Timelines of Spanish Empire

    Romans and Visigoths     Reconquista     United Spain     Hapsburg Spain     Bourbon Spain     New Spain     Mexico     South America



Romans and Visigoths—300 B.C. to 750

Phoenician Colonies to Moorish Conquest


BC YearEvent
ANCIENT IBERIA
1000 Cadiz established as trading center by Phoenicians. Over time Carthage gained control of most important ports, mines, and trading centers.
264–214 First Punic War between Roman and Carthage.
236 Hamilcar makes Spain a Carthaginian province.
218 Hannibal captures Saguntum, a Roman ally; provokes the Second Punic War.
ROMAN CONQUEST OF HISPANIA
206 Carthaginian leaders driven out of Spain. Rome form Hispania provinces.
195 Cato (the censor) puts down Turdetani Uprising and other rebellions.
154 The Lusitanians, under Celtiberian hero Viriathus defeat the Romans.
146 Carthage destroyed. Migration to Celtiberian, Roman, and Jewish regions.
139 Death of the Lusitain rebel hero Viriathus by Roman treachery.
133 Scipio the Younger destroys Numantia after costly siege.
105 Cimbrian invasion of Hispania ended by Celtiberians.
97 Celtiberians under Sertorius, rise against Rome.
71 Sertorius assassinated; Pompey reconquers Hispania for Rome.
61 Julius Caesar is governor of Hispania Citerior.
49–45 Caesarean Civil War. Important battles at Massilia, Llerda, and Munda.
22–19 Cantabrian War: Augustus Caesar wins decisive victories over northern tribes. Provinces of Tarraconensis, Baetica, and Lusitania established.

AD YearEvent
ROMAN EMPIRE
0-300 Hispania a prosperous Roman province. Produces leaders such as Trajan, Hadrian , and Seneca.
VISIGOTH SPAIN
350 Ulfilas, Arian missionary, converts Goths, translates Bible to Gothic language.
409 Waves of barbarians, including Suevi, Franks, and Vandals invade Hispania.
414 Ataulfus leads Visigoths into Hispania and settles there.
415 Wallia leads the Visigoths to victory over rivals and founds Visigoth Kingdom.
451 Visigoths under Theodoric fight along side the Romans against Attila the Hun.
466 Euric improves condition of Visigoths, frames the Gothic Code.
506 Alaric II opposes Clovis, and loses Aquitaine to the Franks.
586 Recared renounces Arian Christian and embraces the Church of Rome.
589 Council of Toledo denounces Arianism, puts restrictions on Spanish Jews.
672 Good King Wamba attemps important reforms of government, but is deposed.
MOORISH CONQUEST
711 The Saracens, under Tariq ibn Ziyad, overthrow Visigoths at Battle of Guadalete.
716 Moorish governor, Musa bin Nusair, exiled and son killed for marrying a Christian.
718 Christian hero Pelayo defeats Moors at Covadonga, founds kingdom of Asturias.
721 Odo of Aquitaine drives the Moorish army out of France at the Battle of Toulouse.
732 Saracens defeated by Charles Martel at Tours; retreat across Pyrenees.
750 Umayyad Caliphate overthrown in Damascus. Most of Royal family killed.
755 Caliphate of Cordova established by Abderrahman I, last Umayyad prince.



Reconquista—750 to 1400

Caliphate of Cordova to Pogroms of Seville


AD YearEvent
CALIPHATE OF CORDOVA
755 Caliphate of Cordova established by Abderrahman I, last Umayyad prince.
778 First Frankish raid into Moorish Spain by Charlemagne and his Frankish knights.
800 Charlemagne returns to Spain. Franks gain control of Barcelona, later Catalonia.
824 Franks defeated at by treachery at Roncevalles Pass, subject of Song of Roland .
837 Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees gains its independence from the Franks.
859 Eulogius and other Martyrs of Cordoba executed for Christian faith.
RISE OF LEON and CASTILE
910 Leon united with Asturias, becomes predominant Christian kingdom in Spain.
912 Abderrahman III Caliph of Cordoba, leads Moorish armies against Christians.
932 Fernan Gonsalez establishes the independence of Castile, capital at Burgos.
939 Ramiro II defeats Abderrahman III at Simancas, gains territory for Castile.
ALMANZOR AND CIVIL WAR
976 First conquest of Almanzor, who mastered nearly all of Spain; ruled until 1002.
1002 Death of Almanzor at the Battle of Calatanazor.
1010 Beginning of Civil War between rival claimants to the Caliphate of Cordova.
1031 After 20 years of war, the Moorish empire breaks up into "tarifs" (Taifas).
ALFONSO VI AND ALMORAVIDS
1035 Ramirez I establishes the Kingdom of Aragon.
1072 Alfonso VI becomes king of both Leon and Castile. Quarrels with El Cid.
1085 Alfonso VI captures the Moorish stronghold of Toledo and much of central Spain.
1086 Almoravids arrive in Spain, defeat Christians at Battle of Zalaka.
1094 Almoravides defeat Moorish princes and set up Emirate at Cordova.
1095 El Cid captures Valencia; rules over both Moorish, Christian subjects.
ALFONSO VIII AND ALMOHADS
1137 Catalonia united to the Crown of Aragon under Ramon of Aragon.
1139 Afonso Henriques defeats Yussef at Ourique, founds kingdom of Portugal.
1144 Alfonso of Leon defeats the Almohads at Cordova.
1184 Almohads defeat last of the Almoravids, make their capital at Seville.
1212 Alfonso VIII lead Christians to victory over Almohads at Las Navas de Tolosa.
JAMES I OF ARAGON AND ST. FERDINAND
1228 James of Aragon captures the Balearic Isles.
1236 St. Ferdinand captures Cordova, traditional Moorish stronghold .
1238 Kingdom of Granada founded by Mohammed Alhamar; pays tribute to Castile.
1248 St. Ferdinand captures Seville, Almohad capital.
1340 Spaniards defeats last invasion of African Moors at the Battle of Rio Salado.
SPANISH JEWS AND CONVERSOS
1212 Crusaders attack Jews of Castilian towns following victory at Navas de Tolosa
1250 Papal bull sets restrictions on Jewish activities. Requires distinctive dress.
1350 Favor shown to Jews by Pedro of Castile increases animosity and attacks.
1369 Pedro of Castile, patron of Jews, overthrown by half-brother Henry Trastamara.
1380 St. Vincent of Ferrer encourages thousands of Jews to convert to Christianity.
1391 Massacres of Spanish Jews starting in Seville. Thousands of deaths and forced conversions.
1391 Conversion of Solomon Ha-Levi, prominent Rabbi of Burgos, most powerful converso family in Castile.



United Spain—1350 to 1520

Trastamara Kings to Death of Ferdinand


AD YearEvent
UNION OF CASTILE AND ARAGON
1454-74 Corrupt reign Henry IV of Castile, older brother of Isabela.
1469 Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile.
1474 Death of Henry IV causes war of succession for throne of Castile.
1479 Victory of Isabella and Ferdinand over Joanne of Portugal for throne of Castile.
1476 Isabella establishes militia, Santa Hermendad, to return law and order to Castile.
1480 Isabel reforms finances and property taxes in Castile and pays off debts.
1491 Marriage of Isabel's daughter to Prince of Portugal ends with death of husband.
1496 Marriage of Joanna of Castile to Philip the Fair, Duke of Burgundy.
1497 Suspected poisoning death of Isabel's only son John, heir to the throne of Castile.
1498 Death of Isabel's eldest daughter following second marriage to king of Portugal.
1504 Death of Isabel.
1506 Second Marriage of Ferdinand to Navarre princess fails to produce heirs.
1512 Ferdinand conquers the greater part of Navarre.
1516 Death of Ferdinand; Hapsburg grandson Charles V inherits throne of Spain.
1516 Cardinal Ximenes serves as regent until Charles V comes of age.
FALL OF GRANADA
1482 Ferdinand of Aragon takes city of Alhama, begins conquest of Granada.
1487 Fall of Malaga, second largest city in Granda.
1492 Capital of Granada captured; Boabdil surrenders city to Isabel and Ferdinad.
1499 Most Moors in Granada convert to Christianity or face exile.
1509 Spanish forces under Ximenes take Moorish stronghold of Oran in Africa.
EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF HISPANIOLA
1486 Spanish monarchs reject proposals of Christopher Columbus but provide him with a pension.
1492 Isabella supports Columbus' expedition. West Indies discovered October 1492.
1493 Second Voyage. Seventeen ships, 1200 men, settlement on Hispaniola.
1498 Third Voyage ends in arrest. Bobadilla appointed governor.
1499 Alonso Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci explore coast of South America.
1502 Nicolas Ovando replaces Bobadilla, brutally 'pacifies' rebellions in Hispaniola.
1510 First Spanish colony on mainland established at Darien by Balboa.
1513 Vasco Nunez Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean
1513 Ponce de Leon searches for the fountain of youth, discovers Florida
SPANISH JEWS AND CONVERSOS
1369 Pedro of Castile, patron of Jews, overthrown by half-brother Henry Trastamara.
1380 St. Vincent of Ferrer encourages thousands of Jews to convert to Christianity.
1391 Massacres of Spanish Jews starting in Seville. Thousands of deaths and forced conversions.
1478 Spanish Inquisition established, independent of Roman influence.
1480 Ottoman sack of Otranto, massacre of Christians increases fear of treachery by false converts.
1483 Tomas Torquemada, a Franciscan of Jewish descent, named Grand Inquisitor.
1490 Ritual murder of 'Holy Child of La Guadia' enflames anti-Jewish sentiment.
1492 Spanish Jews forced to convert or face expusion.
1492 Conversion of Abraham Senior, Jewish advisor to Isabel and Ferdinand.
1492 Shepardi Jews settle in Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, and Ottoman domains.



Hapsburg Spain—1520 to 1700

Reign of Charles V to Last Spanish Hapsburg


AD YearEvent
REIGN OF CHARLES V
1516 Charles V ascends the throne of Spain.
1517 Protestant Reformation breaks out in Germany.
1521-1526 First Italian War against Francis I of France.
1526-1530 Italian War: League of Cognac, against France, Papal States, Venice.
1527     Charles V sacks Rome and imprisons the pope.
1521 Conquest of Aztecs in Mexico by Hernando Cortez.
1521 Diet of Worms—Lutheran doctrines condemned as heresy.
1525 Council of the Indies is established to govern American territories.
1529 Solyman leads a Turkish army against Vienna.
1532 Conquest of Incas in Peru by Francisco Pizarro.
1534 Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus.
1535 Charles V leads the Spanish navy to victory at the Conquest of Tunis.
1545 First Session of the Council of Trent.
1555 Peace of Augsburg—Lutheranism tolerated in Holy Roman Empire.
1556 Charles V abdicates all office and retires to Monastery at Yuste.
Hapsburg Empire divided between Philip II (Spain, Netherlands, New Spain), and Ferdinand (Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Holy Roman Empire).
REIGN OF PHILIP II
1556 Philip II ascends to the throne of Spain and Netherlands.
1560 Holy League naval fleet organized under Andrea Doria.
1562 Teresa of Avila begins reform of the Carmelite religious order.
1566 Spanish Treasure fleet to New Spain/Philippines sails on regular schedule.
1568 Beginning of the Revolt in the Netherlands
1569 Morisco rebellion in Catalonia put down by Don John of Austria.
1571 The Battle of Lepanto detroys the Ottoman fleet in the Mediterranean.
1579 Union of Utrecht—Northern Netherlands declare independence from Spain.
1580 After death of heirless king, Portugal is united under the Spanish Crown.
1584 William the Silent, Protestant patriot of the Netherlands is assassinated.
1588 Spanish Armada sent to invade England is defeated.
LATER HAPSBURGS (Philips III, IV, and Charles II)
1604 Anglo-Spanish War brought to end after death of Philip II and Elizageth I.
1605 Cervantes publishes Don Quixote
1609 Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain
1640 Catalonia allies with France, rebels from Spanish crown
1640 Portuguese usurper declared John IV; War of Portuguese independence.
1635-1659 Franco-Spanish War ends with Treaty of the Pyrenees.
1700 Death of Charles II, last Habsburg king of Spain
1700-14 War of the Spanish Succession: England, Austria, vs. French Bourbons.



Bourbon Spain—1700 to 1900

War of Spanish Succession to Spanish American War


AD YearEvent
18th CENTURY
1704 Loss of Gibralter to the British
1714 War of the Spanish Succession brought to a close, Philip V retains the throne
1718 Spain loses War of Quadruple alliance, surrenders Italian territories
1727 Spain fails to retake Gibralter during War with England
1740-48 Beginning War of the Austrian Succession
1754-63 Seven Year's War, Florida lost to Spain.
1759 Charles III ascends throne and attempts "modern" reforms.
1773 Suppression of the Jesuits
1778 Spain joins American Revolutionary War in order to fight against Britain.
1788 Spain falls under control of queen Maria Louisa and Emanuel Godoy.
NAPOLEONIC/REVOLUTIONARY ERA
1808 Napoleon over-runs Spain, initiates Peninsular War
1810 South American governments declare independence from Spain.
1814 Ferdinand VII is restored to the throne. Refuses liberal constitution.
1817 Much of South America lost to Spain after the Battle of Chacabuco
1820-23 Liberal coup d'etat briefly establishes a republican government
1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain.
1823 Peru and Ecuador win independence from Spain
19th CENTURY
1823 Ferdinand VII, supported by France, is restored to the throne.
1833-43 Carlist Wars, Traditionalists seeks to place Don Carlos on the throne
1835 Ecclesiastical confiscations—Monastic orders dissovled, property confiscated.
1843 Isabella II ascends to throne of Spain at age 13.
1846 Second Carlist War
1868 Isabella II deposed, exiled to France
1869 Liberal constituional monarchy attempted under Amedeus of Savoy
1873 First Spanish Republic attempted, collapsed almost immediately.
1874 Alfonso XII raised to the throne of Spain
1898 Spanish American War, Cuba and Philippines lost to Spain.
1931 Second Spanish Republic quickly descends into anarchy.
1936-39 Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War



New Spain—1520 to 1820

Conquest of Mexico to Grito de Dolores


AD YearEvent
EARLY SPANISH EXPLORATION
1492 First voyage of Columbus to the Americas. New World claimed for Spain.
1513 Vasco Nunez Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean
1519 Ferdinand Magellan embarks on first round-the-world voyage.
1521 Hernando Cortez conquers Mexico for Spain. Rules as governor for six years.
1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers Incan Empire, Silver and Gold Mines found.
1540-42 Explorations of Francisco de Coronado in American Southwest.
1541 Hernando De Soto explores much of the Southeast U.S., discovers the Mississippi.
1551 St. Augustine, first permanent settlement in North America, founded by Pedro Menendez.
EARLY VICEROYS AND MISSIONARIES
1523 Pedro Gante , cousin of Charles V, founds first school for natives in Mexico.
1524 Cortez invites Franciscan Twelve Apostles of Mexico to convert the natives.
1525 Council of the Indies is established to govern American territories.
1527 Nuno de Guzman leads 1st Audiencia to Spain, abuses allies of Cortes.
1529 Toribio Motolinia , missionary to Nuhuas, wrote their history, converted 1000's of natives to Christianity.
1530 Juan de Zumarraga appointed first Archbishop of Mexico.
1531 Vasco de Quiroga heads 2nd Audience, deposes Guzman, protects Indians.
1532-50 Antonio de Mendoza appointed First Viceroy of Mexico.
1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers Peru — Silver and Gold Mines found, Adventurers flock to Peru.
1536 Vasco de Quiroga bishop of Michoacan, served 30 years, built schools, hospitals for natives.
1536 Bernardino de Sahagun founds first college in Mexico, works 50 years on Aztec history with the help of native scholars.
1542 New Laws for the Protection of the Indians promulgated by Charles V.
1547 Andres de Olmos , missionary linguist, wrote Aztec grammar, translated Catechism.
1551 First Universities: University of San Marcos in Lima, University of Mexico in New Spain.
1584 Pedro Contreras served as Archbishop of New Spain, Viceroy, and Inquisitor General. Protector of the Indians.
1585 Bernardino de Sahagun publishes history of the Aztecs, also known as the Florentine Codex: .
SPANISH GALLEONS AND FREEBOOTERS
1565 First permanent Spanish settlement in Philippines established in Cebu.
1566 Spanish Treasure fleet to New Spain/Philippines sails on regular schedule.
1578 Francis Drake and other Privateers begin attacks on Spanish treasure ships.
1655 Great Britain conquers Island of Jamaica and makes it a haven for Pirates.
1671 Henry Morgan and band of pirates sack and loot Panama City.
BOURBON 'REFORMS'
1713 Begin 'Bourbon reforms' to intended strengthen monarchial control of colonies and increase revenues: Reduce influence of the clergy and native-born officials, raise taxes, and enforce monopolies.
1738 War of Jenkin's Ear with Britain. Britain presses rights to slave trade in America.
1763 Spain cedes Florida to Britain for return of Cuba after Seven Years War.
1768 Jesuits expelled from Mexico, leaving missions unattended.
1769 Junipero Serra founds over a dozen missions in California.
EARLY MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
1808 Overthrow of Spanish king by Napoloen, Peninsular war, incites desire for Mexican 'Independence'.
1810 Grito de Delores. First pro-Independence movement in Mexico led by Freemason/priest Miguel Hidalgo.
1814 Ferdinand VII restored to the Spanish throne. Independence movement looses steam.
1820-22 Liberal Coup in Spain overthrows monarchy, Ferdinand VII imprisoned.
1821 Traditionalists unite under Augustin Iturbide to break ties with 'Liberal' Spain.



Mexico—1820 to 1930

Mexican Independence to Cristeros War


AD YearEvent
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE
The popular movement for Mexican 'Independence' was in all cases a reaction AGAINST Republican/Liberal governments in Spain that usurped the legitimate monarchy. Popular sentiment in both Spain and American colonies was strongly anti-republican.
1808 Overthrow of Spanish king by Napoloen leads to Peninsular War in Spain.
1810 Miguel Hidalgo leads revolt against Napoleonic government of Spain.
1814 Restoration of Ferdinand VII puts a stop to independence movement.
1820-23 Military coup in Spain installs unpopular liberal government.
1822 Spanish general Agustin Iturbide leads revolt against Liberal usurpers.
1823 Iturbide proclaimed emperor, then overthrown by republican conspirators.
1823 Monroe Doctrine proclaimed AFTER collapse of Liberal government in Spain to PREVENT return to monarchy favored by most of population.
EARLY REPUBLIC
From the beginning the Mexican government was run by rival Freemason lodges. American-backed Yorkists were radicals who sought to weaken central government and create chaos so that Americans could confiscate Mexican territory. The Scottish rite 'conservatives' wanted to retain central control so they could pillage Mexican property and enrich themselves. Neither side had popular support.
1824 'Federal' Constitution of 1824 cedes much control to regional governments. Guadalupe Victoria elected President.
1827 Spanish peninsulares and prominent monarchists expelled from Mexico.
1829 With backing by 'Yorkists' (American-backed radical criminals), Vincente Guerrero, forces resignation of 'Scottish-Rite' (conventional-conservative criminals) president-elect and seizes control of government .
1829-33 Government in chaos, presidency changes hands nine times during second 4 year term.
1833 Santa Anna gains control of presidency, enacts 'Seven Laws' to strengthen central government.
1836 Texas declares independence, defeats Santa Anna at Battle of San Jacinto.
1846 Mexican American War provoked by border skirmishes. Americans win resounding victories.
1848 United States invades Mexican capital and forces Mexico cessession of northern provinces.
1849 Gold is discovered in California the same month territory ceded to U.S.A. Amazing coincidence!!!
'REFORM' ERA
The 'Reform Era' began when Juan Alvarez, a military dictator and murderous thug marched with an army into Mexico city, terrorized the population, and physically took possession of the offices of Government. He installed his liberal cronies, passed radical measures dispossessing his rivals, and called a constitutional convention, under control of his puppet-masters. He then resigned in favor of Juarez, his hand-picked replacement.
1855 Juarez and Alvarez the organize 'Plan of Ayutla': a Liberal overthrow of Santa Anna's 'Conservative' government.
1857 Liberals enact 'Constitution of 1857' including controversial anti-clerical measures confiscating Church and common property.
1857-61 United States intervenes in 'War of Reform' on behalf of liberals.
1861 Benito Juarez elected President, cancels payment on national debt.
1862 French Intervention on behalf of conservatives, installs Maximilian I as Emperor of Mexico.
1867 Maximilian of Austria is tried for treason and shot. Juarez returns to power.
1876-1911 Reign of Porfirio Diaz; Mexico stable and at peace under autocratic leaders.
MEXICAN REVOLUTION
1910 Diaz legalizes political parties, allows opposition to run for President, then rigs election.
1911 Francisco Madero, backed by "Constitutionalist party" overthrows Diaz.
1913 Victoriana Huerta, leader of "Federalist party" and ally of Diaz assumes control of government.
1914 Carranza, constitutionalist leader, overthrows Huerta with help of U.S. Navy.
1917 Liberal constitution of 1917 is so anti-clerical, even Carranza refuses to enforce.
1924 Atheist Plutarco Calles elected president, brutally enforce anti-Clerical laws.
1926-29 Cristero War: Catholics revolt against brutal oppressions of priests and Church closings.
1929 Calles forms of PRI (Mexican National Party)



South America—1525 to 1921

Conquests of Pizarro to Early 20th Century


AD YearEvent
PERU, COLUMBIA, VENEZUELA
1532 Pizzaro and Almagro conquer Peru
1542 Bartholomew de Casas promotes better treatment of Native Americans
1572 Tupac Amaru leads the last Incan revolt against the Spaniards
1640 Dutch take control of Northern Brazil; Found Guyana
1697 Mayans defeated by the Spaniards
1767 Jesuits expelled from Latin America
1799 Humboldt explores Mexico and South America
1797-1814 Napoleonic Wars in Europe disrupt governments of Latin America
1811 Venezuela, led by Miranda, declares its independence from Spain
1812 Earthquake in Caracus destroys popular support for independence
1825 Bolivia declares its independence from Spain
ARGENTINA, CHILE
1580 Buenos Aires established as primary port on Pacific
1609 Jesuit "reductions" in Paraguay founded
1816 Argentina declares its independence
1818 Chile declares its independence
1822 San Martin and Bolivar meet in Guayaguil
1879-84 Chile defeats Peru and BOlivia in the War of the Pacific
1864-70 War of the Triple Alliance; Paraguay is defeated
BRAZIL
1500 Brazil discovered and claimed for Portugal by Cabral
1808 Monarchs of Portugal move their capital to Rio de Janiero
1816-31 Reign of Dom Pedro I of Brazil; Brazil declares independence in 1822
1840 Pedro II becames the head of a constitutional monarchy in Brazil
1889 Overthrow of Dom Pedro II by Brazilian military
CARIBBEAN
1804 Slave revolt in Haiti expells the Europeans