Eumenes was Macedonian general, although he was not a Macedonian, but rather
a native of Cardia in the Thracian Chersonesus.
At a very early age he was employed as private secretary by Philip II. of Macedon, and on the death
of that prince, by Alexander, whom he accompanied into Asia. In the division of the empire on
Alexander's death, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia were assigned to Eumenes; but as they were not yet
subdued, Leonnatus and Antigonus were charged by Perdiccas to put him in possession. Antigonus,
however, disregarded the order, and Leonnatus in vain attempted to induce Eumenes to accompany him
to Europe and share in his far-reaching designs. Eumenes joined Perdiccas, who installed him in
|SCENE FROM THE DIODOCHI WARS|
When Craterus and Antipater, having reduced Greece, determined to pass into Asia and
overthrow the power of Perdiccas, their first blow was aimed at Cappadocia. Craterus and
Neoptolemus, satrap of Armenia, were completely defeated by Eumenes (321); Neoptolemus was killed,
and Craterus died of his wounds. After the murder of Perdiccas in Egypt by his own soldiers, the
Macedonian generals condemned Eumenes to death, and charged Antipater and Antigonus with the
execution of their order. Eumenes, being defeated through the treachery of one of his officers, fled
to Nora, a strong fortress on the confines of Cappadocia and Lycaonia, where he defended himself for
more than a year. The death of Antipater (319) produced complications. He left the regency to his
friend Polyperchon over the head of his son Cassander, who entered into an alliance with Antigonus
and Ptolemy against Polyperchon, supported by Eumenes, who, having escaped from Nora, was
threatening Syria and Phoenicia. In 318 Antigonus marched against him, and Eumenes withdrew east to
join the satraps of the provinces beyond the Tigris. After two indecisive battles in Iran, Eumenes
was betrayed by his own soldiers to Antigonus and put to death. He was an able soldier, who did his
utmost to maintain the unity of Alexander's empire in Asia; but his efforts were frustrated by the
generals and satraps, who hated and despised the "secretary" and "foreigner."
—Adapted from the 1911 Encylopaedia Britannica.
Key events during the life of Eumenes:
||Secretary to Philip II of Macedonia.
||Installed as Satrap of Cappadocia.
||Defeated Craterus in Asia Minor, but his ally Perdiccas was killed in Egypt.
||Fled to Nora in Cappadocia.
||Attacked by Antigonus. Withdrew to the east, but was betrayed by his army. Murdered by Antigonus.
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|Philip of Macedonia
||Used statesmanship as well as military force to bring Greece under sway of Macedonia.
||Took over the empire of Alexander at his death, but couldn't keep it.
||Popular General of Alexander. Allied with Antipater after the death of Alexander.
||Allied with Antipater and Ptolemy I in early Diadochi Wars. Won control of Asia Minor and Syria.