|THE GREEKS AFTER CUNAXA|
Tissaphernes was a Persian Satrap, son of Hydarnes.
In 413 B
. he was satrap of Lydia and Caria, and commander in chief of the Persian army
in Asia Minor. When Darius II.
ordered the collection of the outstanding tribute of the Greek cities, he entered into an alliance with Sparta
against Athens, which in 412 led to the conquest of the greater part of Ionia. But Tissaphernes was unwilling
to take action and tried to achieve his aim by astute and often perfidious negotiations; Alcibiades persuaded
him that Persia's best policy was to keep the balance between Athens and Sparta, and rivalry with his neighbour
Pharnabazus still further lessened his energy. When, therefore,
in 408 B
. the king decided
to support Sparta strenuously, Tissaphernes was removed from the generalship and limited to the satrapy of Caria,
whereas Lydia and the conduct of the war were entrusted to Cyrus the Younger.
On the downfall of Athens, Cyrus and
Tissaphernes both claimed jurisdiction over the Ionian cities, most of which acknowledged Cyrus as their ruler; but
Tissaphernes took possession of Miletus, where he was attacked by Cyrus, who gathered an army under this pretence
with the purpose of using it against his brother Artaxerxes II. The king was warned by Tissaphernes, who took part
in the Battle of Cunaxa, and afterwards tried to destroy the Greek
mercenaries of Cyrus by treachery. He was then
sent back to Asia Minor to his old position as general in chief and satrap of Lydia and Caria. He now attacked the
Greek cities, to punish them for their allegiance to Cyrus. This led
to the war with Sparta in 399. Tissaphernes,
who once again had recourse to subtle diplomacy, was beaten by Agesilaus near Sardis in 395 B.C.. At
last the Artaxerxes II yielded to the complaints of Pharnabazus and the queen-mother Parysatis, both of whom hated
Tissaphernes, and had him treacherously slain.
—Adapted from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Key events during the life of Tissaphernes:
||Entered into an alliance with Sparta against Athens during the Peloponnnesian War.
||Removed from Satrapy of Lydia, left as Satrap of Caria only.
||Warned Artaxerxes of Cyrus's rebellion. Fought at Cunaxa.
||Warred with Sparta over colonies in Asia Minor.
||Defeated by Agesilaus in Asia Minor. Then murdered by his enemy Tithraustes.
||Controversial statesman and general of Athens, who betrayed the city, then returned as hero.
||Leader of Sparta after the Peloponnesian War. Campaigned in Asia Minor and warred with Thebes.
|Cyrus the Younger
||Plotted to kill his brother Artaxerxes, and assume the Persian throne.
||King of Persia during the retreat of the Ten Thousand.
||Persian Satrap of Phrygia. Allied with Sparta near end of Peloponnesian War.