|d. 337 BC|
|Civilization:||Greek — Syracuse|
|military — General|
Timoleon, was a Greek statesman, general and the liberator of Sicily. He was born in Corinth. When his brother Timophanes, whose life he had saved in battle, took possession of the acropolis of Corinth and made himself master of the city, Timoleon, after an ineffectual protest, allowed Timophanes to be put to death. Public opinion approved of his conduct as patriotic; but the curses of his mother and the indignation of some of his kinsfolk drove him into retirement for twenty years.
Hicetas again induced Carthage to send a great army of 70,000, which landed at Lilybaeum (Marsala). With a miscellaneous levy of about 12,000 men, most of them mercenaries, Timoleon marched westwards across the island into the neighbourhood of Selinus and won a great and decisive victory on the Crimissus. The general himself led his infantry, and the enemy's discomfiture was completed by a blinding storm of rain and hail. This victory gave the Greeks of Sicily many years of peace and safety from Carthage. Timoleon then retired into private life without assuming any title or office, though he remained practically supreme, not only at Syracuse, but throughout the island. He became blind some time before his death, but persisted in attending the assembly and giving his opinion, which was usually accepted as a unanimous vote. He was buried at the cost of the citizens of Syracuse, who erected a monument to his memory in their market-place, afterwards surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.
—Adapted from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Key events during the life of Timoleon:
|Participated in the assassination of his brother, who made himself tyrant of Corinth.|
|Elected to lead a fleet from Corinth to the relief of Sicily.|
|Victory over Hicetas, tyrant of Syracuse at the Battle of Adranum.|
|Dionysius II surrendered the citadel at Ortygia; Timoleon in control of all of Syracuse.|
|Tears down the citadel in Syracuse, and erects a court of justice.|
|Defeated an enormous Carthaginian army at the Battle of Crimissus.|
|Expelled all tyrants from the cities of Sicily.|
|Retired from public life.|
|Died and was buried with a heroes funeral.|Other Resources
|Deliverer from Corinth in||Helmet and Spear by Alfred J. Church|
|Man Who Saved Sicily in||Tales of the Greeks: The Children's Plutarch by F. J. Gould|
|Timoleon in||Our Young Folks' Plutarch by Rosalie Kaufman|
|Timoleon in||Stories from Greek History by Ethelwyn Lemon|
|Two Brothers in||The Story of Greece by Mary Macgregor|
|Timoleon, the Favorite of Fortune in||Historical Tales: Greek by Charles Morris|
|Timoleon in||Plutarch's Lives W. H. Weston by|
Timoleon holding the ford of the Crimessus.
in Helmet and Spear
Timoleon and the Eagles
in Stories from Greek History
Timoleon setting sail for Sicily
in Plutarch's Lives W. H. Weston
|Tyrant of Leontini, and master of Syracuse|
|Continued tyrannical reign in Syracuse after the death of his father; student of Plato, overthrown by Dion.|