~ 480 BC
Artemisia at salamis

Artemisia was a Queen of Halicarnassus, who outfitted a navy and joined Xerxes on his invasion of Greece as a general. She was one of his most valued and trusted advisors. She alone among his advisors recommended postponing a naval conflict with the Greek on the eave of the battle of Salamis, which of course, turned out to be a disaster for Persia. During the battle itself, she fought bravely, and Xerxes is quoted as exclaiming "My men have become women, and my women, men!". In one incident, in which her ship was in peril of getting rammed by a Greek ship, she is said to have turned her boat, and rammed a Persian ally from Caria, who was a personal enemy of hers. By this action she escaped from the clutches of the Greeks, because they believed that she had come over to their side, and she won applause from Xerxes, who believed she had rammed a Greek ship. After the disastrous defeat, Artemisia is thought to have advised Xerxes to return to Persia and provided her ships for the personal transport of his family members and personal property.

"Artemisia of Halicarnassus" was also the name of a later queen who built the famous Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, which the Ancients considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. She is also sometimes known as "Artemisia of Caria."

Key events during the life of Artemisia:

480 BC
Engaged in the Battle of Salamis.

Other Resources

Story Links
Book Links
Review of the Troops at Doriscus  in  Xerxes  by  Jacob Abbott
Battle of Salamis  in  Xerxes  by  Jacob Abbott
Wooden Walls  in  Pictures from Greek Life and Story  by  Alfred J. Church
How Xerxes Crossed Over into Europe and of His Army  in  The Story of the Persian War  by  Alfred J. Church
Of the Greeks at Salamis and of the City of Athens  in  The Story of the Persian War  by  Alfred J. Church

Short Biography
Xerxes Raised an enormous army for Persian invasion of Greece. Defeated at Battle of Salamis.
Themistocles Athenian hero of the Battle of Salamis. He masterminded Athenian naval supremacy.
Mardonius Brother-in-law of Xerxes and commander-in-chief of Xerxes's Army.