his right to take full share of the peril, and if there had been any thought of faint-heartedness in our minds, we must perforce have shown ourselves all courage after such an example.

It was near to two hours before we were come to the edge of the thicket which gave upon the clearing surrounding Butler's house, and there were we halted within shelter of the foliage, while Ensign Clerke, with ten musketeers, was sent forward to give the mutineer a chance to surrender.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

And this he did without parley, to my mind showing himself a coward because of not making some display of force after having openly declared himself an enemy to us of Maryland.

Neither the governor nor Captain Cornwallis had any converse with him when he came up in charge of the musketeers, hanging his head in shame and fear; but word was given that he be bound securely between two of our men, and again we took up our line of march, this time carrying the flag of Maryland unfurled in front of us.

Thomas Smith lived on what is known as Beaver Neck, his house standing on that side of the creek opposite Butler's, and when we were come to the shore it was to find that a small pinnace had been brought around to ferry us over:

Sergeant Robert Vaughan, with six musketeers, was sent across in advance, and then we had as little difficulty in making the mutineer Smith a prisoner, as we had had in taking Butler.



Back to Claiborne's Fort

It pleased me much when the governor gave orders that the captives, in charge of twenty of our musketeers, be sent to St. Mary's in the small pinnace, that my name was not called among those who were to go.

Therefore it was that I held my place as one of the army when we marched back to Claiborne's fort, and such Indian runners as had been found there were sent off to summon all the people of the island to appear before Governor Calvert.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

When we were come to the fort again, John declared that there was nothing more for us men-at-arms to do, save lounge around while the governor dealt out justice to these islanders who had dared to raise their voices against us of St. Mary's, and I was not displeased, because of fearing that I might in some way bring reproach upon my father and the name Calvert of Maryland, if called upon to stand against our enemies, although it would be contrary to my will and desires.

However, I need not have settled down to idleness quite so soon, for we had hardly more than entered the fort when Governor Calvert sent one of the men in search of me, and I obeyed the summons quickly, inwardly quaking lest I had ignorantly done some wrong.



I am Assigned New Duties

My fears were speedily set at rest, once I was come into the great room where he was sitting to hold court, for, speaking in the kindliest fashion, as if I had been fully his equal in rank, he told me it was his desire to make sure the Indian runners did not play him false, as might be the case if they had listened overly long to William Claiborne.

As a guard against this, he called upon me to take one of the shallops, summoning two or more of the men to work the oars, and skirt along the shores of the island to make certain all the people had notice that the governor was come to settle forever the question of loyalty to our Province of Maryland.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

I was to perform the task in whatsoever manner I thought best, so that it was done properly, and to set off without delay, sleeping wherever night overtook me, for it would not be possible to make the voyage completely around the island in less than two, perhaps three, days.

You may well fancy that I was exceeding proud at being selected for what seemed like a most important mission, and I made no further delay in setting out than to find my father, that I might acquaint him with my purpose.

It can also be understood that I chose John as one of the men to bear me company, and he proposed that I take his cousin Jacob as the second oarsman.

My father did not burden me with advice when I was come to take leave of him. He simply cautioned me not to run needlessly into danger, nor to shirk when it could not be avoided.

"Do not refuse to take advice from John," he said, as we walked toward that point on the shore where lay the shallop. "That lad, or man, who neglects to learn from others when he may, is little less than a fool."

With these words ringing in my ears I set off, the two men rowing lustily while I held the steering oar, and it was in my mind that now indeed might I with good reason be called Calvert of Maryland, since I was doing a man's work in the protection of the province.



A Narrow Escape

We did not advance swiftly, because of being forced to stop here or there wherever we saw a dwelling, and at such times I myself went on shore to have speech with the settlers, rather than send either John or Jacob to perform the task which Governor Calvert had intrusted to me.

Before night came, my legs ached with weariness, because of much running about on shore, and my temper was sorely tried when the stupid Englishmen would have parleyed with me concerning Governor Calvert's right to bid them come before him for judgment.

"At the next fair dwelling place we will rest for the night," I said to my companions, when I was come from a vexing talk with a thick-headed laborer, who would have tried to persuade me that Kent Island belonged to the Province of Virginia rather than to that of Maryland, and, having thus spoken, I was on the point of stepping aboard the shallop, when there appeared from the thicket close about us, four Susquehanoughs, all in full war paint.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

I am willing to confess I was so frightened that my heart beat as if it would burst through the flesh; but I made fair stand, with the hope that what was in my mind did not show on my face, and John whispered in a tremulous voice:"

"Do not anger them, lad, whatever may be said, and make no show of using your weapons while they thus have the advantage of us."

I hardly know what I might have done if he had not spoken; but certain it is, the words heartened me wonderfully, and I stood as if perfectly at ease, while the painted brown men came so near that the odor from their bodies was most disagreeable to my nose.

When, however, he who was leader would have taken my gun, I pulled it away from him, saying that I was come in the service of the Governor of Maryland, who even then was in William Claiborne's fort ready to punish those who would have worked harm to our town of St. Mary's, and that any wrong done me would be reckoned as if done him.

I verily believe it was because I spoke with a bold front, as if knowing there were those near by ready to uphold me, that caused these evil-minded brown men to think twice before coming to open warfare with us of Maryland. Even though in their war paint, which is sign of enmity, these Susquehanoughs did not dare lay violent hands upon me, while ignorant as to how large a force of our people might be close by; but stepped back a few paces to take counsel one with another, leaving me close by the stern of the shallop.

"Now is the time when you may come aboard and make ready to use your gun, Calvert of Maryland," John said, as he and Jacob took up their oars to pull swiftly away, and I, made doubly bold by hearing the name Captain Cornwallis had given me, said, as though I were a veritable man of war:"

"We will make no show of running away. There are but four brown men against three of us Marylanders, and it would be shame to us if we could not hold them in check until they shall let their intent be known."

At the same moment, however, I stepped into the shallop, holding my gun ready for service, and before a tongue-tied man could have counted five, the Indians disappeared within the thicket, leaving us alone.

Then, swelling with pride because of what looked much like a victory won by me, I gave the word for John and Jacob to pull along shore, cautioning them not to send the boat ahead too swiftly lest the brown men think we were running away.



Words of Praise

Once we were beyond arrow-shot from the land, John thought fit to give me great praise for holding myself as steady as a man at a time when even the bravest need not have felt shame at being afraid; and both he and Jacob vowed that the matter should be known to my advantage when we were come once more to our town of St. Mary's.

There is no good reason why I should set down more concerning this voyage when I was commander, for we met with nothing in the way of adventure, and were returned to William Claiborne's fort late in the evening of the second day, weary enough to fall asleep even as we walked, because of having traveled all through the night previous, in order to make more speedy end of our task.

Governor Calvert was pleased to give me much praise because of what had been done, and bade his servant show me to the room next his own, where I might sleep in peace and security so long as was my pleasure.

[Illustration] from Calvert of Maryland by James Otis

During five days we remained at Kent Island, and then George Evelin, who had been on a visit to Virginia, came to find that strict justice had been done the mutineers.

Those who had been found guilty of having striven to stir up the brown men against us, meaning Butler and Smith, were to be tried at St. Mary's for their crimes. All of William Claiborne's property that could be come at was taken as prize of war, and by such means our Province of Maryland was the richer by seventy thousand pounds of tobacco, two hundred cattle, sixteen servants who had yet many years to serve before they would become freemen, together with tools and other goods to the value, so I have heard said, of not less than seven thousand pounds, meaning nearly thirty-five thousand dollars, as money is now reckoned among us.

I went back to St. Mary's in the same ship with the governor and his gentlemen, and right proud was I when, during the homeward voyage, my father, having heard certain matters from John, said, as he took me by the hands, kissing both my cheeks, that he was well satisfied I would bring no reproach either to his name, or to that given me by Captain Cornwallis:

And now, because I have told all of moment concerning our homes in the Province of Maryland, during that time when we were struggling to make ourselves respected by the Indians as well as by the Virginians, there is no good reason why I add more words.

We who had left England in the Dove  and the Ark  to build up a province in the land given by the king to my Lord Baltimore, had finished our task, and it is for others to say how we prospered in later days, and how fair was the work of our hands, after we had conquered the wilderness and earned the respect of our neighbors both white and brown.

That we have lived in peace these many years, is well known to all the world, and I have fair cause to hope, without seeming to boast, that when the full story of our Province of Maryland shall be told, among the names of those who had a goodly share in the building up, will be found that of Calvert of Maryland.