In a word, Athenians are by nature incapable of either living a quiet life themselves, or of allowing anyone else to do so. — Thucydides

Builders of our Country Vol. I - G. Southworth




Review Questions



I. Leif the Lucky


  1. Who were the Norsemen? Describe their ships. What coasts of Europe did they raid? What conquests did they make?
  2. How did it happen that Norsemen came to the New World? Who was their leader?
  3. Tell the story of the Norsemen who first saw this continent.
  4. What band of Norsemen first landed on this continent? About what year was this? What did they call the new land? What part of our coast do we think this probably was?
  5. When did the Norsemen come to Vinland again? Under what leader? What people were living on this continent then? What did the Norsemen call them? Why?
  6. What was the fate of Thorwald's expedition? Who came after him? Why did the Norsemen leave this continent? How long had they been trying to settle here?


II. Marco Polo


  1. About 700 years ago, what did most people believe the shape of the earth to be? How much of it had been traveled over by Europeans?
  2. Why did not people travel more in the thirteenth century? What was usually the object of their travels? What was then the great trading city of southern Europe?
  3. What country lay to the east of Europe? What was the real condition of this country? What did Europeans suppose it to be?
  4. What Europeans first traveled across Cathay? When? How long were they gone? Who was Kublai Khan? Why was he a mighty ruler?
  5. Who was Marco Polo? Why did the Polo family go back to China? Through what countries did they pass? Where is Bagdad? the Desert of Gobi?
  6. What detained the Polo family in China? How did they return? Describe their reception in Venice. What had they to tell and show?
  7. What were the fortunes of Marco Polo in his own country? How did he happen to leave us a book? Why did he not write it himself? Why was the book an important one?


III. Christopher Columbus


  1. How much of the world was known in the fifteenth century? What were then the chief routes of commerce? How did the capture of Constantinople by the Turks lead to the discovery of America?
  2. Where and when was Columbus born? How did he spend his boyhood and youth?
  3. As a seaman, under what flag did he sail, and what shores did he visit? What did the sailors of that day believe about the seas? What had they to guide them? Name a famous astronomer of that time and describe his map.
  4. What was Columbus's object in setting sail in 1492? How had he secured money to pay for his ships and supplies? Describe the ships and their crews. Give an account of this voyage. What name did he give to the islands he discovered, and why? How was Columbus received on his return to Spain?
  5. Give the year, and an account, of Columbus's second voyage. Why was he not honored again on his return?
  6. What later voyages did he make? What did he himself gain by his explorations? What did Spain gain by them? To what did they lead?
  7. How old was Columbus when he died? After whom war America named, and why?


IV. John Cabot


  1. How many voyages had Columbus made when England sent out an explorer? Who was he, and up to this time what had he been doing?
  2. What route did he take? Describe the voyage. Why was this event of great importance to England?
  3. How many voyages did John Cabot make? Where did he go, when, and why? Who went with him? What was the result of his voyages?


V. The Spanish Explorers


  1. How did Ponce de Leon's reason for exploring differ from that of the voyagers before him? When did his expedition sail? From what place? What was the result of this attempt?
  2. What was the object of his second expedition? What was the result?
  3. In this same year what successful conquest was another Spaniard making in the New World? Describe the people he conquered.
  4. Who was the ruler of the Aztecs? How did he receive the Spaniards, and why? Why was it difficult for Cortez to conquer him? How did Cortez succeed?
  5. How far west did Spanish explorers go? Who first reached this limit? When? From what colony did he start?
  6. Who was Pizarro? Who were the people he conquered? What was Pizarro's gain? How did his treacheries work against him?
  7. What event marked the year 1541? What route had been taken by this expedition? What experiences had De Soto had in the New World before he started on this journey? What became of De Soto and his men?
  8. By the middle of the sixteenth century, what lands in America did Spain claim by right of exploration conquest, and colonization?


VI. Sir Francis Drake


  1. Who was John Hawkins? What was his scheme to gain wealth? Why and how did Philip II try to check him? How was Hawkins treated in England, and why?
  2. How many voyages did he make? Between what years? What was the fate of the last? Who was with Hawkins in command?
  3. What had Drake in mind to accomplish when he started out for himself? How far did he carry out his plans? What explorers had been before him on the Isthmus of Panama?
  4. What famous seaman in the days of Cortez had found a new route westward? Where had he voyaged and what important fact had he found out?
  5. What was the object and plan of Drake's greatest voyage! When did he start? Trace the whole route. What people were living along the western coast of South America? How long was the voyage? What land did he claim for England on this voyage? What name did he give to it?
  6. What great service did Drake do for England later on? How did Drake and Sir John Hawkins spend their last years?


VII. Sir Walter Raleigh


  1. Give the reasons why England was interested in colonizing the New World. How was money furnished to do this?
  2. What Englishman attempted to plant a colony in America in 1578? What was his success? On his second voyage where did he land?
  3. What was a "charter" to colonize? Why was it necessary? What did Walter Raleigh's charter say?
  4. What was Raleigh's first step in sending out his expedition? In what year was this? How did it result?
  5. How did the colony succeed, and why? Did the colonists find gold? What did they find that has since had great money value?
  6. When did Raleigh send another colony? What is the story of this one? What had the experiment cost Raleigh? Had his attempt any permanent results, and, if so, what?


VIII. John Smith and Pocahontas


  1. What were the London and Plymouth companies? What kind of men were needed to colonize the New World? What kind of men did the London Company send? When and where did these settlers land?
  2. How did England's claim come to be called "Virginia" (Chapter VII)? After whom was the James River named? the settlement on the James River?
  3. During the first year how did the colony succeed? Who quickly assumed the leadership? Give the story of this man's life up to the time he joined the Virginia colonists.
  4. How much of this country was known to the English settlers? What led John Smith to go out among the Indians?
  5. During Smith's absence, what had been going on at Jamestown? How did he discipline the colony? Who later governed Jamestown?
  6. Give the story of Pocahontas.
  7. What event of 1619 helped the industry of the South, and how?
  8. After 1609 what did John Smith do to encourage colonization?
  9. How was the Indian race divided and governed? Describe the appearance of the Indians. What did the men do when at peace? What was the women's work? How did the Indians build and furnish their homes?
  10. Relate some of the Indian customs in warfare. What were the weapons used? What were some of the beliefs and ceremonies of the Indians' religion? How did their education differ from ours?


IX. Miles Standish and the Pilgrims


  1. Who we're the Separatists? By what other name were they known, and why? What circumstances finally led the Separatists to America? When did they begin their journey? From what country?
  2. How did these colonists differ from those who made Jamestown? When and where did they land? How and when did this place and the region around receive their names? (See pages 78 and 84.)
  3. Who was made governor of the colony? What did the colonists do for their common protection? Give the story of the first winter at Plymouth.
  4. Tell the story of Samoset and Squanto. What was the outlook for the second winter? Describe the harvest feast.
  5. Name some of the foremost men in the colony. What special service did Miles Standish render?
  6. Describe the growth of Plymouth; the houses and their furniture. How did the children spend their time?


X. Governor Winthrop and the Puritans


  1. What was the difference between the Puritans and the Pilgrims in their disagreement with the Church of England?
  2. What was the first settlement in America made by the Puritans? How did its government differ from that of Plymouth?
  3. When and where was the second Puritan settlement begun? Where did the settlers finally locate? What was their new settlement called? How was it governed?
  4. Give an account of Governor Winthrop and what he did for Boston.
  5. How fast did Boston grow? What rules were made to keep order in the town? Who kept order in the church? How was wrong-doing punished? Describe the everyday life of the people.


XI. Roger Williams


  1. Of what colony was Roger Williams a member? Why did he have to leave it? Give an account of his journey. How did he show his sense of justice? What did he call his new home, and why?
  2. Who later joined Roger Williams? How did the new settlement differ from those in Massachusetts?
  3. Who were the Pequot Indians? Who were the Narragansetts? Why were the Pequots hostile to the English? How did Roger Williams return good for evil?
  4. What event of 1637 was of great importance to the welfare of the New England colonies?


XII. King Philip's War


  1. After the Pequot War, how long were the Massachusetts settlers at peace with the Indians? What Indian tribe broke the peace? Who was their chief? What were the causes of the outbreak?
  2. Where is Swanzey? In 1675 where was the western frontier of the Massachusetts colony? Give the story of the defense of Hadley.
  3. What was the Indian manner of conducting a war? Which season of the year was most favorable for it, and why? Describe the Indians' winter camp.
  4. How did the English put an end to the war? What weapons did the Indians use? Where did they get them? What became of King Philip?


XIII. Henry Hudson


  1. Who was Henry Hudson, where was his home, and what was his business? What question of the day specially interested him? Why did he sail north?
  2. What was the great trading company of northern Europe at the beginning of the seventeenth century? What route did their ships take, and why? In what did they trade?
  3. When did Henry Hudson make the voyage on which he saw America? Under what flag did he sail? How did this happen? Why did he head for America? Trace his route from the starting point to this continent.
  4. Trace his course from. July to November, 1609. What had he accomplished? Give the story of his journey up the river
  5. When Hudson made his second voyage to America, under what flag did he sail? Why? In what year did he start? Trace his route. How did his voyage end?


XIV. The Dutch in America


  1. What was the influence of Hudson's voyages? What is the story of Manhattan Island before 1623? What did the traders do for the protection of themselves and future settlers in the Hudson Valley? What name did they give to the region?
  2. When did the Dutch first come here with colonizing as their main object? Who sent out the first band? How many did it number? Who was its leader?
  3. Who was governor of New Netherland between 1623 and 1632? How did he claim Manhattan Island for the Dutch? How much did he pay for it? What was the Indian money? To what other use was it put?
  4. What did the Dutch name the settlement on Manhattan Island? Describe the village. What were the industries of its people?
  5. Explain the system by which the Dutch West India Company induced more settlers to come to New Netherland.
  6. Who was the last Dutch governor of New Netherland? When did he come? Describe Stuyvesant's appearance; his character.
  7. By what settlement was New Netherland now bounded on the south? on the east? What difficulties did the Dutch have with these neighbors? What other troubles were there for Stuyvesant to meet?
  8. Describe New Amsterdam in 1664. How did England look upon the Dutch colony? How did the colony come to be called New York? What did Stuyvesant do after the surrender?


XV. Early French Explorers


  1. What started France to making explorations in the New World? When was the first expedition sent out? Under whom? Trace its route. From what records do we know about the voyage?
  2. How long was it before France sent out another expedition? What was her object then? Who was placed in command? What was done to carry out the King's plan?
  3. Give the story of the naming of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. How did the Indians of this region live? What and where were their largest settlements? How did they receive the French?
  4. Give the story of the naming of Montreal. What later attempt did the French king make to plant a colony in America? How successful was it, and why?
  5. When and where was the first French settlement made in our own country? Under whom? Who were these immigrants, and why did they come? How did the colony succeed?
  6. Where did the second colony locate? Who led it? What claims lay to the north of the French? to the south? What troubles beset the French? What became of the Spaniards who killed the French?


XVI. Champlain


  1. Who followed in the footsteps of Cartier? How many years after? What was the result of his first voyage? of his second? How did the French and the Indians treat each other?
  2. What was the first permanent French settlement in America? When was it begun? Under whom? Describe it. What was the condition of the colony at the end of the first winter?
  3. What two aims had Champlain in coming to America? What hindered him in moving westward? What Indians were around Quebec? What were the other tribes nearby? How did Champlain plan to strengthen and protect the French hold in America?
  4. Describe the gathering of the war party. Trace their course south. On this expedition what new name was added to the map of America? To what was the French victory due?
  5. How much farther did Champlain explore? How many years was he with the colony?


XVII. Joliet and Marquette


  1. Who was Louis Joliet? Who was Jacques Marquette? When they came to America, what classes of French people were already here? How far had the French settlements extended? What were the "missions"?
  2. What idea of this country did Father Marquette have? Trace the voyage from Lake Superior south. In what year was this? Describe the country through which Marquette and Joliet passed. What was a peace pipe, and how was it used? What did the Indian name "Ohio" mean?
  3. What decided Marquette to turn back? Give an account of the journey north. What had Marquette and Joliet accomplished?


XVIII. La Salle


  1. How did it happen that the French sent out the expedition under La Salle? In what year? What route did La Salle intend to take?
  2. What two delays occurred, and what was the reason for each? How many forts were built?
  3. What is a "portage," and for what is it used? Across what portage did the party pass before they were on the water route leading to the Mississippi? What incident proved La Salle both keen and brave? Name and locate the fort he built on the Illinois. Why did he give it this name?
  4. What prevented La Salle from continuing down the river at once? When did he reach the same place again? How did La Salle's trip south differ from Marquette's? What, and after whom was the French claim named? What land was in this claim?
  5. What object had La Salle in making his expedition of 1684? What part of the country did he travel over? Why? What became of La Salle and his men?


XIX. Lord Baltimore


  1. With what purpose did George Calvert ask for a grant of land in America? What land was given him? When was the colony formed?
  2. Why did Lord Baltimore visit Jamestown in 1629? Where was his new grant? Who led the colonists to their new home? Who was the governor of the colony? In what year did they land, and where? What, and after whom, was the grant named? the settlement?
  3. Why was this place an excellent one on which to plant a colony? What reasons drew more colonists to Maryland?
  4. How did the Virginia settlers feel toward Lord Baltimore's colony? Why? Where is the Isle of Kent? Why was it a matter of dispute? What was Clayborne's business?
  5. How long did Clayborne carry on his warfare, and what was done? How did the colony again become peaceful? Who were the first three proprietors of Maryland?


XX. William Penn


  1. What do the Quakers call their sect? Who founded it, and where? How were the first Quakers different from their countrymen? How did they come to be called "Quakers"?
  2. How did William Penn become a Quaker? In what part of what century was this?
  3. Up to this time what settlements in America had been made because of religious persecution in the home country? What settlement had been made because of such persecution here? How did Penn secure land here for a Quaker colony? Where ha i Quaker immigrants already settled, and how had they been received?
  4. When did Penn receive his charter? Where did the land lie? Give the story of the naming of the land. How many settlers came in the first year or two? When did Penn come?
  5. What was one of Penn's first acts as governor? Where did this take place? What were the laws adopted?
  6. Give the story of the founding of Philadelphia. What does the name mean? Before 1700 how fast did the city grow?
  7. What other act of Penn's showed him to be a wise governor as well as a good Quaker? Give an account of the meeting. How long was William Penn with his colony?


XXI. General James Oglethorpe


  1. Who was James Oglethorpe? Why did he wish to send a colony to America? How did he persuade the English Government to grant him land? What were the boundaries of the land? What, and after whom, was it named?
  2. Where were the first settlements made? How did the settler: and the Indians feel toward each other? Why? Who later joined the colony?
  3. How did Oglethorpe keep his promise to the king? How were the colonists kept in good condition to fight and work? What were the chief crops raised?


XXII. Nathaniel Bacon


  1. What opinions about education were argued in Virginia under Governor Berkeley's administration? What opinions about trade? What kind of man was the governor?
  2. How did the Virginia colonists live? What was their greatest grievance against the governor? Who was Nathaniel Bacon?. How did he try to avoid rebellion? With what result?
  3. What dispute took place before Bacon marched against the Indians a second time? What was his success against the Indians?
  4. By what strategy did Bacon gain a victory over the governor? What ends the story of the settlement at Jamestown? What was the end of the "Bacon Rebellion"? How did Governor Berkeley take his revenge?


XXIII. Benjamin Franklin


  1. When and where was Benjamin Franklin born? How was he brought up until he was twelve? What is an apprentice? To whom was Franklin apprenticed? How did he try to educate himself? Tell the story of Franklin and the New England Courant.
  2. Why did Franklin leave Boston? Where did he next find work? How had he traveled? What promising opportunity came to him? How did his venture succeed?
  3. What was the first important business Franklin undertook for himself? How old was he? How did the newspapers of those days differ from ours? What showed Franklin's cleverness?
  4. What kind of man was Franklin, judging from the story of the supper party? Whom did he marry? How did his wife help him?
  5. What did Franklin call his almanac? How many numbers did he publish, and from what year? Repeat some of its sayings.
  6. What famous discovery did Franklin make? Name three things that he invented. Give an account of five things that he did for Philadelphia.
  7. What public offices did Franklin hold before 1776? What was the object of his mission in 1757? What was the Declaration of Independence?
  8. What important errand did Franklin do for the United States? When and how did he succeed? What great events happened between that time and Franklin's return?
  9. How did Franklin serve his state and country after he was eighty years old? When did he die?


XXIV. Montcalm and Wolf


  1. By the middle of the eighteenth century, how was the territory of North America divided among the countries of Europe? How much did England claim? Where did the French and English claims overlap? What did these counter claims lead to? How long did the war continue?
  2. What fighting forces did the French have in America? the English? When did the last French and Indian war begin? What move on the part of the English did the French fear, and why? How did they try to prevent it?
  3. Which English colony first opposed the French? Who was sent to treat with them? Why was this step taken by one colony alone? What forts did the English build? the French? What was the result of the fighting near the Ohio?
  4. What other forts had the French? What plan of attack did the English make? What English officer was sent to recapture the Ohio frontier? How did he succeed? Why?
  5. Who was put in command of the French? By the end of 1757 what posts had changed hands?
  6. To what statesman was due the change in the conduct of the war? What was his plan? What was the first English victory to follow? Under what commander?
  7. By 1759 how had the English succeeded? Give the story of James Wolfe up to this year.
  8. Describe the location of Quebec. Give the story of the siege. What treaty closed the war?


XXV. Sir William Johnson


  1. Where was the early home of William Johnson? Why did he come to America? Where did he settle? Tell about his homes here.
  2. Who were the Iroquois? Where did they live? What appointment did William Johnson receive? Why was he chosen? How did he serve the colony?
  3. In what war did Sir William Johnson serve? What victories did he win? Tell why the battle of Lake George was important.
  4. Who was Pontiac? Why did he make war on the English? What part did Sir William Johnson take in Pontiac's war? Tell about the council at Niagara.