Black Hawk had always been opposed to ceding native lands to white settlers, and during the War of 1812 he and his people eagerly assisted British troops at Green Bay, Wisconsin. Black Hawk was awarded the rank of brevet Brigadier General for his assistance, but he detested the bloody European attack methods and soon returned home, only to find that his rival had been made leader in his absence. He rejoined the efforts during the end of the war, and after its conclusion he reaffirmed the much-disputed treaty of 1804, which had ceded Sauk lands to the U.S. government. Regardless of this original agreement, however, Black Hawk led several parties back to his homeland, each one ending in retreat until 1832, when, back by promises of British alliance, he led a group of 1500 men, women, and children into Illinois. Finding no support, he attempted to return home, but the undisciplined Illinois militia retaliated, escalating in the Black Hawk War. The war, carried out by Sauk as well as Fox, Kickapoo, and Ho-Chunk warriors, lasted nearly five months, and after Black Hawk’s defeat he was held in captivity with several other leaders at Jefferson Barracks in Missouri. After eight months, the Indians were taken east to Washington, where they met with Andrew Jackson and were delivered to a Virginia prison. They remained in jail for only a few weeks, however, after which they were taken on a tour of the country, where large crowds gathered to greet or jeer the enemies. Toward the end of his imprisonment, Black Hawk told his story to a government interpreter, who in turn published the first Native American autobiography in the U.S.
After the conclusion of his tour, Black Hawk returned to his people and settled along the Iowa River. He passed away in 1838 following two weeks of illness, and after his death he was buried on the bank on the Des Moines River.
|Earned recognition during a raid on the Osage tribe.|
|Treaty of 1804 ceded Sauk lands to the U.S. Gov’t.|
|Fought on the side of the British in the War of 1812.|
|Signed a treaty that reaffirmed the treaty of 1804.|
|Black Hawk War.|
|Captured and taken east to meet with President Andrew Jackson.|
|The Autobiography of Black Hawk was published.|
|Black Hawk War in||Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake|
|Black-hawk the Sac Patriot in||Boy's Book of Indian Warriors by Edwin L. Sabin|
I am a man, and you are another.'
in Conquest of the Old Northwest
in Indian History for Young Folks
|Hero of the Battle of New Orleans, President of U.S., and founder of Democratic Party.|
|AmerIndian chief who frustrated warred against the United States in the Seminole Wars.|
|Diplomat who spent much time in Europe before becoming the sixth U.S. President.|