Reds in America - Richard M. Whitney

The Industrial Program

The plan elaborated by the Communists for the purpose of gaining a foothold among the workingmen of various industries includes the formation of a series of "nuclei" or groups each consisting of ten members with a leader, who are pledged to the support of the revolutionary program. Only the leader knows the members of his own group or nucleus, and a limited number of other leaders. By this method it was hoped that by gradual extension of the numbers of nuclei through propaganda, further insinuations of revolutionary thought would result until finally a sufficient minority would be under control to influence the passive thought and actions of the majority. For it must be remembered that the ultimate influences behind the world revolutionary movement are by a developed instinct, specialists in minority rule.

There are but few groups of workingmen in the United States, either generally speaking or in a single industry that do not contain the germs of Communism in the form of nuclei. In many places the work of propaganda is being carried on more and more openly with little organized opposition, either from the workmen or the individual employers, where in previous years attempts of this sort were regarded as illegal and carried out in an underground manner. Dissatisfaction of any sort is a productive fertilizer for the growth of the seed of Communistic propaganda. Planted in the form of nuclei. Communists under direct orders of the party leaders take especial advantage of strikes to carry ignorant passions to open violence and to win adherents to their cause.

There are but few strikes of any magnitude in which this dire influence is not felt. It was especially apparent in the New England Textile strike of 1922, and later in the coal and railroad strikes of the same year. The history of these attempts to utilize a big strike for the production of disorder is best illustrated by giving a short account of the coal strike. Whatever may he said about the ultimate causes of the 1922 coal strike, and certainly the actions of the United Mine Workers and its officials were not above criticism, Communist leaders saw therein an opportunity to further their program. Agents were sent into the Pennsylvania field, and very soon here and there nuclei were organized. Through their leaders the nuclei were put into touch with those groups which had been in existence for a longer period. Most, if not all of the members were enrolled in the United Mine Workers and through their locals naturally exerted a good deal of influence in the policies of the Union as a whole, bearing in mind that a well-directed, secretly organized minority can always control to a greater or less extent the policies of a presumably democratic organization.

The gradual amalgamation of union and non-union workers in each line of industry into a single organization, first in cities, then in States and then in the entire country, is the first general step which is now being taken. Then will come, according to the schedule prepared by Moscow and American communists, the amalgamation of all workers of all industries, first in cities, then in States and then in the entire country. When this is accomplished the stage will be set for the great general strike, if it cannot be developed from a local disturbance before that time. The communists plan this as the first general direct move toward the overthrow of the Government by force of arms.

Many more steps have been taken toward this goal than the general public realizes. Communists attended, as members of the Maintenance of Way Union of the railroad group, the convention of that body in Detroit on the 5th of October, 1922, and showed their victorious hand when for the first time they were able to force a resolution through calling for the amalgamation of all rail workers. William Z. Foster, out of jail under bond for his participation in the "illegal" Communist party convention at Bridgman, Michigan, was active at this meeting of the Maim tenance of Way Union. An Associated Press despatch from Detroit under date of October 5, tells the story:

"The Maintenance of Way Union, in convention here, went on record today as favoring a union of the chief railroad workers' organizations as a step toward more concerted action in matters relating to labor. A resolution instructing officers of the brotherhood to 'prepare for the amalgamation of the unions' was adopted after several hours of heated debate in which friends of President C. F. Grable charged that the proposal was put forward by 'a radical group'.

"One speaker declared that it was evident that 'representatives of Soviet Russia or the Industrial Workers of the World are secretly sitting in the convention hall'. The affairs of the convention, this speaker said, apparently were temporarily in the hands of William Z. Foster, 'who is known wherever labor is organized as an ultra-radical'.

"Foster attended one of the sessions on Tuesday without credentials and has since been barred from the floor."

This is the light that all American workers, in unions and out, are fighting in their own ranks. Unfortunately, before they or the American people appreciated the seriousness of the situation or understood the designs the Communist regime in Moscow, through the Communist party of America, had on the United States Government and its institutions, the Communists had succeeded in planting many members in the different industries, in the unions and among the non-union workers, and had such a foothold that they could not be eliminated. The sane, loyal American members of the Maintenance of Way Union have just discovered the extent to which their organization is dominated by the Communists.

Besides the active Communists "planted" in the labor organizations or converted to Communism by the missionaries thus included in the membership, there are a number of active "legal" bodies aiding in this work of aligning all labor for the united front "preparatory to the General Strike." Among these are the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia, the Workers' Party of America and the Friends of Soviet Russia, which are the most important. When it is understood that these organizations are in fact one and the same as the Communist party of America, it is easily seen that this is an important means of agitation which is legally utilized under the innocent guises of technical, famine or other kinds of relief for Russia. In a recent report by the Central Bureau of the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia, sent to the communist authorities in Moscow, it is shown that the influence of this organization is rapidly expanding throughout the United States and Canada. A branch has also been established in Panama.

In this report it is stated that the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia had collected in 1922, $620,000 in this country for its work in behalf of the Communist movement here and in Russia. In fact, because of the comparative poverty of the rest of the world, the United States is very largely financing the ruling group in Russia, whose only American policy is the destruction by force of the Government of the United States. Of the $620,000 collected here on behalf of this seemingly excellent charitable movement $10,000 passed immediately into the coffers of the Communist party of America. The rest was variously expended, a considerable sum going in gold to the Commnnist circle in Moscow. The balance is variously used in buying tools for Russia and in promoting industries in that country, in financing movements and spreading propaganda in this country. This sum was collected in less than six months, and sustains the hope of the Communists that more than $1,000,000 a year can be counted on from this source alone in the United States.

An as an example of the thoroughness with which the work of the Communists in industries is done, correspondence in April, 1922, between James P. Cannon, national chairman of the Workers' party of America, and T. R. Sullivan of St. Louis, one of the delegates to the Bridgman convention of the Communist party, may be cited. This correspondence referred to the work of the communists in the southern Illinois coal fields, the scene of the Herrin massacre. Under date of April 17 Cannon wrote to "Dear Comrade Bob" asking for "a little report on the activities you are. carrying on in tbe coal fields, stating just what is being done, and whether the work is being turned into account for organization purposes of the W. P." (Workers' party). Sullivan is also requested to "write something for the Worker about the Workers' party activities in this strike in your district."

To this letter from the leader of one Communist organization, Sullivan, as a Communist leader, replied on April 22, in a letter which throws no little light on the miners' strike and shows something of the strength of the Communists in the ranks of the coal miners. This letter reads:

"Dear Comrade: In compliance with your request for a little report on the work being done in the Illinois coal fields, I would say that to date as a result of meetings which I had in Southern Illinois, together with consultations with other comrades active in the mine workers, the following program has been formulated and adopted and is now in progress of being put into effect by means of the organization of caucuses inside of many local unions. The program is first, that all members of the Workers' party shall give their fullest and heartiest support to the aggressive carrying on of the miners' strike. Second, that we stand for no split or dual unions and are pledged to give our undivided support to fighting any such tendency in the mine workers' organization. Third, that we stand solidly for the basis for state agreement and will fight uncompromisingly any move for separate state agreements. Fourth, that we support in every way possible the demand for a special national convention to reinstate Alex Howatt and the Kansas miners.

"We are carrying on a systematic organized campaign, for the purpose of carrying this program into effect, throughout the Southern Illinois coal fields, active work is being done along these lines in Zeigler, Christopher, Herrin, Valler, Johnston City, Collinsville, Bellville, W. Frankfort, Weaver, O'Fallon, Sesser, Royalton, Buckner, Benton, Staunton, Livingston, Maryville and other towns in Southern Illinois Coal Fields.

"Our plan is to carry on this work of organizing these Left Wing caucuses and to circulate especially among those in these caucuses our party literature. This to be followed up with personal talks and where possible with mass meetings. This work, I believe is most fundamental and in a short time will result in our securing large numbers of the most intelligent and aggressive members of the United Mine Workers into the ranks of the Workers' party.

"Needless to say, some of the work which we are doing in the way of building a machine inside the United Mine Workers cannot be given publicity without bringing down upon our, as yet, incomplete organization the attacks of the powerful reactionary machine. I can say, howevter, that we have good reason to believe that by next winter we will have a very strong position in the U. M. W. of A., District 12. We are off with a splendid start on this work and there is going to be no let up until we have thoroughly entrenched ourselves."

This correspondence is but a sample of what is going on daily throughout the United States between men whose work is to lay the foundation for the overthrow of the United States Government. It was selected solely because of its part in the recent coal strike and shows, from their own records, what the Communists did to bring about the massacre at Herrin.

Among the documents abandoned at Bridgman, Michigan, when the Communist convention was raided by the Michigan authorities and the delegates fled or were arrested, were copies of two reports to Moscow on the work done by the organization in industry in the United States. These reports cover the entire country, show the part taken by the Communists in the agitation ostensibly in behalf of Sacco and Vanzetti, but more importantly to serve as a medium for creating unrest and hostility toward the Government, and prove the statements frequently made that the Communists are working inside the labor unions toward the end of overthrowing the United States Government by force. Erasures in the copies of these reports indicate that an effort was made to prevent by any chance the public learning that Foster's Trade Union Educational League and the United Labor Council were controlled by the Communists.

The first of these reports reads:

"The periodic reports received from our comrades show great activity in the industrial field. Our comrades have taken leading parts in constructive movements; at all times placing the labor movement as a whole above sects, party policies or theories. We are well represented at the United Mine Workers' Convention and the Railroad Telegraphers' Convention, doing our share of the preliminary spade work which must be done before broader fighting organizations can be developed.

"We have organized the [Trade Union] Educational League, which has already established a Bureau of Railroad Workers and which is preparing to enter other industries, particularly among the steel, packing and building trades workers. As a step toward the unification of independent unions we have made the [United Labor] Council of New York and vicinity a live body and organized the [United Labor] Council of America, which initiated a convention of all independent unions to be held in New York in the first week in January, when a permanent federation will be formed. Under our leadership the United Labor Council, in conjunction with the American Labor Alliance, Workers' League and other organizations cooperated with defence organizations, agitating the cases of Sacco and Vanzetti. Our comrades in unions throughout the country have led the movements for the introduction of the shop delegate system, affiliation with the Red Trade International, Relief of Soviet Russia, Defense of Communists and other class conscious workers and have done much to make the unions face the problem of unemployment as a class issue. In Chicago we have made the Voice of Labor an industrial organ. Everywhere we support the labor press, urging unions to stand with the Federated Press.


"Active in the United Hat and Cap Makers' campaign to revive the Needle Trades' Workers' Alliance for all unions in the industry, numbering 400,000 workers. Opposition by President Schlesinger of the I.L.G.W.U.

"Active in cloakmakers' strike.

"Active in Locals 22 and 25 where we faced expulsion by the machine.

"Propaganda to turn the I.W.W. toward the Red Trade International and at the same time seeking to overcome sterile dualism.

"Initiating amalgamation of five shoe workers' unions, in conjunction with our comrades in the United Labor Council.

"Practically control knit goods workers' union.

"Active among Foodstuff Workers, Public Service Organizations and Office Workers.

"Important contacts with ex-soldiers.

"After a long period of hard work we have gained some success in directing union activity through the Unemployment Council.

"International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, nineteen members in four locals. Industry not well organized. 'Open Shop' quite extensive in dressmaking line.

"Arranged a conference in Needle Trades for reviving Needle Trades' Alliance.


"Amalgamated Clothing Workers, seventy members in eleven locals. Industry 100 percent, organized. Many skilled workers unemployed. One local of 12,000 being won over to shop delegates system. Opposed bosses' scheme to turn over plant management to workers as a means of strengthening speeding up shop benefit system. Faced expulsion for opposition to machine. Verblen expelled without fair trial. In some locals the officials refused to hold meetings from May to August. Under pressure from us they finally resigned and our comrades took their places.

"Railroad workers, 50 members in four locals, 70 percent, unemployed. Dual unions inactive. One Big Union dead. We have commenced our Trade Union Educational League Railroad Bureau here as the only means of dealing with so large an industry.

"Similarly in the Building Trades, where we have forty-two members in thirteen locals in six trades. We lead the rank and file movement against the Landis award, and are using the R. & F. committees to make for united action of crafts and scattered locals. Very strong in five carpenters' locals.

"We have foreign language comrades in ten steel plants and are faced with a great educational problem, the same as among the railroad workers already referred to, and among the stockyard workers, where we also have the problem of dualism to contend with.

"Among the printers we are working with some success for a closer affiliation of trades.

"Among the machinists we successfully resisted a split when there was a move to take a faction over to the Amalgamated Metal Workers.

"At the Illinois State Federation of Labor Convention (Oct. 17-22, 1921), we led successful fights for resolutions endorsing Friends of Soviet Russia, planning support of Mooney, Debs, Larkin, Gitlow and other class war prisoners, planning action for a shorter day and union relief work for unemployed, recognition for Soviet Government of Russia, planning united action by all crafts in building trades to oppose Landis award.


"As far back as July we led movement to unite a score of shoe workers' unions, including some scab unions. The job promises to be successful. Also planning shop delegate system.


"International Ladies' Garment Workers, twenty-five members in Ladies' Waist Makers' Union. Active in strike committees. Twenty-three members in Cloak Makers' Local.

"Amalgamated Clothing Workers, eight members.

"Also members in Painters, Butchers and Bakers, Journeyman Tailors, American Tobacco Workers, United Cloth Hat and Cap Workers, German Barbers, Jewish Barbers and I.W.W. locals.

"Campaign among independent unions to send delegates to convention called by United Labor Council.


"Active Unemployment Council.

"Active in United Mine Workers, International Ladies' Garment Workers, Painters, Carpenters, Bricklayers, Needle Trades, Food Stuff Workers, Electricians, Pattern Makers, Machinists, Moulders.


"Active in International Association of Machinists. I.W.W., Journeyman Tailors, Amalgamated Metal Workers, Carpenters' Union, Painters.

"Delegates to Federation of Labor.


"Active in United Mine Workers, Building Trades, Rank and File Committee.


"Building Trades, San Francisco and District. Forced Building Trades Council to support general strike made necessary by open shop drive. Found Rank and File Committees in building and other trades. Led one of the greatest fights ever made by organized labor, although open shop won. Opposed dualism which sprang up following defeat and as a reaction against bureaucratic betrayals.


"Formed committee of 100 from Central Labor Council in order to prevent use of Seattle Union Record, for furthering financial schemes of the labor leaders.

"The committee of 100 leads a real anti-capitalist movement among organized workers, and has working captains in the following trades: Machinists, boilermakers, shipwrights, building laborers, office employees, foundry employees, iron molders, painters, dyers, cleaners, pressers, blacksmiths, building service employees, auto drivers, lady barbers, metal polishers, auto mechanics, city fire fighters, ship-yard riggers and fasteners, news writers, union waiters, bakers and confection workers, barbers, carpenters, sign painters, laundry workers, Typographical Union, tailors, musicians, bakery sales girls' local.


"Bridge construction workers, needle trades.


"Difficulty in making entry into steel workers.


"Minneapolis—Railroads, 6 members; machine shops, 2 members; building trades, 3 members.

"St. Paul-—Packing houses, 2; railroad shops, 4; machine shops, 2; garment industries, 2.

"Duluth—Some in iron ore and logging."

This report in Moscow could not fail to give the Red ringleaders there a comprehensive idea of the extent to which the work has been moving forward in the United States. It is evident that the preliminary work of "planting" representatives of the Communist party membership in the trades and industries has been thorough. It must be borne in mind that the establishment of these "nuclei" is for a definite purpose: to spread propaganda by word of mouth looking to the organization of Communist groups in every industry and gradually to get control of the workers in those industries. Once that is accomplished it will be easy, they believe, to make active Communists of all the workers, then to seize the industries, and when the general strike comes to turn all these workers against the Government in armed insurrection.

In the second report found at Bridgman, which does not go so much into detail as to membership in various industries, it is shown that forty per cent, of the active Communists are members of unions and are working as instructed to advance the cause of Communism. The remaining sixty per cent, are working among non-union workers. Difficulties are encountered because of the fact that some of their members cannot speak English. This f report also gives some of their plans for the future. It reads:

"In judging the accomplishment of the party in the labor union field there must be taken into consideration not only the period of amalgamation and controversy which seriously interfered with the carrying on of this work, but also the fact that at least 60 percent, of our members are not members of labor unions. That from the forty percent, who are members of labor unions, about one-third belong to unions outside of the American Federation of Labor, and that even of those who do belong to labor unions, there are a considerable number who cannot be used to carry our message to the workers in their various respective organizations due to the difficulties of language.

"The. results so far show that it has been especially difficult to get the foreign comrades to participate in this form of activity even in cases where methods were used to make it specially suitable for them to take part in nuclei work.

"Those at present active in nuclei work are primarily English, Jewish, and German, and here and there Finnish comrades. From the other nationalities there are very few who participate in this work.

"In addition to the foregoing tremendous difficulties, there must also be taken into account the general state of affairs in this country where the bulk of the revolutionists are not within the labor unions, but are outside, either not organized and unwilling to join the existing labor unions, or organized in dual 'model' unions.

"We have, therefore, a situation where the bulk of the revolutionary element in this country, Communists, sympathizers, anarchists and Socialists, are not part of the organized labor movement. As a result of this fact, the influence of the few thousand revolutionists who are organized in the Communist party of America is very limited. To this may be added the fact that in many industries labor organizations have hardly taken root, and in others there exist certain conditions which make it impossible to organize the workers without making gigantic efforts with a big apparatus and an enormous treasury behind it. Many of our members axe in these industries, working as laborers, which generally makes them ineligible to membership in the American Federation of Labor.

"The only feasible method suitable to the situation in the party was the establishment of the machinery for industrial work which at the beginning would function along the lines of the party. Later attempts were made to centralize the already established party nuclei along trade lines so as to coordinate the work in the various labor unions.

"The coordination of this work has been made extremely difficult through the underground [illegal] organization, and many opportunities have been lost through lack of connections or through the impossibility of reaching the comrades in proper time with the proper advice.

"Taking all these difficulties into consideration, the work accomplished so far bespeaks the correctness of the policy pursued by the party and the tremendous possibilities for the party by concentrating further upon this part of the party activities.

"The progress made in the various districts, as reported by the district industrial organizers, the reports not being very complete, are as follows:

"District I, (Boston headquarters). Nuclei in needle trades, cigar makers, building trades, shoe workers, textile workers and railroad shop crafts.

"The nuclei lack centralization and have been largely organized by the individual efforts of comrades in those unions. The industrial department in the district has not been functioning. The total number of those organized in these trades does not exceed one hundred."

The conditions in the other eleven districts into which the United States is divided by the Communist party were then similarly analyzed, and the report continues:

"At best the prospects of our influencing the labor movement are mainly in the predominantly Jewish organizations like the International Ladies' Garment Workers, Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers, etc.

"There is a splendid chance for our propaganda, and a strong revolutionary element, and there are strong nuclei among the textile workers; also the United Mine Workers.

"Among the shoe workers there are great possibilities for our work. Also among the automobile workers. There is also a good possibility for strongly entrenching ourselves in the machinist organizations and we have some good working groups in that organization. The prospects, however, of obtaining decisive influence in that organization are remote.

"Our activities in the I.W.W. have led to their liquidation in a number of Eastern cities.

"In the building trades we have strong groups in Chicago, New York, San Francisco and also other large centers. The more radical elements, especially among the painters and paper hangers, as well as the carpenters, are joining us in our work.

"In the independent unions we have been especially successful among the Amalgamated Food Workers, the Metal Workers, Textile Workers, and Automobile Workers.

"Our exact influence, however, in the I.W.W. and the independent unions, cannot be definitely known for lack of reports."

The Workers' party of America in September, 1922, sent an appeal to all members announcing the designation of October, 1922, as a "red month" in which active recruiting must be done for the party. This party boasts of being the only revolutionary political party existing legally in the United States, and in this drive for membership let down the bars so that it would be less difficult for radicals to qualify for membership. The appeal showed very clearly the real nature and plans of the organization which is permitted to function openly and legally, and to have candidates for office on the ballot in New York State. The appeal was sent to all radical papers with instructions to print it on Oct. 1. The appeal to the second district. New York, read in part as fotlows:

"Proletarians of all countries—unite!

"Join the ranks of the Workers' Party of America!

"Manifesto of the District Committee of the Second District Russian Federation Workers' Party of America.

"The District Committee, Second District, Russian Federation, Workers' Party of America, which includes the States of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, has designated October as a red month, a month of recruiting new members. The District Committee Appeals to ail conscious workers of the Russian Colony to become acquainted with the program of the Workers' Party and join its ranks. The Workers' Party of America is the only revolutionary party existing legally in the United States. It numbers in its ranks the most forward, conscious element of the working class, distinguished by self-denial and preparedness for battle.

"During the month of October every conscious worker or group of same can, without unnecessary difficulties or formalities, join our ranks. We call to ourselves only those who are ready to sacrifice themselves in the interests of the working class.


"For more detailed information apply to I. Yanishevskaya, 208 East Twelfth St-, New York City."

The name and address given were those of the secretary of the Russian Federation of the Workers' party. He was also an employee of the All-Russian Jewish Relief Committee, "Idgeskom."

In an official bulletin issued by the Central Executive Committee of the Communist party of America shortly before the Bridgman convention the following instructions were given to all members, which shows conclusively that the entire industrial movement is controlled by the secret, illegal, directing branch of the party. All members were cautioned to read the bulletin carefully and to see to it that the instructions were carried out to the letter at once. After stating that the party has launched on enlarged work, it had this to say under the head of "Industrial Activities":

"The proper conduct of this line of activities is dependent upon the alertness and understanding of our forces, and must be controlled and guided by No. 1 [illegal]. The same principle applies here as was laid down before, that all decisions as to policies and fundamental principles, as well as tactics, are to be decided upon by No. 1 before being carried out in No. 2 [legal.]

"We must organize nuclei of members of No. 2, and work as a unit within these nuclei, and become a live factor in all these activities; but at all times keep our own forces intact. We must endeavor to create left wing militant groups within the labor organizations, in which we must also become the leading factor.

"The majority of onr members must be on all important committees. All organizers must be chosen from our ranks, such as Sub-District Industrial Organizers, organizers for industries, trades and local unions.

"All nuclei connections of No. One must be kept separately through the various units, and be held in readiness to be called at any time by the organizers.

"All reports to the lower units connecting No. One with these activities must be given verbally, and not appear in writing or in print.

"In cases where new nuclei of No. Two are organized and a member of No. One cannot be placed as organizer, a member of No. One must be assigned to keep all connections of his membership; his connection in turn must be recorded with the District Industrial Organizer."

With the knowledge of methods and plans of the Communists it is easy to see the parts they have played in the strikes in industry that marked the year 1922. It has already been shown that they played leading parts in the railroad and coal strikes, and it is known that they were particularly active in the textile strikes in New England. Agents were sent from various parts of the country to each of the New England cities where the strikes were declared, reporting regularly to the higher officials of the Communist party and were directed in their work by the Central Executive Committee of the party. The American Federation of Labor fell into a simple trap set for it by the Communists, either knowingly or in childlike innocence, when it pledged $2000 a week to support the strikers.

Typical of these agents was one Joseph Kowalski, a Pole and an alien. Kowalski had been deported a short time after the sailing of the Buford for participation in Communist enterprises and giving vent to seditious utterances. In December, 1921, he returned to America under a false passport, and quickly came in contact with leaders of the Communist party in this country. Kowalski was active both in the New England Textile and the coal strikes, making frequent trips from New York, where he made his headquarters, to centers in New England and Pennsylvania. It is a matter of record that following the beginning of the coal strike until his arrest in August, Kowalski had himself organized over 2,000 striking miners in nuclei of ten members each, and through them violence was promoted and the policies of the unions and their members influenced. Kowalski was only one of many such agents.

Kowalski's arrest led to his proper identification and a clue to his activities while abroad. It was established that at least part of the time, he had been influential and highly placed member of the Che-ka, or the Commission for the Suppression of Counter-Revolution of the Russian Soviet Government, and as such responsible for the continued detention in jail of seven American citizens. He was convicted of violation of the Deportation Act and sentenced to Atlanta Penitentiary for one year and to be again deported.

As an example of the cleverness with which the Communists work, the textile strikes are illuminating. It was pretended that intense rivalry existed between the Amalgamated Textile Workers and the United Textile Workers. Both were conducting strikes on similar lines, but they contended that they were not only in no way connected but were actually hostile to each other. Undoubtedly many of the rank and file of the organizations believed this. But the leaders knew the fact, that both were absolutely controlled by the Red Trade Union International, a Communist organization of Moscow with active agents in this country.

This organization has the same principles as all Communist bodies, aiming at the taking over by the workers of all industries and the establishment of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat after all organized government has been overthrown by force of arms. Naturally, only the leaders of the "rival" textile organizations knew of the relationship between the two as this and the overlordship of the Red Trade Union International was kept a profound secret.