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Wars and Battles of Medieval Europe

Red link for War summary. Light Blue for Battles.
Based on Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles, 1904.

Printable version HERE.

Wars of the Middle Ages
Fall of the Western Empire 773-843    Battles      
Wars of Charlemagne 773-843    Battles      
German Magyar Wars 900-934    Battles      
Norman Conquests 1066-1106    Battles      
Anglo French Wars 1119-1214     Battles      
Flemish Wars 1302-1382    Battles      
Wars of the Guelfs and Ghibellines 1260-1289    Battles      
Venetian Wars 1352-1512    Battles      
Wars of the Swiss Confederacy 1315-1515    Battles      
Hundred Years War 1340-1453     Battles      
Burgundian Wars 1466-1477    Battles      
Hussite War 1422-1431    Battles      
Reformation Era Wars
Wars of Italy 1512-1558     Battles      
Reformation Wars in Germany 1525-1553    Battles      
French Religious Wars 1562-1587    Battles      
Netherlands War of Independence 1566-1601    Battles      
Thirty Years War 1526-1547    Battles      
Wars of Louis XIV 1640-1693    Battles      
Franco Spanish War 1649-1656    Battles      
Anglo Dutch Wars 1652-1672     Battles      
Wars Against Mohammedism
Moorish Conquest of Spain 711-732    Battles      
Crusades 1047-1291    Battles      
Barbary Pirate Wars 1500-1830    Battles      
Ottoman Conquest of Balkans 1329-1566    Battles      
Decline of Ottoman Empire 1687-1739    Battles      

Fall of the Western Empire — 402 to 476     to top

Wars relating to the fall of the Western Empire



DateBattle Summary
447  
Battle of Utus (Hun Invasion ) Huns victory
This engagement was actually three battles: one on the banks of the Utus, another under the walls of Marcianopolis, and the third, near Chersonesus of Thrace; Although Attila suffered enormous losses, he annihilated the Eastern Army and acquired possession of the field. From the Hellespont to Thermopylae, and the suburbs of Constantinople, he ravaged, without resistance, and without mercy, the provinces of Thrace and Macedonia.
  
451  
Battle of Châlons (Hun Invasion ) Romans-Goths victory
Fought 451 between the Romans and the Visigoths under Aetius and Theodoric respectively, and the Huns under Attila. The battle was fought on an open plain, and while the right and centre of the allies withstood Attila's onslaught, the Visigoths on the left made a furious charge, in which Theodoric fell, and totally routed the right of the Huns. Attila then withdrew to his camp, having suffered heavy loss, and prepared to resist the attack of the allies on the following day. Aetius, however, did not renew the conflict, and allowed Attila to retreat unmolested.
  
454  
Battle of Nedao (Ricimer's Rebellion-Bergundians ) Germans victory
Fought 454 after the death of Attila the Hun, between the Germanic tribes previously subject to the Huns, under the Ostrogoth Theodemir, and Ardaric, and the Hunnic forces under King Ellac. The sons of Attila were themselves at war with each other, and were routed. The influence of the Huns over most of German territory collapsed immediately.
  
472  
Siege of Rome (Flemish War ) Burgundians victory
The rebel Count Ricimer, with a large army of Burgundians, Suevi and other barbarians, laid siege to Rome in 472, and after a defense of three months the besiegers entered the city by storming the Bridge of Hadrian, and sacked it.
  

Wars of Charlemagne — 773 to 843     to top

Wars of Charlemagne and the Carolingians.



DateBattle Summary
773  
Siege of Pavia (Conquest of Lombardy ) Franks victory
This city, the capital of the Lombards, was besieged in September 773 by Charlemagne and his Franks. The Franks brought no siege engines over the pass, and contented themselves to starve the city into submission. The Lombards hoped for relief, but after then months, when no significant attempt to relieve the siege had been made, the town surrendered peaceably. Charlemagne was thereafter known as king of the Franks and Lombards.
  
778  
Battle of Roncesvalles (Spanish Campaign ) Basques victory
Fought 778 between the Franks, under Charlemagne, and the Basques and Gascons, under Loup II. The army of Charlemagne, retreating from Spain, was caught in the defile of Roncesvalles, in the Pyrenees, and the rearguard was totally annihilated, among those who fell being the famous Paladin, Roland.
  

German Magyar Wars — 900 to 934     to top

Holy Roman Emperor drives the Magyars out of German territory.



DateBattle Summary
900  
Battle of Augsburg   Magyars victory
Fought 900, between the Germans and the invading Hungarians. The Christians fought gallantly, but were overwhelmed by the numbers of the barbarian cavalry, and in the end suffered a signal defeat.
  
934  
Battle of Merseburg (Peasants' War ) Germans victory
Fought 934 between the Germans, under Henry the Fowler, and the Hungarian invaders. The Hungarians were completely defeated, with heavy loss, and withdrew from Germany, which they did not again invade for twenty years.
  

Norman Conquests — 1066 to 1106     to top

Rise of the French Normans and their Conquests in Italy and Britain.



DateBattle Summary
887  
Battle of Montfaucon (Invasion of France ) French victory
Fought 887, between the French, under Eudes, and the Norman invaders. The latter were totally defeated, losing 19,000 men in the battle, and were forced to retire from before the walls of Paris, which they were besieging.
  
896  
Battle of Dyle (Invasion of Italy ) Germans victory
Fought 896, between the Norman invaders, and the Germans under Arnulph, Emperor of Germany, The Normans were totally routed with enormous loss.
  
1047  
Battle of Val-ès-Dunes (First Rebellion ) Normans victory
Fought 1047, between the Normans, under William of Normandy, with aid from Henri I of France, and the rebel Norman Barons. The rebels were totally defeated.
  
1058  
Battle of Varaville (Invasion of England ) Normans victory
Fought 1058, between the Normans, under William of Normandy, and the French and Angevins, under Henri I of France. The Normans gained a complete victory, and the French king shortly afterwards made peace.
  
1080  
Battle of Gerberoi (Third Rebellion ) Normans victory
Fought in 1080, between the troops of William the Conqueror, and those of his son Robert, who claimed the Dukedom of Normandy, and was receiving aid from Philip I of France. Robert was defeated and made prisoner, and, obtaining his father's forgiveness, resigned his claim to the Dukedom.
  
1106  
Battle of Tenchebrai (Maori War ) English Normans victory
Fought September 28, 1106, between the English, under Henry I, and the Normans, under Robert of Normandy, Henry's brother. Robert was totally defeated and made prisoner, and Henry annexed Normandy to the crown of England.
  
1066  
Battle of Hastings (Invasion of France ) Normans victory
Fought October 14, 1066, a fortnight after the landing of William the Conqueror. The English, under Harold, fought entirely on the defensive, at first with success, but were at last lured from their position by a feigned flight of the Normans, and were then totally routed. Harold was among the fallen. This battle is also known as the Battle of Senlac.
  
1053  
Battle of Civitella (Invasion of Italy ) Normans victory
Fought Jun 18, 1053, when 3,000 Normans under Robert Guiscard assailed and totally routed a miscellaneous force of Germans and Italians under Pope Leo IX. Only the Germans offered any serious resistance, but they were cut down to a man, and the Pope was overtaken in his flight and captured.
  
1081  
Siege of Durazzo (Invasion of Italy ) Normans victory
This fortress, which was defended by a garrison of Greeks and Macedonians under George Palaeologus, was besieged by the Normans, under Robert Guiscard, July 17, 1081. On October 18, the besiegers, now reduced to 18,000, were attacked by a force of about 75,000 Greeks, under Alexius Cornnenus, and after a terrible struggle, in which the Normans were almost overpowered, the victory rested with Guiscard. The Greeks lost about 6,000. On the Norman side, the Italian auxiliaries suffered heavily, but only 20 Norman knights were killed. Notwithstanding this disaster, the city still held out, and it was not till February 8, 1082, that a night surprise rendered the Normans masters of the place.
  
1082  
Siege of Rome (Second Rebellion ) Normans victory
In the course of dispute with Pope Gregory VII, who had refused to recognize him as emperor, Henry III of Germany laid siege to Rome in 1082. After two interruptions to the siege, the city was finally surrendered to him by the Roman nobles, March, 1084. Gregory was deposed, and the anti-Pope Clement III set upon the pontifical throne, Henry at the same time assuming the Imperial purple. Gregory had employed a Norman mercenary, Robert Guiscard, to expel the Germans, but instead he sacked the city.
  

Anglo French Wars — 1119 to 1214     to top

Miscellaneous Wars between France and England



DateBattle Summary
1119  
Battle of Brenneville (Louis VI ) English victory
Fought August 20, 1119, between a small body of English cavalry under Henry I, and a similar French force under Louis VI. Though only about 900 men were engaged, and very few killed, the fight was considered a decisive victory for the English, and Louis shortly afterwards made peace, conceding Henry's terms.
  
1194  
Battle of Freteval (Philip Augustus ) English victory
Fought 1194, between the English under Richard Coeur de Lion, and the French under Philip Augustus. Richard gained a complete victory.
  
1213  
Battle of Damme (Philip Augustus ) English victory
Fought April, 1213, when an English fleet of 500 vessels under the Earl of Salisbury attacked and dispersed a large fleet of French ships designed to support Philip Augustus' invasion of Flanders. The English captured 300 and burnt too vessels, and Philip Augustus was forced to abandon his design.
  
1214  
Battle of Bouvines (Philip Augustus ) French victory
Fought 1214 between the French under Philip Augustus, and the Germans, Flemish and English under Otho IV, the numbers engaged on both sides being considerable. The French gained a signal victory, which broke up the coalition and rendered the position of Philip Augustus secure on the throne of France.
  
1274  
Battle of Châlons (French-English Tournament catastrophe ) English victory
Arising out of a tournament in 1274, in which the life of Edward I was endangered by foul play, a fight in earnest took place between the English and French knights present. The French were worsted, and a considerable number slain. This fight is called the "Little" Battle of Chalons.
  

Flemish Wars — 1302 to 1382     to top

Fourteenth century wars wherein Flanders fought for and lost its independence from France.



DateBattle Summary
No Battle information for Battle id = puelle
1302  
Battle of Ziezicksee (Flemish War ) French victory
Fought 1302, when the Genoese galleys, in the service of Philip IV of France, under Grimaldi and Filipo di Rieti, utterly destroyed the Flemish fleet.
  
1302  
Battle of Courtrai (Flemish-French Wars ) Flemings victory
Fought 1302, between the French under Robert d'Artois, and the Flemings under Guy de Namur. The French were utterly routed, and so great was the carnage among the French nobility and knighthood, that after the battle 4,000, some say 7,000, gilt spurs, were hung up as trophies in Courtrai cathedral. From this circumstance this battle is commonly known as the Battle of the Spurs.
  
1382  
Battle of Rosbecque   French victory
Fought 1382 between 50,000 Flemings, under Philip van Arteveldt, and the French, under Charles VI. The Flemings at first drove back the French, but were overwhelmed by the charges of the French cavalry on their flanks, and were in the end utterly routed. Thousands fell in the action and subsequent pursuit, amongst them van Arteveldt.
  

Wars of the Guelfs and Ghibellines — 1260 to 1289     to top

Civil wars in Italy and Germany between those who backed the popes' right to appoint bishops and those who backed the Emperors.



DateBattle Summary
1176  
Battle of Legnano   Lombards victory
Fought May 29, 1176, between the Lombard League, aided by Venice and the Pope, and the Imperialists, under Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick was utterly routed, and fled from Italy in disguise.
  
1237  
Battle of Corte Nuova   Ghibellines victory
Fought 1237, between the Imperialists under Frederick II, and the Lombard Guelfs under the leadership of the Milanese. Frederick won a signal victory, capturing the carroccio of Milan.
  
1260  
Battle of Monte Aperto   Ghibellines victory
Fought September 4, 1260, between the Florentine Guelfs, and the Ghibellines, who had been driven from the city, under Manfred of Sicily. The Guelfs were totally routed, and the victors took possession of Florence, and re-established their rule.
  
1268  
Battle of Tagliacozzo   Guelfs victory
Fought 1268, between the Guelf party, under Charles of Anjou, the usurper of the throne of Naples, and the Ghibellines, under Conradin, the rightful heir, and Frederick, Duke of Austria. The Ghibellines were utterly routed, and their leaders, including Conradin and the Duke, captured and beheaded.
  
1289  
Battle of Campaldino   Guelfs victory
Fought June 11, 1289, between the Guelfs of Florence and the Ghibellines who had been expelled from the city. The latter were utterly routed, and this defeat put an end to their power in Florence. The battle is notable for the presence of Dante in the ranks of the victors.
  
1325  
Battle of Alto Pascio   Ghibellines victory
Fought 1325, between the Ghibellines under Castruccio Castracane of Lucca, and the Florentine Guelfs. The Florentines were defeated with heavy loss, among the trophies taken by Castracane being the carroccio of Florence.
  

Venetian Wars — 1352 to 1512     to top

Wars between Venice and Genoa for control of trade in the Mediterranean.



DateBattle Summary
1352  
Battle of Constantinople (War of Chiozza ) Genoese victory
A naval action fought February 13, 1352, between 64 Genoese galleys under Doria, and 75 Greek and Venetian galleys under Pisani. The Genoese were victorious, taking or sinking 26 galleys, and forcing Pisani to retire into the fortified harbour. The Genoese lost 13 galleys.
  
1378  
Battle of Antium (War of Chiozza ) Venetians victory
Fought May 30, 1378, when Vittorio Pisani, with 14 Venetian galleys, defeated the Genoese fleet under Fieschi. The Genoese lost 6 ships, and Fieschi was taken prisoner.
  
1380  
Battle of Pola (War of Chiozza ) Genoese victory
Fought 1380, when Doria, with 22 Genoese galleys, offered battle to the Venetian fleet, under Pisani, which was lying at Pola. Pisani sallied out with 20 galleys, and captured the Genoese flagship, Doria being killed. The Genoese, however, rallied, drove Pisani back, and defeated hint with a loss of 2,000 killed, and 15 galleys and 1,900 men captured.
  
1380  
Siege of Chiozza   Venetians victory
This city, which had been captured by the Genoese from Venice, was besieged by the Venetians under Pisani and defended by Maria, who was killed during the siege. The place made an obstinate resistance, but was forced to surrender June 24, 1380, the Venetians capturing 19 Genoese galleys and 4,000 prisoners. This disaster broke the power of the Genoese Republic for many years.
  
1427  
Battle of Macalo   Venetians victory
Fought October 11, 1427, when the Venetians, under Carmagnola, in a strong position near Macalo, were attacked by the Milanese, under Malatesta. The Venetians repulsed the attack, and assuming the offensive, surrounded Malatesta, and compelled him to surrender with his whole force, numbering about 10,000 men.
  
1431  
Battle of Pavia (Dano Civil War ) Milanese victory
Fought May 22, 1431, on the Ticino, near Pavia, between 85 Venetian galleys, under Nicolas Trevisani, and a somewhat superior number of galleys in the pay of the Milanese. The Venetians were defeated, with a loss of 70 galleys and 3,000 men.
  

Wars of the Swiss Confederacy — 1315 to 1515     to top

Switzerland won its independence although remaining nominally part of the Austrian Empire.



DateBattle Summary
1339  
Battle of Laupen (Invasion of the Guglers ) Swiss victory
Fought June 21, 1339, between 5,000 Swiss of Berne and the Forest Cantons, under Rudolf von Erlach, and 15,000 Burgundians, under the Counts of Kiburg and Nidau. Despite their superior numbers, the Burgundians were unable to withstand the charge of the Swiss, and were utterly routed and forced to raise the siege of Laupen.
  
1376  
Battle of Fraubrunnen (Swabian ) Bernese victory
Fought January, 1376, between the Bernese, and the "Guglers," French and English mercenaries, under Baron Ingelram von Coucy, who claimed the Canton of Aargau in right of his mother. The "Guglers were totally routed, and compelled to retire from Switzerland.
  
1499  
Battle of the Calven (Swabian ) Swiss victory
Fought March 22, 1499, between 6,300 men of the Grisons under Benedict Fontana, and 15,000 Imperialists under Maximilian I. The Swiss carried the Austrian entrenchments, and drove them out with heavy loss.
  
1499  
Battle of Frastenz (Swiss-Austrian War-First ) Swiss victory
Fought April 20, 1499, when the Swiss, under Heinrich Wolleb, attacked the Austrians who occupied a strongly entrenched position, and drove them out with a loss of 3,000 killed. Wolleb, who led the charge, was the first to fall on the Swiss side.
  
1315  
Battle of Morgarten (War of Kappel-Second ) Swiss victory
Fought November 16, 1315. The men of Schwyz, 1,400 in number, took post in the Pass of Morgarten, and lay in wait for the Archduke Leopold, who, with 15,000 Austrians, was marching into Schwyz. Having disordered the Austrian ranks by rolling down boulders upon them, the Swiss then fell upon them with their halberds, and totally routed them, with a loss of 1,500 killed.
  
1531  
Battle of Kappel (War of Kiburg ) Catholics victory
Fought October 10, 1531, between the army of the Swiss Catholic Cantons, 8,000 strong, and 1,300 Zurichers, under George Goldli, reinforced later in the day by a similar number under Rudolf Lavater. Goldli attacked in defiance of orders, and was totally defeated, among those who fell being Zwingli.
  
1388  
Battle of Naefels (War of Sempach ) Swiss victory
Fought April 9, 1388, between 6,000 Austrians, under Tockenburg, and 500 men of Glarus with a few Schwyzers. The Swiss were driven from their first position behind the "Letzi" at the entrance to the valley, but, retiring to the heights of the Rauhberg, disordered the advancing columns by rolling boulders upon them, and, then attacking, utterly routed them. The Austrians lost 80 knights and 2,000 soldiers.
  
1386  
Battle of Sempach (War of the League Above the Lake ) Swiss victory
Fought July 9, 1386, between 6,000 Austrians, under Duke Leopold, and 1,500 Swiss Confederates. The Swiss gained a complete victory, the Austrians losing 1,500 killed and wounded, while only 120 Swiss fell. The battle is celebrated for the heroic action of Arnold von Winkelried, who broke the line of the Austrian spearmen at the cost of his life, and enabled his followers to penetrate their phalanx.
  
1408  
Battle of Bregenz (War of the Sonderbund ) Constances victory
Fought January 1408, between the troops of the League Above the Lake and the burghers of Constance, aided by the Suabian nobles. The Leaguers were totally routed, with the result that the League was shortly afterwards dissolved.
  
1847  
Battle of Gislikon   Federals victory
Fought November 23, 1847, when the Federals, under General Dufour, attacked the troops of the Sonderbund, under Colonel Salis-Soglio, strongly posted at Gislikon, near Lake Zug, and drove them from their position. The losses were very small. On the following day the Federals entered Lucerne, and the Civil War, which had lasted 20 days only, came to an end.
  
1402  
Battle of Vögelinseck (Bactrian Campaign ) Swiss victory
Fought May 15, 1402, between 5,000 troops, of the Swiss Imperial towns, and 900 rebels of Appenzel and Schwyz. After a brief engagement, the rebels were driven from the field, with a loss of 250 men.
  

Hundred Years War — 1340 to 1453     to top

The Plantagenet claim to the French crown sparks a long term conflict between England and France.



DateBattle Summary
1340  
Battle of Sluys (Edwardian ) English victory
Fought June 24, 1340, when the English fleet of 250 sail, under Sir Robert Morley and Richard Fitzalan, attacked the French fleet of about 200 sail, under Hugues Quieret, lying in Sluys Harbour. Practically the whole of the French fleet was captured or destroyed, and Quieret was killed. The French lost 25,000 men, the English 4,000.
  
1340  
Battle of L'Ecluse (Edwardian ) English victory
Fought 1340, when the English fleet surprised the French in a narrow channel, and totally routed them, with a loss of 90 ships and 30,000 men.
  
1346  
Battle of Cressy (Edwardian ) English victory
Fought August 26, 1346, when a very inferior force of English under Edward III defeated the French under Philip VI. The battle is notable as being the first in which the English army was mainly composed of infantry, and as proving the powerlessness of mounted men against the English archers. The French losses were 11 princes, 1,200 knights, and 30,000 of lesser ranks, a total exceeding the whole English force.
  
1346  
Siege of Calais (Edwardian ) English victory
Siege was laid to this fortress in August 1346 by the English under Edward III. The citizens made a gallant defense, holding out for nearly a year, but at last were forced to surrender August 4, 1347. In the course of the siege, six burgesses offered themselves to the king as ransom for their fellow citizens; but their lives were spared on the intercession of Queen Philippa.
  
1347  
Siege of Aiguillon (Edwardian ) English victory
This fortress was besieged by the French under John, Duke of Normandy, in May, 1347, and was defended by a small English garrison under Sir Walter Manny, who held out bravely till the end of August, repelling numerous assaults. The defeat of Cressy then forced the Duke of Normandy to lead his army northward, and he was compelled to raise the siege.
  
1347  
Battle of Crotoye (Edwardian ) English victory
Fought 1347, during the siege of Calais by Edward III. The French fleet attempted to relieve the town, but was defeated and driven off with heavy loss by the English fleet.
  
1356  
Battle of Poitiers (Edwardian ) English victory
Fought September 19, 1356, between 8,000 English, under Edward the Black Prince, and 80,000 French, under King John of France. The English occupied a strong position behind lanes and vineyards, in which their archers were posted. The French cavalry, charging up the lanes, were thrown into confusion by the bowmen, and were then taken in flank by the English knights and men-at-arms, who completely routed them, with a loss of 8,000 killed, and numerous prisoners, including the King, The English losses were very small.
  
1357  
Battle of Cadsand (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought November 10, 1357, between 2,500 English under the Earl of Derby, and 5,000 Flemings in the French service. The Flemings were defeated with a loss of 1,000 men.
  
1364  
Battle of Auray (Caroline ) English(Montfort) victory
Fought September 27, 1364, between the partisans of John de Montfort, and those of Charles of Blois, the rival claimants to the Dukedom of Brittany. The English party, under Sir John Chandos, were besieging Auray, when they were attacked by the French, who were led by Bertrand du Guesclin. Chandos' position, however, was very strong, and the French were unable to make any impression upon it. Meanwhile they were thrown into utter confusion by an attack on their flank, and were ultimately routed, with heavy loss, Charles of Blois being among the slain. Bertrand du Guesclin was captured. De Montfort was shortly afterwards acknowledged by Charles V of France as Duke of Brittany.
  
1364  
Battle of Cockerel (Caroline ) French victory
Fought May, 1364, between the Navarrese under Jean de Grailli, aided by a force of English mercenaries under John Joel, and the French, 10,000 strong, under Bertrand du Guesclin. Du Guesclin, who was executing a strategic retreat, was attacked by the English, who were surrounded and overpowered, Joel falling. De Grailli came to their aid, but was also overwhelmed and made prisoner, and the Navarrese, deprived of their leaders, laid down their arms.
  
1367  
Battle of Navarrete (Pedro the Cruel ) English(Pedro) victory
Fought April 3, 1367, between 24,000 English, under Edward the Black Prince, and 60,000 French and Spaniards, under Bertrand du Guesclin and Henry de Trastamare. The English, mainly owing to the skill of their archers, completely defeated their opponents, with heavy loss, du Guesclin being made prisoner. This battle is also known as the Battle of Najara.
  
1370  
Battle of Pont Valain (Caroline ) French victory
Fought 1370, between the French, under du Guesclin, and the English, under Sir Thomas Granson. The French surprised the English camp, but the English rallied, and a severe conflict followed, in which the French attack was at first repulsed. A flank movement of the French, however, threw the English into disorder, and they were defeated with a loss of nearly 10,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners, among the latter being Sir Thomas Granson.
  
1372  
Battle of La Rochelle (Caroline ) Spanish victory
Fought June 22, 1372, when an English fleet, under the Earl of Pembroke, intended for the relief of La Rochelle, was intercepted by a greatly superior Spanish fleet, under Don Ambrosio Bercenegra, and after very hard fighting was entirely destroyed or captured.
  
1372  
Siege of Chizai (Caroline ) French victory
Fought July 1372, between the French under Du Guesclin, and the English under Thomas Hampton. Du Guesclin, who was engaged in the siege of Chizai, was attacked by the English, in about equal force to his own, and, after a long and bloody engagement, totally defeated them, and captured the town. The reverse cost Edward III Saintonge and Poitou.
  
1380  
Siege of Châteauneuf-Raudon (Edwardian ) French victory
This fortress was besieged 1380 by the French under Du Guesclin, and was defended by an English garrison under de Ros. After an obstinate defense the town surrendered, July 4, but the siege was fatal to Du Guesclin, who succumbed to his fatigues and privations.
  
1415  
Battle of Agincourt (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought October 25, 1415, between the French, numbering 50,000, under the Constable d'Albret, and about 15,000 English, mostly archers, under Henry V. The archers protected their front with a palisade of stakes, which broke the charge of the French men-at-arms, and the French army was routed with a loss of 10,000 slain, including the Constable and the Dukes of Alençon, Brabant and Bar, and 15,000 prisoners, including the Duke of Orleans and Marshal Boucicaut. The English lost only 1,600, among whom were the Duke of York and the Earl of Oxford.
  
1416  
Battle of Seine Mouth (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought August 15, 1416, when the English fleet, under Bedford, sailed into the Seine with the object of revictualling Harfleur, which the French were besieging. The blockading force, consisting of 8 large Genoese carracks, besides smaller vessels, attacked the English fleet, and after six hours' hard fighting were totally defeated, with a loss of 5 carracks and 5 other ships, while Bedford succeeded in throwing supplies into the town.
  
1418  
Siege of Rouen (Lancastrian ) English victory
This city was besieged 1418, by the English, under Henry V. After a gallant defense the garrison surrendered January 15, 1419, the city paying a ransom of 300,000 crowns.
  
1421  
Battle of Beaugé (Lancastrian ) French victory
Fought March 22, 1421, between the English under the Duke of Clarence, and the Armagnacs, aided by the Scottish mercenaries, resulting in one of the few defeats sustained by the English during the French wars. The Duke and his immediate following, charging ahead of his troops, vigorously attacked the Scottish outposts, and, becoming separated from the main body, was surrounded and slain, all his gentlemen being either killed or captured. The bodies were afterwards recovered by the English archers, but the defeat was complete.
  
1423  
Battle of Cravant (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought July 31, 1423. A force of Armagnacs under Buchan, Constable of France, with some Scottish mercenaries under Sir John Stewart, was advancing upon Craonne, the capture of which town would secure Charles VIIs communications with Champagne. They were attacked by the Burgundians and English under the Earl of Salisbury, and defeated with heavy loss. Both Buchan and Stewart were captured.
  
1424  
Battle of Verneuil (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought August 18, 1424, between 3,000 English, under the Duke of Bedford, and 18,000 French and Scots, under the Constable Buchan and the Earl of Douglas. The men-at-arms on both sides fought dismounted, but the French could make no impression upon the English archers, who were protected by a barricade of stakes, and in the end were utterly routed, leaving over 4,000 dead on the field, among them Buchan and Douglas. The Duc d'Alencon was taken prisoner.
  
1428  
Siege of Orleans (Lancastrian ) French victory
This city was besieged by the English, under the Regent, the Duke of Bedford, in October, 1428. In April, 1429, a French force, 7,000 strong, under Dunois and Joan of Arc, succeeded in entering, it having been found impossible to invest the place completely. After various successful attacks on the batteries erected by the besiegers, Joan, on the 6th and 7th of May, led the garrison to victory against the English lines, and on the 8th Bedford was compelled to raise the siege.
  
1429  
Battle of The Herrings (Lancastrian ) English victory
Fought at Roncray-St.-Denis, February 12, 1429. Sir John Fastolfe was in charge of a convoy of salt fish for the English army before Orleans, and hearing of the approach of a French force, under the Bastard of Orleans, intrenched himself at Roncray. Here the French attacked him, and were repulsed with heavy loss, the Bastard being severely wounded.
  
1429  
Battle of Patay (Lancastrian ) French victory
Fought June 18, 1429, between the French, under Joan of Arc and the Duc d'Alenpon, and the English, under Talbot and Sir John Fastolfe. The English were retiring after the siege of Orleans, and their advanced guard under Talbot, being attacked by the French, was seized with a panic, and refusing to meet the charge of the French cavalry, broke and fled. The main body, under Fastolfe, however, maintained its formation, and made good its retreat to Etampes. Talbot was made prisoner.
  
1450  
Battle of Formigny (Lancastrian ) French victory
Fought April 15, 1450, when the newly landed English reinforcements under Kyrielle were totally defeated, and almost annihilated, by the French under the Comte de Clermont. This defeat practically put an end to the English domination in the north of France.
  
1450  
Battle of Blanquefort (Lancastrian ) French victory
Fought November 1, 1450, when the English made a sally from Bordeaux to repel a marauding band under Amanien. The English cavalry, advancing too rapidly, became separated from the main body, and was cut off. Amanien then fell upon the infantry, who, being unsupported, were overwhelmed and almost annihilated. So great was the slaughter that the day was long known in Bordeaux as the "Male Journee."
  
1453  
Siege of Castillon   French victory
This was the last battle of the Hundred Years' War, and was fought July 17, 1453. The English under Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, marched to the relief of Castillon, and attacked the lines of the besiegers, but were taken in flank by a sortie from the French entrenchments and totally defeated, Talbot being slain. On October 19 following, Bordeaux opened her gates to the French.
  

Burgundian Wars — 1466 to 1477     to top

Conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France



DateBattle Summary
1474  
Battle of Hericourt (Burgundian Wars ) Swiss victory
Fought November 13, 1474, between the Swiss, 18,000 strong, and the Burgundians, 10,000 in number. The Burgundians were totally defeated, the town of Hericourt taken.
  
1476  
Battle of Grandson (Burgundian Wars ) Swiss victory
Fought March 2, 1476, between the Swiss, 18,000 strong, and the Burgundians, numbering 36,000, under Charles the Bold. Charles endeavoured to entice the Swiss into the plain, and to that end ordered a retreat. He was followed by the Swiss, and his rearguard being attacked, was seized with panic, and fled, and in the end Charles was completely defeated and his camp captured.
  
1476  
Battle of Morat (Burgundian Wars ) Swiss victory
Fought June 22, 1476, between the Burgundians, 35,000 strong, under Charles the Bold, and 24,000 Swiss, under Hans Waldmann. After a few hours' hard fighting the Burgundians were driven into the plain, where the Swiss utterly routed them, no less than 8,000 falling. The Swiss chroniclers aver that the victors only lost 500 killed.
  
1577  
Battle of Nancy (Burgundian Wars ) Lorraine victory
Fought Jan 5, 1477 between Charles the Bold, leading 6,000 men and about 20,000 men, including many Swiss mercenaries, under the Duke of Lorraine. The Burgundians were decisively defeated, and Charles the Bold was killed.
  
1465  
Battle of Montlhéry (Franco-Burgundian War ) Rebels victory
Fought 1465, between the forces of the Ligue du Bien Public, under the Comte de Charolais, and the Royal troops, under Louis XI. Louis was totally defeated, after a sanguinary engagement, and driven from the field.
  

Hussite War — 1422 to 1431     to top

Pre-reformation struggle between the Bohemian followers of a heretical martyr and the Holy Roman Empire



DateBattle Summary
1422  
Battle of Deutschbrod   Hussites victory
Fought 1422 between the Taborite section of the Hussites under John Zisca, and the Germans under the Emperor Sigismund. Zisca was completely victorious.
  
1426  
Battle of Aussig   Hussites victory
Fought 1426, between the Germans under the Emperor Sigismund, and the Taborites, the extreme section of the Hussites, under John Zisca. The Germans were signally defeated.
  
1431  
Battle of Taus (Aftermath ) Hussites victory
Fought August 14, 1431, between the Hussites, under John Ziska, and the Imperialists, under the Emperor Sigismund. The Hussites gained a signal victory.
  

Wars of Italy — 1495 to 1559     to top

Series of battles for Italian territories between various European powers.



DateBattle Summary
1495  
Battle of Fornovo (First Italian ) French victory
Fought July 6, 1495, between 34,000 Venetians and Mantuans under Francisco de Gonzaga of Mantua, and 8,000 French and Swiss under Charles VIII. The French were attacked as they were retiring, but succeeded in repulsing the Italians at a cost of only Too of all ranks, while the assailants lost 3,500 killed and wounded.
  
1495  
Battle of Seminara (Four Years War ) French victory
Fought June 28, 1495 between 6,000 Spaniards and Neapolitans, under Gonsalvo de Cordova and Ferdinand of Naples, and a largely superior French army, under D'Aubigny. The Neapolitans fled almost without striking a blow, and though the Spaniards fought well, they were overpowered by numbers, and in the end totally routed, only Gonsalvo with 400 Spanish cavalry making an orderly retreat.
  
1500  
Siege of Ostia (Second Italian ) Spanish victory
This place, held by a French garrison, under Menaldo Guerri, was besieged in 1500 by the Spaniards, under Gonsalvo de Cordova. After five days' bombardment, an attack was made upon the town on the opposite side by a small party of Spaniards resident in Rome, under Garcilasso de la Vega. Thus between two fires, Guerri surrendered.
  
1501  
Siege of Tarento (Second Italian ) Spanish victory
This fortress, held by a Neapolitan garrison, under the Conde di Potenza, was besieged by about 5,000 Spaniards, under Gonsalvo de Cordova, in August, 1501. Gonsalvo endeavoured to reduce the place by blockade, but found his forces melting away by desertion, and was forced to have recourse to more active measures. The north front of Tarento being bounded by a lake, was unfortified, and Gonsalvo, with incredible labour, transported overland some of the smaller vessels of the Spanish fleet lying in the Bay of Tarento, and launched them on the lake. The town was then at his mercy, and surrendered, being entered by the Spaniards, March 1, 1502.
  
1503  
Battle of Garigliano (Second Italian ) French victory
Fought November 8, 1503, between the Spaniards, 12,000 strong, under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the French, in greatly superior force, under Francisco de Gonzaga of Mantua. Gonzaga, wishing to pass the Garigliano, had thrown a bridge over it, and proceeded to cross in face of the Spanish army. After very severe fighting, the French drove back the Spaniards, and made good the passage of the river.
  
1503  
Battle of Garigliano (Second Italian ) Spanish victory
Fought December 29, 1503, between the Spaniards, about 15,000 strong, under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the French, slightly superior in number, under the Marquis of Saluzzo. Gonsalvo crossed the Garigliano at two points, and fell upon the French, who were retiring on Gasta. After hard fighting, in which the Chevalier Bayard bore a notable part, the French were utterly routed, leaving 4,000 dead on the field, and all their artillery and baggage. The Spanish loss is unknown.
  
1503  
Battle of Cerignola (War of 1542 ) Spanish victory
Fought April 21, 1503 between the Spaniards under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the French under the Duc de Nemours. The French were totally defeated and Nemours slain.
  
1509  
Battle of Agnadello (League of Cambrai ) French victory
Fought May 14, 1509, between 30,000 French under Louis XII and Marshal Trioulzio, and 35,000 Venetians under General Alviani. The Venetians were defeated with a loss of 6,000 men and 20 guns, Alviani being taken, and in consequence of his victory, Louis XII occupied all the territory assigned to him by the League, up to the Mincio.
  
1509  
Siege of Padua (League of Cambrai ) Venice victory
The Venetian city of Padua was besieged by 35,000 Imperial troops under Maximillian I. After two weeks of furious bombardment, the attacking troops were driven away.
  
1512  
Battle of Ravenna (League of Cambrai ) French victory
Fought 1512, between the troops of the Holy League, and the French, under Gaston de Foix. The French gained a signal victory, but Gaston de Foix fell in the moment of his triumph, pierced with sixteen wounds.
  
1512  
Battle of Brest (League of Cambrai ) English victory
Fought August 10, 1512, between the English fleet of 45 sail under Lord Edward Howard, and the French fleet of 39 sail under Jean de Thenouenel. The French ships were driven into Brest, or along the coast, with heavy loss. The English lost 2 ships and 1,600 men.
  
1513  
Battle of Novara (League of Cambrai ) Swiss victory
Fought June 6, 1513, between 10,000 French, under La Tremouille, and 13,000 Swiss. The French camp was surprised by the Swiss, who, after hard fighting, totally routed the French with a loss of 6,000 men. The Swiss losses were also heavy.
  
1513  
Battle of Guinegate (League of Cambrai ) English victory
Fought August 16, 1513, when a body of French cavalry, who aimed at relieving Terouenne, which was besieged by the English, under Henry VIII, and the Imperialists, under Maximilian I, were put to flight by the allies without striking a blow. The French fled so precipitately that the action was dubbed the Battle of the Spurs.
  
1515  
Battle of Marignano (League of Cognac ) French victory
Fought September 13 and 14, 1515, between 50,000 French, under Francis I, and about 40,000 Swiss mercenaries. The Swiss attacked the French camp, and forcing the lines, fought till midnight without decisive result. On the morning of the 14th the battle was renewed, and the Swiss were on the point of success, when the arrival of a small force of Venetians obliged them to withdraw. The French lost 6,000 men, and the Swiss losses were very heavy, including 1,200 who perished in the flames of a village they were defending after the repulse of the attack. Marshal Trivulzio, who commanded a wing of the French army, called the action the "Battle of Giants."
  
1522  
Battle of Bicocca (Four Years War ) Imperials victory
Fought April 27, 1522 between a French army of over 20,000 composed largely of Swiss mercenearies and led by Vicomte de Lautrac and a combined Papal-Imperial army led by Prospero Colonna. The imperial troops included several troops of Spanish arquebusiers, and the superior artillery, combined with the novel, but still rude fire-arms won the day and delivered the Duchy of Milan back into the hands of the Empire.
  
1524  
Battle of Rebec (Four Years War ) Imperials victory
Fought 1524, between the Imperialists, under Constable de Bourbon, and the French, under Bonnivet. The French were totally defeated, with heavy loss, among those who fell being the Chevalier de Bayard, felled by fire from a very early fire-arm.
  
1525  
Battle of Pavia (Habsburg-Valois ) Imperials victory
Fought February 25, 1525, between the French, under Francis I, and the Imperialists, under Lannoy. Francis, who was besieging Pavia, awaited the attack of the Imperialists on his lines, and his artillery wrought great havoc in their ranks, then, charging at the head of his cavalry, he was repulsed by Lannoy's infantry, and the Swiss mercenaries being taken in flank, and thrown into disorder, the battle was lost. Francis was captured. This is the occasion on which he wrote to his mother, "Rien ne m'est demouré, excepté l'honneur et la vie qui est sauve."
  
1527  
Siege of Rome (Second Italian ) Imperials victory
The city was taken by storm May 9, 1527, by the Imperialists under the Constable de Bourbon, who fell in the assault. A massacre followed, in which 8,000 of the inhabitants perished. The Pope retired to the Castle of St. Angelo, where he held out until November 26, when a treaty between him and Charles V put an end to the conflict.
  
1544  
Siege of Boulogne (War of 1542 ) English victory
Siege was laid to the town by the English under Henry VIII, September 14, 1544. It was defended with great gallantry, and, in the face of enormous difficulties, for two months, when it was forced to surrender, the inhabitants being allowed to march out with their arms and property.
  
1544  
Battle of Cerisolles   French victory
Fought 1544, between the French under Francois de Bourbon, and the Imperialists under du Gast, the French gaining a complete victory.
  
1550  
Battle of Jersey (1st Italian Unity ) English victory
Fought 1550, when an English squadron, under Sir William Winter, attacked a French fleet, which was besieging St. Heliers. The French were completely routed, losing 1,000 killed and wounded, and the siege was raised.
  
1554  
Battle of Marciano (Habsburg-Valois ) Florence victory
Fought August 2, 1554 between a Florentine-Imperial force of about 18,000 under Cosimo de' Medici, and French-Sienna forces, numbering over 15,000 under Piero Strozzi. A pitched battle was fought when Strozzi was forced to face the Florentines as his troops were retiring towards the sea. The Florentines won a decisive victory with a loss of over 8,000 French troops killed or captured, allowing de Medici's army to advance and besiege Vienna.
  
1557  
Battle of St. Quentin (Habsburg-Valois ) Spanish victory
Fought August 10, 1557, between 22,000 French and Germans, under the Constable Montmorenci, and about 5,000 Spanish and Flemish cavalry of the Duke of Savoy's army, under Count Egmont, supported by a small force of infantry. The French, in attempting to throw reinforcements into St. Quentin, were entrapped in a narrow pass, and were utterly routed, with a loss of 15,000 killed, wounded and captured, and all but two of their guns. The Spaniards only lost 50 men.
  
1558  
Siege of Calais (Habsburg-Valois ) French victory
The last English stronghold in France was captured by the French under the Due de Guise, January 8, 1558, after a siege of seven days only. Mary is said to have exclaimed, on hearing the news, that at her death the word "Calais" would be found engraven on her heart.
  
1558  
Battle of Gravelines (League of Cambrai ) Spanish victory
Fought July 13, 1558, between 8,500 French and Germans, under Marshal de Thermes, and about 10,000 Spanish, Germans and Flemings, under Count Egmont. De Thermes' right rested on the sea, and a cavalry charge, headed by Egmont, broke his line, after severe hand-to-hand fighting, and the French fled in confusion, leaving 1,500 dead on the field, while as many more were driven into the sea, and drowned. Large numbers were cut down in the pursuit, and de Thermes was captured.
  

Reformation Wars in Germany — 1525 to 1553     to top

Wars resulting from the protestant reformation in Germany prior to the Thirty Years War.



DateBattle Summary
1525  
Battle of Frankenhausen (schmalkaldic league ) Barons victory
Fought May 15, 1525, between the troops of Saxony, Hesse and Brunswick, and the revolted peasants under Thomas Miinzer. The peasants were utterly routed, and Münzer captured and hanged out of hand. This entirely put an end to the rising.
  
1547  
Battle of Mühlberg   imperials victory
Fought April 24, 1547, between the German Protestants, 9,000 strong, under the Elector Frederick of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse, and the Imperial army, together with 3,500 Papal troops, 13,000 in all, under Charles V. The Protestants were totally defeated, and their two leaders taken prisoners. The Imperialists lost 50 only.
  
1553  
Battle of Sievershausen   Germans victory
Fought July 9, 1553, between the Germans, under Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and the Brandenburgers, under the Margrave Albert. The Brandenburgers were defeated, but Maurice was wounded in the action, and died two days later.
  

French Religious Wars — 1562 to 1587     to top

Wars of the Protestant Reformation in France



DateBattle Summary
1562  
Battle of Dreux (Huguenot Rebellion ) catholics victory
Fought 1562, between the Huguenots under the Prince de Condé, and the Catholics under the Constable, Montmorency. The Constable, heading a charge of the Catholic cavalry, was overthrown and captured by Coligny. The Catholics then fled, but the Huguenots, carrying the pursuit too far, were charged and routed by Francois de Guise, and Condé made prisoner. The victory thus rested with the Catholics.
  
1567  
Battle of St. Denis (Third ) catholics victory
Fought November 10, 1567, between the Catholics, under the Constable Montmorenci, and the Huguenots, under the Prince de Condé. Victory rested with the Catholics, but at the cost of the Constable, who was killed, and the battle had no decisive effect upon the course of the war.
  
1569  
Battle of Jarnac (Third ) catholics victory
Fought March 13, 1569, between the Catholics, under the Marshal de Tavannes, and the Huguenots, under the Prince de Conde. The brunt of the action was borne by the Huguenot cavalry, who were overpowered by the Catholics, and Condé slain.
  
1569  
Battle of Montcontour (Belgium ) catholics victory
Fought October 3, 1569, between the Huguenots, under Henri le Bearnais, and the Catholics, under the Duc d'Anjou and Marshal de Tavannes. The Huguenots occupied an untenable position, and at the end of half an hour were utterly routed, and almost exterminated, some 700 only remaining with the colors after the battle.
  
1587  
Battle of Coutras (Eighth ) huguenots victory
Fought 1587 between the Huguenots under Henry of Navarre (Henri IV) and the Catholics under the Duc de Joyeuse. The Catholic army was annihilated, Joyeuse being amongst the slain.
  
1589  
Battle of Arques (Eighth ) huguenots victory
Fought September 23, 1589, between 5,000 Huguenots under Henri IV, and 30,000 Leaguers under the Duc de Mayenne. Henri had taken up a strong position, defended by marshy ground, and of such a nature that Mayenne could only bring against the king 5,000 troops at a time, thus neutralizing the disparity of numbers. He repulsed attack after attack, with heavy loss to the assailants, and eventually Mayenne was forced to withdraw, with the loss of about half his army.
  
1590  
Battle of Ivry (First ) huguenots victory
Fought March 14, 1590, between the Huguenots, under Henri IV, and the Catholics, under the Duc de Mayenne. Henri gained a complete victory, and marched forward to invest Paris.
  
1627  
Battle of Rhé (Huguenot Rebellion ) catholics victory
St. Martin, the capital of this island, was besieged by the English, under the Duke of Buckingham, from July 17 to October 29, 1627. An assault on October 27 was repulsed, and the landing of the Duke of Schomberg, with 6,000 French, on the island, made the English lines untenable, whereupon Buckingham raised the siege. While returning to his ships Buckingham was attacked by the French, and suffered considerably. The English losses during the operations amounted to about 4,000 men.
  
1627  
Siege of La Rochelle (Second ) catholics victory
This fortress, the principal Huguenot stronghold in France, was besieged by the Royal troops, under Richelieu, in 1627. The garrison, under the mayor, Guiton, made a gallant defense, but the assassination of Buckingham prevented the arrival of the promised English succours, and the town surrendered, after holding out for fourteen months.
  

Netherlands War of Independence — 1566 to 1601     to top

The Protestant Netherlands fights for its independence from the Spanish Empire.



DateBattle Summary
1566  
Battle of Valenciennes   Spanish victory
Siege was laid to this place in December, 1566, by a force of Spaniards and Germans, mercenaries, under Noircarmes. The operations were somewhat indolently conducted, insomuch that he and his six lieutenants were derided as the "Seven Sleepers," but towards the end of February Noircarmes began to press on his siege works, and on March 23 his batteries opened fire, the city surrendering on the following day.
  
1567  
Battle of Lannoy   Spanish victory
Fought January, 1567, between 3,000 Flemish Protestants, under Pierre Cornaille, and a small force of the Duchess of Parma's troops, under Novicarmes. The Flemings, mostly half-armed peasants, were cut to pieces by the Spaniards, 2,600 being killed in one hour's fighting.
  
1567  
Battle of Watrelots   Spanish victory
Fought January, 1567, between 1,200 Flemish Protestants, under Teriel, and 600 Spaniards, under the Seigneur de Rassinghem. The Protestants were defeated and 600 took refuge in an old graveyard, where they held out till the last man had fallen.
  
1568  
Battle of Heiliger-Zee   Patriots victory
Fought May 23, 1568, between the "'Beggars," under Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 veteran Spaniards, under Aremberg. Louis occupied a very strong position on a wooded height, near the monastery of the Holy Lion, his front being protected by a morass crossed by a narrow causeway. The Spanish infantry traversed this to the attack, but were repulsed, and Count Aremberg, leading a charge of horse, in the hope of restoring the day, fell mortally wounded. Upon this the Spaniards broke and fled, having suffered a loss of 1,600 men.
  
1572  
Battle of Brill   Patriots victory
This fortress was captured from the Spaniards by the Beggars of the Sea, about 400 strong, under De la Marck and Treslong, April 1, 1572. It was the first success of the Netherlands patriots in their struggle against Spanish rule, and may be said to have laid the foundation of the Dutch republic.
  
1572  
Siege of Tergoes   Spanish victory
This fortress was besieged, August 16, 1572, by the Dutch Patriots, 7,000 strong, under Jerome de 't Zeraerts, and was defended by a small Spanish garrison. On October 20, a force of 3,000 Spanish veterans, under Colonel Mondragon, succeeded in crossing the "Drowned Land," with a loss of only 9 men drowned, and relieved the town, 't Zeraert's troops refusing to face this unexpected attack.
  
1572  
Siege of Haarlem   Spanish victory
This city was invested by the Spaniards, 30,000 strong, under Don Francisco de Toledo, December If, 1572. It was held by a garrison of 4,000, under Ripperda, including a corps of Amazons, led by a widow named Kenau Hasselaer. The batteries opened on the 18th, and on the 21st an assault was repulsed, the assailants losing 400, the garrison three or four only. A second assault, on January 31, 1573, was also repulsed, while a brilliant sortie, on March 25, captured a large and welcome convoy of provisions. On May 28, however, the patriot flotilla of 150 vessels under Martin Brand, on the lake, was defeated by 100 Spanish ships, under Count Bossu. From this point the reduction of the city by famine was inevitable, and the place was surrendered, July 12, 1573. The garrison, reduced to 1,800, was massacred, with the exception of 600 Germans, and altogether 2,300 persons perished after the capitulation. The Spaniards lost 12,000 men in the course of the siege.
  
1573  
Siege of Alkmaar   Patriots victory
Siege was laid to this place August 21, 1573, by 16,000 Spaniards under Don Frederico de Toledo. It was defended by a garrison of 800 soldiers and 1,300 armed burghers. On September 18, an assault was delivered, which was repulsed, with a loss to the besiegers of 1,000 men, while only 37 of the garrison fell. The opening of the dykes at last rendered the position of the Spaniards most precarious, and on October 8 the siege was raised.
  
1573  
Battle of Zuyder Zee   Patriots victory
Fought October 11, 1573, between 30 Spanish ships, under Bossu, and 25 Dutch ships, under Admiral Dirkzoon. The Spanish fleet fled, after losing 5 ships, only Bossu standing his ground. His ship, however, was eventually captured, after losing three-fourths of her crew.
  
1574  
Battle of Romerswael   Patriots victory
Fought January 29, 1574, between the "Beggars of the Sea," under Admiral Boisot, and a Spanish fleet of 95 ships, under Julian Romero. The "Beggars" grappled the enemy's ships in a narrow estuary, and after a very severe encounter, in which the Spaniards Lost 15 vessels and 1,200 men, Romero retreated to Bergen-op-Zoom.
  
1574  
Battle of Mook   Spanish victory
Fought April 14, 1574, between the Dutch Patriots, 8,000 strong, under Count Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 Spaniards, under Don Sancho d'Avila. The village of Mook was held by the Dutch infantry, who were driven out by the Spaniards, and totally routed, with a loss of at least 4,000. Among the slain were the Counts Louis and Henry of Nassau.
  
1574  
Battle of Leyden   Patriots victory
This city was invested May 26, 1574, by 8,000 Walloons and Germans under Valdez, who in the course of a few days had erected 62 batteries round the place. There was no garrison, with the exception of a few "freebooters" and a burgher guard, under Jan van der Does. The Prince of Orange, in order to save the city, determined to open the dykes, and on August 3 the gates at Schiedam and Rotterdam were opened, and the dykes broken along the course of the Yssel. Meanwhile the citizens had come to an end of their bread, but by strenuous efforts the fleet under Admiral Boisot succeeded in throwing relief into the city at the beginning of October. By this time the city was on the verge of starvation, and 8,000 of the inhabitants had perished of pestilence. The Spaniards, however, had been driven from work after work, and on October 3 the last of their redoubts was mastered, and Valdez was forced to raise the siege.
  
1576  
Battle of Antwerp   Spanish victory
This city was sacked by the Spaniards, November 4, 1576. It was defended by 6,000 troops, mostly Walloons, who offered little resistance to the 5,600 Spaniards under Sancho d'Avila, who formed the attacking force. Having effected an entrance, the Spaniards proceeded to massacre the inhabitants, of whom 8,000 are said to have perished. This event is known as the Spanish Fury.
  
1578  
Battle of Gemblours   Spanish victory
Fought January 31, 1578, between the Netherlands patriots, 20,000 strong, under General Goignies, and the Spaniards, in about equal force, under Don John of Austria. The patriots, who were retiring from Namur, were followed by Don John, who sent forward a picked force of 1,600 men, under Gonzaga and Mondragon in pursuit. They attacked the rearguard, under Philip Egmont, and dispersed it, and then, falling suddenly upon the main body, utterly routed it, with a loss, it is said, of 10,000 killed and prisoners. The Spaniards lost ten or eleven at most.
  
1578  
Battle of Rynemants   Patriots victory
Fought August 1, 1578, between the Dutch Patriots, 20,000 strong, under Count Bossu and Francois de la None, and the Spaniards, numbering about 30,000, under Don John of Austria. Don John crossed the Demer, and attacked Bossu in his entrenchments. He was however repulsed, after severe fighting, and retired, leaving 1,000 dead on the field. He offered battle in the open on the following morning, but Bossu declined to leave his lines, and Don John was indisposed to renew the attack, and fell back upon Namur.
  
1579  
Siege of Maestricht   Spanish victory
This city, the German Gate of the Netherlands, was besieged by the Spaniards, under Prince Alexander of Parma, March 12, 1579. It was held by a garrison of 1,000 troops and 1,200 armed burghers, under Melchior, while the besiegers numbered 20,000. Two unsuccessful assaults were made April 8, which cost the Spaniards 670 officers and 4,000 men, but finally the place was taken by surprise, and a massacre followed, in which 6,000 of the inhabitants perished.
  
1580  
Battle of Hardenberg   Spanish victory
Fought June 15, 1580, between the Dutch Patriots, under Count Philip Hohenlo, and the Royalists, under Martin Schenck, fatigued by a long march, the Patriots were no match for Schenck's fresh troops, and after an hour's fighting, were broken and almost annihilated.
  
1581  
Siege of Tournay   Spanish victory
This place was besieged, October 1, 1581, by the Royal troops, under Alexander of Parma, and in the absence of the Governor, Prince Espinay, was gallantly defended by the Princess, who held out until November 30, when, by an honourable capitulation, she was allowed to march out at the head of the garrison, with all the honours of war.
  
1586  
Battle of Zutphen   Spanish victory
Fought September 22, 1586, between the Spaniards, under Prince Alexander of Parma, and the English, under the Earl of Leicester. The Spaniards endeavoured to throw a convoy of provisions into Zutphen, which Leicester was besieging. He attempted to intercept it, but without success, and was forced to retire after suffering considerable loss. Among those who fell on the English side was Sir Philip Sydney.
  
1593  
Siege of Middelburg   Patriots victory
This fortress, the last stronghold in Walcheren to hold out for the Spanish king, was besieged by the Patriots in the winter of 1593. It was defended by a garrison under Colonel Mondragon, who in spite of a gallant resistance and numerous attempts to relieve him, was forced by famine to surrender, February 18, 1594.
  
1597  
Battle of Turnhout   Patriots victory
Fought August 22, 1597, between the Dutch, under Prince Maurice of Nassau, and the Spaniards under the Archduke Albert. The Spaniards were totally defeated, and this victory may be said to have set the seal of the Independence of the Netherlands.
  
1600  
Battle of Nieuport   Patriots victory
Fought July 2, 1600, between the Dutch, under Maurice of Orange, and the Spaniards, under the Archduke Albert of Austria. Prince Maurice was surprised by the Archduke in a very critical position, but succeeded in holding his own, and after a long and evenly-contested engagement, ultimately defeated the Spaniards with heavy loss.
  
1601  
Battle of Ostend (First Rebellion ) Spanish victory
This place was besieged, July 5, 1601, by the Spaniards, under the Archduke Albert. The town made a most remarkable defense; holding out for more than three years, but Spinola having taken command of the besiegers, it was finally captured, September 14, 1604, by which time scarcely a house in the town was left standing. The Spaniards lost 70,000 men in the course of the siege.
  

Thirty Years War — 1626 to 1647     to top

Conflict involving much of Europe that greatly weakened the Holy Roman Empire.



DateBattle Summary
1620  
Battle of Prague   imperials victory
Fought November 8, 1620, when the Imperialists, under Maximilian of Bavaria and Count Tilly, drove 22,000 Bohemians, under Frederick of Bohemia, up to the walls of Prague, and signally defeated them, with a loss of 5,000 men and all their artillery. Frederick was obliged to take refuge in the city, and soon afterwards capitulated. The battle only lasted an hour, and the Imperialists lost no more than 300 men.
  
1621  
Siege of Riga   Swedes victory
This place was invested by the Swedes, under Gustavus Adolphus, in the early part of August, 1621, and was defended by a garrison of 300 Poles. A resolute defense was made, and several determined assaults repulsed, but a large breach having been effected by September 11, the garrison, now reduced to a handful, had no option but to surrender, and the town was entered by the Swedes, September 15, 1621.
  
1622  
Battle of Wisloch   Palatines victory
Fought April 16, 1622, between the troops of the Count Palatine, under the Count von Mansfeldt, and the Imperialists, under Count Tilly. Tilly attacked and drove in the Palatinate rearguard, but failing to check the pursuit, was confronted by the main body, and defeated with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and all his guns. This victory enabled Mansfeldt to effect a junction with the army of the Margrave of Baden.
  
1622  
Battle of Wimpfen   imperials victory
Fought April 26, 1622, between 14,000 Palatinate troops, under the Margrave of Baden, and the Imperialists, under Count Tilly and Gonsalvo de Cordova. Tilly attacked the. Margrave's camp, which was not entrenched, and though a brilliant cavalry charge captured his guns, it was not supported by the Palatine infantry, and the Imperialists rallying, drove off the cavalry in disorder, recovered the guns, and then routed the infantry, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and all their artillery, baggage and camp equipment.
  
1622  
Battle of Hoechst   imperials victory
Fought June 10, 1622, between 20,000 Palatinate troops, under Christian of Brunswick, and 33,000 Imperialists, under Tilly. Christian having failed to join forces with Mansfeldt, was in retreat, and was engaged in holding a bridge over the Main. While thus employed he was overtaken by Tilly, and though a village covering the bridge was held gallantly for five hours, he was at last over-powered, losing about 12,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners. The Imperialist loss was comparatively small.
  
1622  
Battle of Fleurus   Spaniards victory
Fought August 29, 1622, between the Spaniards, under Spinola, and the Palatinate troops, under Count von Mansfeldt and Christian of Brunswick. The Germans were endeavoring to retreat into Holland after their defeat at Hoechst and were intercepted by the Spaniards, through whom they tried to fight their way. In this effort the infantry was almost entirely cut to pieces, but about 7,000 cavalry reached Breda with the two generals.
  
1623  
Battle of Stadtlohn   imperials victory
Fought August 9, 1623, between the army of the Protestant Princes of Germany, about 22,000 strong, under Duke Christian of Brunswick, and the Imperialists, under Tilly. The Protestants were utterly routed and dispersed, Christian fleeing to Holland.
  
1626  
Battle of Dessau   imperials victory
Fought April 15, 1626, between the German Protestants under Count von Mansfeldt, and the Imperialists, about 20,000 strong, under Wallenstein. Mansfeldt was attacking the fort of Dessau, on the Elbe, when Wallenstein, approaching under cover of the woods, fell upon his flank, and totally routed him, killing or capturing nearly three-fourths of his army.
  
1626  
Battle of Lutter   imperials victory
Fought August 27, 1626, between the Imperialists, under Tilly, and the Danes and Germans, under Christian IV of Denmark. The allies were retreating before Tilly, who came up with them in an open plain near the Castle of Lutter, where the King had taken up a strong position. Tilly attacked, and notwithstanding Christian's personal gallantry, his infantry was overwhelmed, while the German cavalry refused to take any part in the fight. The Danes left 4,000 dead on the field, and Tilly captured 2,000 prisoners, 22 guns and 60 standards. The King with difficulty cut his way through the enemy's horse, and escaped.
  
1627  
Siege of Dantzig   Poles victory
This fortress was besieged by the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus in 1627, and was defended by a Polish garrison which successfully resisted all attempts to storm the place, until the truce of September 16, 1629. In a night attack on May 27, 1627, the King of Sweden was severely wounded, while in the autumn of the same year a sally was made from the port by the Dantzig ships, which defeated the Swedish fleet under Admiral Stjernskold, the Admiral being killed, 1 ship captured and 1 destroyed.
  
1628  
Siege of Stralsund   Swedes victory
This place was besieged, July 5, 1628, by the Imperialists, under Wallenstein, who had sworn to take it in three days. It was defended mainly by the inhabitants, aided by a small garrison of Swedes and Scots. An assault on the 8th was repulsed, and though on the 9th some of the outworks were gained, the town still held out, and finally, after a siege of 11 weeks, Wallenstein was compelled to withdraw his troops, having suffered a loss of over 12,000 men.
  
1631  
Siege of Frankfort-on-Oder   Swedes victory
This place was taken by storm by Gustavus Adolphus, at the head of 15,000 Swedes, April 2, 1631. Schaumberg and Montecucculi, who were in the town, escaped with a portion of the cavalry, but 1,800 of the Imperialist garrison were killed, and 800 captured, with 30 standards and 18 heavy guns.
  
1631  
Battle of Werben   Swedes victory
Fought July 22, 1631, between the Swedes, 16,000 strong, under Gustavus Adolphus, and 26,000 Imperialists, under Count Tilly. Tilly attacked Gustavus' entrenchments in front of Werben, but his troops could not face the fire of the Swedish batteries, and being thrown into disorder, were then charged by the cavalry, under Baudissen, and repulsed. The attack was renewed a few days later with a similar result, and Tilly then drew off his forces, having suffered a loss of 6,000 men.
  
1631  
Battle of Leipsic   Swedes victory
Fought September 7, 1631, between 20,000 Swedes and an equal force of Saxons, under Gustavus Adolphus and John George, Elector of Saxony, and 44,000 Imperialists, under Tilly. The Imperialist right totally routed the Saxons, who fled from the field, headed by the Elector. Meanwhile, the Swedes had completely defeated the left of the Imperialists, under Pappenheim, and repulsed the centre under Tilly, and on the return of the right from pursuing the Saxons, they were attacked by the Swedish left, and driven from the field, only four regiments holding their ground in a wood until nightfall. The Imperialists lost 8,000 killed and wounded and 5,000 prisoners; the allies 2,700, of whom only 700 were Swedes. Gustavus captured the whole of Tilly's artillery, and his victory was the salvation of the Protestant cause, which was trembling in the balance.
  
1631  
Siege of Magdeburg   imperials victory
This city, held by a small Swedish garrison, tinder Falkenberg, was besieged by the Imperialists, under Tilly, March, 1631. After a desultory bombardment, Tilly was forced by the approach of Gustavus Adolphus either to raise the siege or to attempt a storm. Choosing the latter course, an assault was delivered, under Pappenberg, and after two hours' severe fighting, in the course of which Falkenberg fell, the garrison was overpowered. The victory was sullied by an infamous massacre of the unarmed inhabitants, thousands of whom perished at the hands of the Croats and Walloons.
  
1632  
Battle of the Leck   Swedes victory
Fought April 5, 1632, between 26,000 Swedes and German Protestants, under Gustavus Adolphus, and 20,000 Imperialists, under Count Tilly. Gustavus had prepared a bridge to cross the river, and immediately after daybreak his engineers commenced to fix it, the Swedish artillery meanwhile keeping the Imperialists in check. In the artillery duel Tilly was mortally wounded, and his troops retired, leaving the Swedes to effect the passage unmolested.
  
1632  
Battle of Altendorf   imperials victory
Fought August 24, 1632, between Gustavus Adolphus, with 40,000 Swedes and Germans, and the Imperialists, of about equal numbers, under Wallenstein. Wallenstein was very strongly posted on the hill and in the ruined castle of the Altenwald, and after a day spent in fruitless assaults, the King was forced to retire, having lost about 2,300 in killed and wounded. The defenders admitted a loss of 70 officers and 2,000 men killed, besides wounded and prisoners.
  
1632  
Battle of Lützen   Swedes victory
Fought November 16, 1632, between 20,000 Swedes, under Gustavus Adolphus, and 30,000 Imperialists, under Wallenstein. The Swedes attacked with success on their right, but their left was driven back by Pappenheim, and Gustavus, hurrying off to rally them fell mortally wounded. The fall of their king, however, did not dishearten the Swedes, and a fresh charge, in which Pappenheim was killed, gave them a complete victory. A dense fog, however, came on, which enabled Wallenstein to effect an orderly retreat, though he left all his guns on the field.
  
1634  
Battle of Nordlingen   imperials victory
Fought September 6, 1634, between 40,000 Imperialists, under Ferdinand of Hungary, and a numerically inferior force of Germans and Swedes, under the Duke of Weimar and Count Horn. The action was fought to relieve Nordlingen, which Ferdinand was besieging, and resulted in the total defeat of the allies, who lost 12,000 killed, 6,000 prisoners, including Horn, and 80 guns.
  
1638  
Siege of Rheinfeldt   protestants victory
Fought 1638, between the Protestant Germans, under Duke Bernard of Saxe Weimar, and the Imperialists, under Jean de Wert. The Duke was besieging Rheinfeldt, when he was attacked by de Wert, and forced to raise the siege and retire. After retreating, however, a short distance only, unpursued, he suddenly retraced his steps, and taking the Imperialists by surprise, inflicted upon them a severe defeat, dispersing their army and capturing de Wert. In this action fell the veteran Duc de Rohan.
  
1642  
Battle of Breitenfeld   Swedes victory
Fought November 2, 1642, between the Imperialists under the Archduke Leopold and Piccolomini, and the Swedes under Torstenson. The latter, who were in retreat, were caught by the pursuing Austrians at Breitenfeld, but turning upon them, they offered a desperate resistance, and finally drove them from the field, totally routed, with a loss of 10,000 men.
  
1642  
Battle of Lerida   French victory
Fought September, 1642, between the Spaniards, under Leganez, and the French, under Lamothe-Houdancourt. The Spanish army was defeated, and this victory, in conjunction with the fall of Perpignan, gave the French possession of Roussillon.
  
1643  
Battle of Rocroi   French victory
Fought May 19, 1643, between the French, 22,000 strong, under the Great Condé, and 27,000 Spaniards, under Don Francisco de Melo. The battle was sternly contested, and at first went against the French, their left wing being repulsed, and the centre shaken. Want of cavalry, however, prevented Melo pressing home his advantage, and the French, rallying, broke the Spanish line, and severely defeated them. The Spaniards lost 9,000 killed, and 6,000 prisoners in the infantry alone. The French only admitted a loss of 2,000, but it was doubtless considerably heavier.
  
1643  
Battle of Teuttingen   imperials victory
Fought November, 1643, between the French, under the Marechal de Rantzau, and the Imperialists, under the Count de Merci. The Imperialists surprised the French camp, and totally routed them, Rantzau, being captured with most of his superior officers, and all his artillery and baggage.
  
1644  
Battle of Fribourg   French victory
Fought August 3, 5 and 9, 1644, between 20,000 French under the Great Condé and Turenne, and 15,000 Bavarians under the Comte de Mercy. On the 3rd, Turenne, after a long flank march, attacked the Bavarians on the flank, while Condé assailed their front, at 5 p.m. When night fell, the Bavarians were giving way, and during the night de Mercy retired to a fresh position. Here he was attacked on the 5th, but held his ground throughout the day. The French losing twice as many men as their opponents. Three days later de Mercy found it necessary to retreat, and on the 9th he was attacked while retiring by a force of cavalry. This he repulsed, but Condé, coming up, rescued his cavalry, and drove the Bavarians headlong before him, capturing all their artillery and baggage.
  
1645  
Battle of Mariendahl   imperials victory
Fought May 2, 1645, between the French, under Turenne, and the Imperialists, under Merci. Turenne, who had 3,000 infantry and 8 regiments of horse, was surprised in his camp by Merci at 2 a.m., and being placed between two fires, was compelled to beat a disastrous retreat, with the loss of almost all his infantry, 1,200 cavalry, and all his artillery and baggage.
  
1645  
Battle of Nordlingen   French victory
Fought August 3, 1645, between 17,000 French under Condé, and 14,000 Imperialists, under Mercy. The French attacked the village of Allersheim, where the Imperialists were strongly entrenched, and after very severe fighting, the left under Turenne succeeded in expelling them, with a loss of 6,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and almost all their guns. General Mercy was killed. The French loss amounted to about 4,000.
  
1647  
Siege of Lerida   spanish victory
This city, held by a garrison of 4,000 Spaniards, under Don Jorge Britt, was besieged by the French, under the Great Condé, May 12, 1647. The defense was vigorous, the garrison making constant sorties, and about the middle of June the appearance of a large Spanish army at Fraga forced Condé either to deliver an assault or to raise the siege. He chose the second alternative and withdrew his troops June 17.
  
1647  
Battle of Zummerhausen   French victory
Fought 1647, when the French and Swedes, under Turenne and Wrangel, inflicted a decisive defeat upon the Imperialists.
  
1648  
Battle of Lens (Trojan War ) French victory
Fought August 20, 1648, between the French, 14,000 strong, under Condé, and the Austrians, in somewhat superior force, under the Archduke Leopold. Condé feigned a retreat, to draw the enemy from their lines, and then turning upon them, decisively defeated them, with a loss of 4,000 killed, 6,000 prisoners, and all their baggage and artillery.
  

Moorish Conquest of Spain — 711 to 732     to top

Moors from Africa invade and Conquer Spain, but are stopped at the Battle of Tours.



DateBattle Summary
711  
Battle of Guadalete   Moors victory
Fought July 19 to 26, 711, between 90,000 Spaniards, under Roderic, and 12,000 Moslems, with a numerous force of African auxiliaries, under Tarik. On the fourth day the Moslems suffered a severe repulse, leaving 16,000 dead on the field, but the defection of Count Julian, with a large part of the King's forces, revived their courage, and finally the Christians were routed and dispersed. Roderic fled from the field, but was drowned in crossing the Guadalquivir. This victory marks the fall of the Gothic monarchy, and the beginning of the Moorish domination in Spain. Also called the Battle of Xeres.
  
712  
Siege of Merida   Moors victory
This place was besieged in 712 by 18,000 Moors, under Musa. After a defeat in the open plain before the city, the Spaniards made a long and obstinate defense, which cost the besiegers many lives, but in the end they were forced by famine to surrender.
  
721  
Battle of Toulouse   Franks victory
Fought June 9, 721 between a Frankish army led by Odo, the Duke of Aquitaine, and the Moors, led by the Umayyad governor. The Moors besieged Toulouse, the largest city in the region but Odo returned with an army and launched a surprise attack on the unprepared Moors and nearly annihilated them.
  
732  
Battle of Garonne River   Moors victory
Fough Autumn 732 between an Umayyad Army led by the governor of Al-Andulas and the Franks, led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine. An enormous army of Moors crossed the Pyrenees, and attacked the City of Bourdeaux. The Duke of Aquitaine met them at the River Garonne but was annihilated. This battle proceeded the showdown against the Franks at Tours shortly thereafter.
  
732  
Battle of Tours   Franks victory
Fought 732, between the Franks, under Charles Martel, and the Saracens, under Abderrahman Ibu Abdillah. The battle lasted several days—according to the Arab chroniclers, two, while the Christian accounts say seven—and ended in the fall of Abderrahman, when the Saracens, discouraged by the death of their leader, owned defeat, and fled, losing heavily in the pursuit.
  

Crusades — 1047 to 1291     to top

Battles between Christians and Turks for control of the Holy Lands.



DateBattle Summary
1307  
Battle of Cephisus (Catalan Mercenary War ) Catalans victory
Fought 1307 between the Catalan "Great Band," 9,500 strong, and the troops of Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens, 15,000 in number. The Catalans surrounded their camp with an artificial inundation, into which the Duke's cavalry rode unsuspectingly, and were cut to pieces, de Brienne being amongst the slain.
  
1249  
Battle of Mensourah (Fifth ) Saracens victory
Fought 1249, between the French, under Louis IX, and the Moslems. The town of Mensourah was seized by the Comte d' Artois, but being surrounded, he and the knights with him were killed. The king meanwhile had seized the Saracen camp, but was unable to hold his ground, and was driven back to Damietta. In the course of his retreat, however, he was surrounded and taken prisoner by the Saracens, with his whole army.
  
1097  
Siege of Nicaea (First ) Christians victory
This city was besieged by the Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, May 14, 1097. The Saracens were greatly aided in the defense by the possession of Lake Ascanius, but with great labour the crusaders transported boats from the sea to the lake, and thus completed the investment of the place. Two determined attempts to relieve it were made by the Sultan Soliman, but both were repulsed, and Nicaea surrendered June 20.
  
1097  
Siege of Antioch (First ) Christians victory
The city was besieged, October 21, 1097, by the Crusaders under Godefroi de Bouillon, and defended by a Saracen garrison under Baghasian. The siege was unskillfully conducted, and provisions and munitions ran short in the Christian camp, with the result that the place held out till June 3, 1098, when it was taken by stratagem. An indiscriminate massacre followed, in which l0,000 of the defenders perished. On the 28th of the same month the Crusading army was attacked outside Antioch by a force of Saracens under Kirboga. Kirboga concentrated his attack against one wing of the Christians, and outflanked it, but was then assailed by the main body, and driven off with heavy loss.
  
1097  
Battle of Dorylaeum (First ) Christians victory
Fought July 1097, between 70,000 Crusaders under Bohemond and Raymond of Thoulouse, and 250,000 Saracens under the Sultan Soliman. The Saracens drove back Bohemond's division on their camp, which they proceeded to plunder, and, while so engaged, were attacked by Raymond and totally routed with a loss of 30,000. The Crusaders lost 4,000.
  
1099  
Siege of Jerusalem (First ) Christians victory
The Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, laid siege to the city, June 7, 1099, and on July 15, it was taken by assault, and for three days was the scene of a promiscuous massacre, in which 70,000 Moslems perished.
  
1099  
Battle of Ascalon (First ) Christians victory
Fought August 19, 1099, between the Crusaders under Godefroi de Bouillon, and the Saracens under Kilidj Arslan. The Crusaders gained a signal victory, and for a time the Moslem resistance to the Christian occupation of the Holy Land came to an end.
  
1203  
Siege of Constantinople (Fourth ) Crusaders victory
The city was besieged July 7, 1203, by the French and Venetian Crusaders under Count Thibaut de Champagne. After a feeble defense, it was surrendered July 18, by the Usurper, Alexius, and occupied by the Crusaders, who restored Isaac Angelus to the throne, and withdrew.

In January 1204 the Crusaders again laid siege to Constantinople, and at the end of three months, in the course of which Isaac Angelus died, and Mourzoufle assumed the purple, they stormed and pillaged the city. Baldwin was then proclaimed first Latin Emperor of the Fast.
  
1261  
Battle of Constantinople (Reconquest by Byzantines ) Byzantines victory
On July 25, 1261, Constantnople was taken by surprise by the troops of the Greek Emperor, Michael Paleologus, under his lieutenant, Alexius Strategopulus. The Latin Emperor, Baldwin II, made no attempt at resistance, but escaped to the Venetian galleys, and the restoration of the Greek Empire was accomplished without opposition. See Arsouf, Adrianople.
  
1270  
Siege of Tunis (Ninth ) Saracens victory
This city was besieged by the French Crusaders, under Louis IX in 1270. While before the walls of the place, which offered an obstinate resistance, Louis died of a fever, and the crusaders at once raised the siege and retired.
  
1187  
Battle of Tiberias. (Third ) Saracens victory
Fought July 4, 1187, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the Christians of Jerusalem, under Guy de Lusignan. Saladin gained a signal victory, capturing the King, the Grand Master of the Templars, and the Marquis de Montferrat. Following up his success, Saladin recovered in succession, Acre, Jaffa, and other important places, and in the month of October of the same year, recaptured Jerusalem.
  
1189  
Siege of Acre (Third ) Christians victory
Siege was laid to this city by the Christians in August, 1189, and it was obstinately defended by the Saracens for two years, during which the Crusaders are said to have lost 120,000 men. In June, 1191, the besiegers were reinforced by an English army under Richard Coeur de Lion, and in the following month the garrison surrendered.
  
1192  
Battle of Arsouf (Third ) Christians victory
Fought 1192, between the English Crusaders under Richard Coeur de Lion, and the Saracens, 300,000 strong under Saladin. The Saracens made a desperate onslaught on the English, and both their wings gave way, but the centre under the king stood firm and finally drove back the Moslems in great disorder, with a loss of 40,000 men.
  
1177  
Battle of Ramla (Turkish Wars ) Christians victory
Fought 1177, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the Christians of Jerusalem, under Renaud de Châtillon. The Christians won a complete victory.
  
1187  
Siege of Jerusalem (Turkish Wars ) Saracens victory
On October 2, 1187, the Holy City was besieged by the Saracens, under Saladin, and after a siege lasting fourteen days, in the course of which several determined sorties were repulsed, the Moslems forced an entrance, and Guy de Lusignan, the last King of Jerusalem, surrendered. The Christians were given forty days to evacuate the city.
  
1291  
Siege of Acre (Turkish Wars ) Saracens victory
The city remained in the hands of the Christians till 1291, when it was captured by the Moslems under Malek al Aschraf, Sultan of Egypt. The last stronghold in the Holy Land thus passed out of the keeping of the Christians.
  

Barbary Pirate Wars — 1500 to 1830     to top

Wars of the Barbary Pirates who were based in Algiers; Tunis and Tripoli.



DateBattle Summary
1844  
Battle of Isly (Abd-el-Kader's Rebellion ) French victory
Fought August 14, 1844, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Bugeaud, and 45,000 Algerines, chiefly cavalry, under Abd-el-Kader. The French infantry repulsed all the charges of the Algerine Horse, and aided by the artillery, inflicted heavy loss upon them; when sufficiently shaken, a charge of the French cavalry completed the rout, and the Algerines fled, leaving 1,500 dead on the field. Abd-el-Kader was captured.
  
1803  
Battle of Tripoli (Fall of Corsairs ) Americans victory
In October of 1803 the harbor of Tripoli was blockaded by an American fleet under the command of Commodore Preble. The first major action of the siege was the capture and subsequent sinking of the USS Philadelphia under the direction of Stephen Decatur. During the siege several inconclusive attacks were made on Tripoli, but the siege was not brought to a close until the town of Derna was taken.
  
1805  
Battle of Derna (Fall of Corsairs ) Americans victory
A small number of American Marines under William Easton led a force of 500 mercenaries on a 500 mile trek across the Libyan desert to attack the town of Derna. The town was stormed and after light resistance and few casualties the American led force gained command of the garrison. This was the first American battle fought on foreign soil.
  
1816  
Battle of Algiers (Fall of Corsairs ) British victory
In 1816 Lord Exmouth, in command of 19 British warships, and accompanied by 6 Dutch ships under Van Capellan, bombarded the forts of Algiers, mounting 500 guns. The bombardment lasted for about eight hours, and resulted in the destruction of the forts and a large part of the city. The Dey then gave way, and agreed to the total abolition of Christian slavery in his dominions. The loss of the allies amounted to 885 killed and wounded; that of the Algerines to over 6,000.
  
1836  
Battle of Constantine (Fall of Corsairs ) French victory
This fortified city in Eastern Algeria, which, under Hadji Ahmad, had held out for six years against French rule, was invested by the French, 7,000 strong, under Marshal Clausel, in the autumn of 1836. Having no breaching pieces, Clausel essayed an assault, but was repulsed with a loss of 2,000 men, and abandoned the siege. In the following year General Damrémont sat down before Constantine October 6, with 10,000 men, and on the 12th, a breach having been effected, an assault was on the point of taking place, when Damrémont was killed. His successor, General Valée, however, took the place by storm on the following day.
  
1509  
Battle of Oran (Holy League ) Spaniards victory
Fought May 17, 1509, between the Moors and the Spaniards, under Navarro. The Spaniards, late in the evening, attacked and drove off the Moors from a strong position on the heights above the city. They then stormed the city itself, escalading the walls by placing their pikes in the crevices of the stones. The Moors lost in the battle and the storm 4,000 killed and about 8,000 prisoners, while the losses of the victors were very small.
  
1535  
Siege of Tunis (Holy League ) Christians victory
In 1535 Charles V led a Christian army of 60,000 men against Tunis, which had recently been taken by the Ottomans. After a siege at La Goletta, Tunis was taken and 30,000 inhabitants slaughtered.
  
1538  
Battle of Preveza (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
This naval battle was fought Sept 28, 1538 in the Ionion Sea between an Ottoman fleet of 122 galleys under Barbarossa, and 162 Christian galleys under Andrea Doria. The winds were against the Christians and the Turks were able to destroy 13 ships and capture 36 while suffering minimal losses. The next morning Doria retreated with his Genoese fleet, leaving the Venetians to their fate.
  
1541  
Siege of Algiers (Holy League ) Algiers victory
A large fleet was fitted by Charles V. for a campaign against the pirate city of Algiers, but a tremendous storm destroyed much of the fleet enroute, and insufficient supplies remained to conduct a siege. The retreating forces were harassed in their departure, and many more ships were sunk on the return. Over 150 ships and 30,000 Spaniards were lost or captured.
  
1560  
Battle of Djerbeh (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
Fought 1560, between the fleet of Solyman I, Sultan of Turkey, under Piycala Pasha, and the combined squadrons of Malta, Venice, Genoa and Florence. The Christian fleet was utterly routed, the Turks securing thereby the preponderance in the Mediterranean.
  
1570  
Siege of Famagusta (Holy League ) Ottomans victory
This place was besieged by the Turks under Mustapha Pasha, in October, 1570, and was defended by 7,000 men, half Venetians, half Cypriotes, under Marcantonio Bragadino. The garrison held out until August 6, 1571, when it capitulated, marching out with the honours of war. After the surrender, however, Mustapha murdered in cold blood, Bragadino and four of his lieutenants. The Turks lost 50,000 men in the course of the siege.
  
1571  
Battle of Lepanto (Holy League ) Christians victory
Fought October 17, 1571, betwen a fleet of 250 Spanish and Venetian ships, under Don John of Austria, and a Turkish fleet of 270 sail, under Piale, the Capitan Pasha. The Turkish left wing, under the Dey of Algiers, met with some success, but the centre and right were almost destroyed, the Turks losing 200 vessels, and, it is said, 30,000 men. Piale was killed. The Dey of Algiers succeeded in extricating the majority of his ships. The allies lost between 4,000 and 5,000 men, including 15 Venetian captains.
  
1522  
Siege of Rhodes (Knights of Malta ) Ottomans victory
A second and successful siege was begun July 28, 1522, by Solyman the Magnificent. The Knights, under Villiers de L'Isle Adam, held out until December 21, repulsing numerous attacks, but at last, worn by famine, they were compelled to surrender. The Turks are stated to have lost by disease and battle over 100,000 men. This siege is notable as being the first in which the Turks used explosive bombs.
  
1565  
Siege of Malta (Knights of Malta ) Knights Templar victory
This place was besieged May 19, 1565, by 30,000 Turks, under Mustapha Pasha, aided by a fleet of 185 sail, under Piale, the Capitan Pasha. It was defended by the Knights of Malta, under their Grand-Master Lavalette, and though St. Elmo was taken, Valetta held out against numerous assaults until September 11, when Mustapha raised the siege. The garrison lost 5,000 men, the Turks 20,000.
  
1655  
Battle of Porto Farina (Seventeen Eighteen ) British victory
In April 1655 Blake was sent to the Bey of Tunis in order to demand compensation for losses to English fleets. Upon the refusal of the Bey to comply, he destroyed 9 Algerian ships and 2 shore batteries.
  
1662  
Battle of Palmero (Seventeen Eighteen ) French victory
Sea battle.
  
1775  
Siege of Algiers (Seventeen Eighteen ) Algiers victory
This town was attacked July 8, 1775, by a Spanish force of 51 ships of war and 26,000 men under Don Pedro de Castijon and Count O'Reilly. After a severe conflict, the Spaniards failed to dislodge their opponents, and retired, with a loss of over 3,000 killed and wounded. The Algerines lost about 5,000.
  

Ottoman Conquest of Balkans — 1329 to 1566     to top

Ottomans conquer European territories in the Balkans.



DateBattle Summary
1329  
Battle of Pelekanon   Turks victory
Fought 1329, between the Turks, under Orkhan, and the forces of Andronicus the Younger, Emperor of the East. The Imperialists were defeated. This is the first occasion in which the Byzantines met the Ottoman invaders in battle.
  
1389  
Battle of Kossova   Turks victory
Fought June 15, 1389, between the Turks, under Murad I, and the combined army of the Servians, Bosnians, and Albanians, under Lazar, Despot of Servia. The Turks gained a signal victory, though Murad was mortally wounded in the battle. This success secured the Turkish domination over Servia and the neighboring states.
  
1395  
Battle of Nicopolis   Turks victory
Fought September 28, 1395, between 10,000 French and 50,000 Hungarians, under the Duc de Nevers and Sigismund of Hungary, and the Turkish army of Bajazet I. The French charged the Turkish lines, without waiting for the Hungarians, and penetrated the two first lines, killing 1,500 Turks, but they were then overpowered by the Janissaries in the third line and 3,000 killed, while all the survivors were captured. Bajazet then turned upon the Hungarians, who fled without striking a blow. Bajazet massacred all his prisoners, excepting 25 nobles.
  
1416  
Battle of Rakersberg   Austrians victory
Fought 1416, between 20,000 Turks, under Ahmed Bey, and 12,000 Austrians and others, under Duke Ernest of Styria. Duke Ernest marched to the relief of Rakersberg, which the Turks were besieging, and drove them from the field utterly routed. It is said that the Turkish losses amounted to more than the whole Christian army. Ahmed Bey was among the slain.
  
1422  
Siege of Constantinople   Greeks victory
On June 10, 1422, Amurath II, with 200,000 Turks, laid siege to the city, which was defended by the Greek garrison under the Emperor Manuel. After a siege of two months, in which the Turks lost heavily in their numerous assaults, and in the defenders' sallies Amurath, was called away to Boursa by a domestic revolt, and raised the siege.
  
1474  
Siege of Scutari   Turks victory
This place, held by a Venetian garrison, under Antonio Loredano, was besieged by the Turks, under Suleiman Pasha, May, 1474. The garrison held out stoutly till the middle of August, when Suleiman raised the siege.
Four years later, in June, 1478, Mohammed II invested it, the garrison now being under the command of Antonio di Lezze. Though few in numbers, the Venetians withstood a continuous bombardment, repulsing two serious assaults, until September 8, when Mohammed retired, leaving behind him only a blockading force. When on the conclusion of peace the place was handed over to the Turks only 450 men and 150 women were alive in the town. In the first assault the Turks lost 12,000 men, and an even greater number, it is said, in the second.
  
1475  
Battle of Krakovicz   Moldavians victory
On January 17, 1475, 40,000 Moldavian peasants, aided by 7,000 Hungarian and Polish regulars, under Stephen of Moldavia, fell upon Suleiman Pasha, with 100,000 Turks, in an untenable position near Lake Krakovicz, and totally defeated them, driving them into the lake. Very few of the Turks escaped death, either by the sword or by drowning.
  
1480  
Siege of Rhodes   Templars victory
This place, defended by the Knights, under their Grand Master, Pierre d'Aubusson, was besieged May 23, 1480, by a Turkish army, under Meshid Pasha, aided by a fleet of 160 ships, The siege lasted three months, and was raised after the failure of the second assault, the Turks having by that time lost 10,500 killed and wounded.
  
1488  
Battle of Issus   Egyptians victory
Fought 1488, between the Turks, under Bajazet II, and the Egyptians, under the Sultan of Egypt. The Turks were defeated.
  
1490  
Battle of Sapienza   Turks victory
Fought 1490 between the Turkish fleet, under Kemal Reis, and the Venetians. The Venetians suffered a severe reverse, this being the first naval victory of the Turks in the Mediterranean.
  
1492  
Battle of Villach   Austrians victory
Fought 1492, between the Turks, under Ali Pasha, and a Christian army, under Rudolph de Khevenhuller. During the battle 15,000 Christian prisoners in the Turkish camp broke out, and fell upon the rear of the Turks, who were in consequence totally defeated. The Christians lost 7,000 killed, the Turks 10,000 killed and 7,000 prisoners, including Ali.
  
1500  
Siege of St. George   Venetians victory
This place, the capital of the island of Cephalonia, was besieged in October, 1500, by the Spaniards and Venetians, under Gonsalvo de Cordova and Pesaro. The garrison consisted of 400 Turks only, but being veteran soldiers they made a most gallant defense; but at the end of two months the place was stormed from two quarters simultaneously, and the survivors of the garrison, some 80 only, laid down their arms.
  
1569  
Siege of Astrakhan   Russians victory
Siege was laid to this town, 1569, by the Turks under Selim II, who required it as a base for his projected invasion of Persia. It was held by a small Russian garrison, which made an obstinate defense, and was finally relieved by an army dispatched to its assistance by Ivan the Terrible, which attacked the Turkish lines, and utterly routed them.
  
1596  
Battle of Keresztes (Huniades ) Turks victory
Fought October 24 to 26, 1596, between the Turks, under Mohammed III, and the Imperialists and Transylvanians, under the Archduke Maximilian and Prince Sigismund of Transylvania. The battle at first went badly for the Turks, and Mohammed would have fled but for the remonstrations of the Grand Vizier. In the end, however, they gained the upper hand, and the Archduke was totally defeated.
  
1442  
Battle of Hermanstadt (Huniades ) Magyars victory
Fought 1442, and notable as being the first appearance of John Huniades in arms against the Turks. With an army of Hungarians he totally defeated Mejid Bey, who was besieging Hermanstadt, inflicting on the Turks a loss of 20,000 men, and relieving the place. The Hungarians lost 3,000.
  
1442  
Battle of Vasaq (Huniades ) Magyars victory
Fought 1442, between 80,000 Turks, under Shiabeddin Pasha, and 15,000 Hungarians, under John Huniades. The Turks were utterly routed, with a loss of 20,000 killed and wounded, and 5,000 prisoners, including the Pasha.
  
1443  
Battle of Morawa (Huniades ) Magyars victory
Fought November 3, 1443, between the Hungarians, under John Hunniades, with 12,000 horse and 20,000 foot, and a greatly superior Turkish army, under Amurath II. The Turks were defeated, with a loss of 2,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners. This battle is also called the Battle of Nissa.
  
1443  
Battle of Kunobitza (Huniades ) Magyars victory
Fought 1443, between the Turks, under Amurath II, and the Hungarians, under John Hunniades. The Turks were utterly routed, and in consequence Amurath concluded with them a ten years' truce.
  
1444  
Battle of Varna (Huniades ) Turks victory
Fought November 10, 1444, between the Turks, under Amurath II, and the Hungarians, under King Ladislaus. The Hungarians attacked the Turkish camp, but were beaten off with heavy loss, the King being killed. On the following day Amurath stormed the Hungarian entrenchments, practitcally the whole of the defenders being put to the sword.
  
1447  
Battle of Kossova (Mohammed II ) Turks victory
Fought October 17, 1447, and two following days, between the Hungarians and Wallachians, 80,000 strong, under John Hunniades, and a vastly superior Turkish army, under Murad II. The Hungarians left their entrenchments to attack the Turks, and throughout the day the battle was evenly contested. On the 18th, however, the Wallachians deserted to the Turks, and the Hungarians, assailed in front and rear, were hard pressed, while on the 19th they were unable to maintain their position, and were forced to retire, defeated, with a loss of 17,000 killed and wounded. The Turks are said to have lost 40,000 men in the three days.
  
1453  
Fall of Constantinople (Mohammed II ) Turks victory
On April 6, 1453, the Turks again laid siege to Constantinople with 258,000 men under Mohammed II. The garrison, consisting of 5,000 Greeks and 2,000 foreigners, though short of ammunition, made a gallant defense, but were overpowered by numbers in a general assault on May 25, and the city was captured. Constantine Palnologus, the last Emperor of the East, was killed by an unknown hand, in the tumult which followed the storming of the ramparts.
  
1461  
Siege of Trebizond (Mohammed II Huniades ) Turks victory
This city, where the last representative of the family of Comnenus had taken refuge after the fall of Constantinople, was besieged by the Turks, under Mohammed II, in 1461. After a brief resistance the city surrendered, and the last vestige of the Empire of the East was swept away.
  
1456  
Siege of Belgrade (Solymon ) Serbians victory
Siege was laid to this city by a large Turkish army under Mohammed II, the defense being in the hands of John Hunyadi. After a gallant resistance of 40 days, the Turks were compelled to raise the siege, September 4, 1456. This was Hunyadi's last exploit, and he died a month later. Mohammed was wounded in the course of the siege.
  
1526  
Battle of Mohacz (Solymon ) Turks victory
Fought August 29, 1526, between 30,000 Hungarians, under King Lewis, and Tomore, Bishop of Kolocz, and over 100,000 Turks, with 300 guns, under Solyman the Magnificent. The Hungarians made a heroic resistance against overwhelming numbers, but were finally routed, leaving 22,000 dead on the field, including the king, 7 bishops, 28 magnates, and over 500 nobles. This disaster placed Hungary at the mercy of Solyman, and was quickly followed by the fall of Buda-Pesth.
  
1529  
Siege of Vienna (Solymon ) Austrians victory
This city, held by a garrison of 16,000 men, under Count de Salm, was besieged by Solyman the Magnificent, at the head of 120,000 Turks, in September, 1529. From the 27th of that month till October 14, the garrison withstood a series of assaults, culminating in an attempt to storm the breach, which were repulsed with heavy loss. Solyman thereupon raised the siege and withdrew.
  
1556  
Battle of Rinya (Solymon ) Austrians victory
Fought July 21, 1556, between 40,000 Turks, under Ali Pasha, and a comparatively small force of Austrians and Hungarians, under Thomas Nadasdy. The Turks were defeated with heavy loss, the Christians losing 300 men only.
  
1566  
Siege of Szigeth (Candian War ) Turks victory
This small place, held by a Hungarian garrison, under Count Zrinyi, was besieged by the Turks, under Solyman the Magnificent, in 1566. The siege was prosecuted with vigour but was fatal to the great Sultan, who died on the night of September 4. On the following day, however, the Turks stormed and sacked the town, and Count Zrinyi and his little garrison perished in the flames.
  

Decline of Ottoman Empire — 1687 to 1739     to top

Ottomans retreat from some of their European holdings in the Balkans.



DateBattle Summary
1644  
Siege of Canea (Candian War ) Venetians victory
This place was besieged June 24, 1644, by 50,000 Turks under Jussuf, the Capitan Pasha, and defended by a small force of Venetians and Canadians, who held out until August 22, repulsing numerous assaults, which cost the Turks 20,000 men.
  
1648  
Siege of Candia (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Turks victory
Siege was laid to this place by the Turks under Jussuf, the Capitan Pasha, in 1648, and was defended by a small garrison of Venetians, under Luigi Moncenigo. So vigorous was the defense that the Turks lost 20,000 men in the first six months of the siege. The siege lasted over twenty years, the place being from time to time revictualled and reinforced by the Venetians and the French, but it was finally surrendered by Morosini, September 27, 1669.
  
1687  
Battle of Mohacz (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
On the battlefield where 160 years previously Solyman had gained so decisive a victory, the Austrians and Hungarians signally defeated the Turks, under Mohammed IV, in 1687. In consequence of this disaster, following upon a long series of reverses, Mohammed was deposed by the discontented soldiery.
  
1691  
Battle of Salankemen (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 19, 1691, between 100,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Mustapha Kopriali Pasha, and 45,000 Imperialists, under the Margrave Louis. The Turks were signally defeated and Kopriali slain.
  
1696  
Battle of Bega (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Turks victory
Fought 1696, between the Turks, under Mustapha II, and the Imperialists, when the Turks gained a complete victory.
  
1697  
Battle of Zenta (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought September 11, 1697, between the Austrians, under Prince Eugene, and the Turks, under Elwas Mohammed, the Grand Vizier. Eugene attacked the Turkish army as it was crossing a temporary bridge over the Theiss, and the cavalry being already across, cut it in two, and completely routed the infantry, driving them into the river. The Turks lost 29,000 men. The Austrians 500 only.
  
1716  
Battle of Peterwaradin (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 5, 1716, when Prince Eugene, with 80,000 Imperialists, mostly veterans from the Flanders campaign, signally defeated 150,000 Turks under Darnad Ali Pasha. The Turks lost 30,000 killed, 50 standards and 250 guns. The Imperialists lost about 3,000.
  
1717  
Battle of Belgrade (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 16, 1717, between 40,000 Austrians under Prince Eugene, and 180,000 Turks under the Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pasha. The Turks were entrenched in and around Belgrade, and were attacked by Eugene at night. His right wing lost touch and were in danger of being overwhelmed, but was rescued by the Prince. The main attack was completely successful, and the Turks were driven out of their positions with a loss of 20,000 killed and wounded, and 166 guns. The Austrians lost almost as heavily, among those who fell being Marshal Hauben.
  
1738  
Battle of Kronia (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought 1738, between the Imperialists under Counts Wallis and Neipperg, and the Turks. The latter were defeated, but at very heavy cost, and the Imperial army was so weakened that it was unable to prevent the Turks capturing Semendaia, Orsova, and other important fortresses.
  
1739  
Battle of Krotzka (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought July 23, 1739, between 56,000 Austrians, under Count Wallis, and over 100,000 Turks, under El Hadj Mohammed Pasha. The Austrian vanguard was attacked by the Turks when approaching Kotzin and driven back, but the main body withstood the Turkish onslaught from 5 a.m. to sunset, when Wallis retired, with a loss of 5,700 killed and 4,500 wounded, including 9 generals. The Turkish loss is unknown, but was very heavy.
  
1739  
Battle of Grozka (Ottomans vs. Magyars ) Turks victory
Fought 1739, between the Austrians, under Count Neipperg, and the Turks, under the Grand Vizier. The Austrians were defeated, with heavy loss.
  
1663  
Battle of Parkany (Ottomans vs. Magyars ) Turks victory
Fought August, 1663, between 200,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Achmet Köprili Pasha, and the Hungarians, in far smaller force, under Count Forgacz. The Hungarians were defeated, and driven into Neuhausel, which town, after a valiant resistance of six weeks, capitulated September 24.
  
1664  
Battle of St. Gothard (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Germans&French victory
Fought August 1, 1664, between 100,000 Turks, under Achmet Kopriali Pasha, and 60,000 French and Germans, under Montecucculi, who occupied a strong position behind the Raab. On the Turks advancing to the attack, a young Turk rode out, and challenged a Christian to single combat. The challenge was accepted by the Chevalier de Lorraine, who killed his adversary. The Turks then assaulted Montecucculi's entrenchment, but could make no impression, and after hard fighting were beaten off with a loss of 8,000 killed.
  
1620  
Battle of Jassy (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Turks victory
Fought September 20, 1620, between the Poles under Gratiani, and the Turks, under Osman II. The Poles were completely defeated.
  
1622  
Battle of Kotzim (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Poles victory
Fought September 22, 1622, between the Poles, 60,000 strong, under Chodkiewicz, and the Turks, 300,000 in number, under Osman II. Chodkiewicz, old and worn out by fatigue, was forced to retire to his tent in the middle of the battle, and on his death-bed handed over the command to Labomirski, by whom the Turks were totally routed, with a loss of 30,000 men.
  
1660  
Battle of Klausenburg (Ottomans vs. Russia ) Turks victory
Fought May, 1660, between the Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Mahomet Koprili, and the Transylvanians, under the Voivode, George Ragotski II. The Turks gained a complete victory, Ragotski being mortally wounded.
  
1739  
Battle of Stavrichani (Ottomans vs.Russia ) Russians victory
Fought August 28, 1739, between 30,000 Russians, under General Münnich, and the Turkish army, under Veli Pasha. The Russians stormed the Turkish entrenched camp, driving the Turks headlong into the Danube, where thousands perished, and capturing all their guns and baggage. Münnich followed up this success by the capture of Choczin.
  
1737  
Siege of Oczakov (Polish Turk 1667 ) Russians victory
This fortress, defended by 10,000 Turks and Bosnians, was besieged 1737, by the Russians, under Count Münnich, and after the magazine had been blown up was stormed by the besiegers, and the garrison cut to pieces. In 1788 the place was again besieged by the Russians, under Potemkin, and after a strenuous resistance of six months, was taken by storm, December 17. In the massacre which followed, 40,000 of the garrison and inhabitants were put to the sword.
  
1667  
Battle of Podhajce (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1667, between 10,000 Poles, under John Sobieski, and 80,000 Cossacks and Tartars who were besieging Kaminiec. The Cossacks were totally routed and forced to evacuate Poland.
  
1673  
Battle of Kotzim (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought November 11, 1673, between 40,000 Poles and Lithuanians, under John Sobieski, and 80,000 Turks, under Hussein Pasha. The Turks occupied a strongly entrenched position, which was stormed by the Poles, and the Turks driven into the river, losing over 40,000 killed. In consequence of this signal victory, Kotzim capitulated, and Caplan Pasha, who was approaching with a large army, recrossed the frontier.
  
1676  
Battle of Soczawa (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski and the Turks, under Mohammed IV. The Poles, who had been reinforced by the Lithuanians, under Paz, totally routed the Turks, who were greatly superior in numbers, and drove them in confusion into Kaminiec, with the exception of which fortress, the whole of Poland was thus freed from the Ottoman invaders.
  
1676  
Battle of Zlotsow (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski, and 20,000 Turks and Tartars, under Mohammed IV. The Turks were signally defeated.
  
1676  
Siege of Zurakow (Siege of Vienna ) Poles victory
In 1676, John Sobieski, with 10,000 Poles, was besieged by 200,000 Turks and Tartars, under Ibrahim Pasha (Shahan). Having 63 guns, Sobieski made a sturdy defense, and by constant sorties inflicted enormous loss on the besiegers. At last, being unable to make any impression on the defense, and finding his army wasting away, Ibrahim consented to treat, and withdrew his forces from Polish territory. The Turks lost enormous numbers during the siege; the Poles lost 3,000.
  
1683  
Battle of Vienna   Poles victory
Fought September 12, 1683, between 300,000 Turks, under Kara Mustapha Pasha, and 70,000 Christians, under John Sobieski. The Turks were besieging Vienna, and Sobieski marched to its relief, with 30,000, bringing up the available forces to 70,000, of which he was given the command. With this army he attacked the Turkish lines, and after a sanguinary engagement, lasting throughout the day, routed the Turks with enormous loss. Six Pashas were killed, and Mustapha only escaped capture by a precipitate flight.
  

Wars of Louis XIV — 1640 to 1693     to top

War between France and Holland which embroiled most of the states of Europe, including England, Spain, Sweden and Brandenburg



DateBattle Summary
1640  
Battle of Casal (Scanian War ) French victory
Fought April 1640, between the French, 10,000 strong, under Harcourt, and the Spaniards, numbering 20,000, who were besieging Casal. Harcourt pierced the Spanish lines and totally defeated them, with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, 800 prisoners, and 18 guns.
  
1654  
Siege of Arras (Swedish Brandenburg ) French victory
This place, held by a French garrison, was besieged August, 1654, by the Spaniards under the Great Condé. On the 24th a relieving army under Turenne attacked the Spanish lines, and totally routed them with a loss of 3,000 men. Condé succeeded in rallying the remainder of his army, and made a masterly retreat to Cambray.
  
1674  
Battle of Seneff (Franco-Dutch ) drawn battle victory
Fought August 11, 1674, between the French, 45,000 strong, under Condé, and the Flemings and Spaniards, 60,000 strong, under the Prince of Orange. Orange, finding Condé's position too strong to attack, began a retreat towards Le Quesnay, thereby exposing his flank. Condé took instant advantage of this error, and dispersed the vanguard of the allies, but the Prince took up a strong position at Seneff, from which Condé was unable to dislodge him, and the conflict ended in a drawn battle, after seventeen hours' hard fighting.
  
1674  
Battle of Sinzheim (Portugal ) French victory
Fought October 4, 1674, between the French, under Turenne, and the Imperialists, under General Caprara and the Duke of Lorraine. The French gained a signal victory. This action is also known as the Battle of Entzheim.
  
1675  
Battle of Rathenow (Swedish Brandenburg ) Prussians victory
Fought June 25, 1675, between the Brandenburgers, 15,000 strong, under the Elector Frederick William, and the Swedes, under Charles XI. The Swedes, wearied by a long march, were surprised by the Elector in their camp, and suffered a serious reverse.
  
1675  
Battle of Fehrbellin (Swedish Brandenburg ) Prussians victory
Fought June 28, 1675, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the Brandenburgers, 15,000 strong, under the Elector, Frederick William. The Swedes were totally defeated, and forced to evacuate Brandenburg.
  
1676  
Battle of Entholm (Scanian War ) danes victory
Fought June 11, 1676, between the Danish fleet, under van Tromp, and Swedes. The Swedes were defeated with very heavy loss in ships and men.
  
1676  
Battle of Landskrone (Scanian War ) swedes victory
Fought July 14, 1676, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the Danes, under Christian V, in which the Danes suffered a serious defeat.
  
1676  
Battle of Bornholm (Scanian War ) Danes victory
Fought 1676, between the fleet of Charles XI of Sweden, and a combined Dutch and Danish squadron. The Swedes were utterly routed, a disaster which was followed by the loss of Helsingborg, Landscroon, and other fortresses.
  
1676  
Battle of Lunden (Scanian War ) swedes victory
Fought 1676, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the Danes, under Christian V. Both sides claimed the victory, but the advantage rested with the Swedes, for Christian had to fall back upon Copenhagen, while Charles forced the Danes to raise the siege of Malmoe.
  
1677  
Battle of Kioge (Scanian War ) Danes victory
Fought July, 1677, between the Danish fleet, under Admiral Juel, and the Swedes, under Admiral Horn. The Swedes suffered a disastrous defeat, losing eleven ships of the line sunk or captured.
  
1677  
Battle of Rostock (south of douai ) Danes victory
Fought June, 1677, between the Danish fleet, under Admiral Juel, and the Swedes, under Admiral Horn. The Swedes were completely defeated.
  
1679  
Battle of Splitter   Prussians victory
Fought January, 1679, between 16,000 Swedes, under Field-Marshal Horn, and 10,000 Brandenburgers, under the Elector Frederick William. The Swedes were utterly routed, Horn being taken prisoner, and not more than 1,500 succeeded in making their way to Riga.
  

Franco Spanish War — 1649 to 1656     to top

War between France and Spain began with a French civil war called 'the Fronde'.



DateBattle Summary
1649  
Battle of Palais Gallien (War of the Fronde ) royals victory
Fought September 5, 1649, between the Royal troops, 8,000 strong, under the Marshal de la Meilleraic, and 7,000 Bordelais, under the Dues de Bouillon and de la Rochefoucauld. The Bordelais successfully repulsed four or five assaults, but by nightfall were driven from their entrenchments into the city, with a loss of about 120. The assailants lost over 1,000 killed and wounded.
  
1652  
Battle of Porte St. Antoine (War of the Fronde ) royals victory
Fought July 2, 1652, between the Royal troops, under Turenne, and 5,000 insurgents, under Condé. Condé occupied a position round the gate, protected by barricades and fortified houses, where he was attacked by Turenne. The barricades were taken and retaken several times, but at last, after heavy fighting, Condé abandoned all idea of penetrating into Paris, and retired. His losses were heavy, especially in officers, among the severely wounded being the Due de Nemurs, and the Due de la Rochefoucauld.
  
1649  
Battle of Charenton   royals victory
Fought February 8, 1649, between the Royal troops, 8,000 strong, under the Great Condé, and the forces of the Paris Parliament under Clauleu. Condé gained a complete victory, driving the Frondeurs from all their entrenchments, and forcing them back upon Paris with heavy loss, including Too officers. Among the slain was Clauleu.
  
1475  
Siege of Perpignan   French victory
This fortress was besieged by the French, 11,000 strong, under the Seigneur du Lude, at the end of 1474, and was defended by a Spanish garrison. The Spanish army could not succeed in relieving the place, and after holding out with great gallantry until March 14, 1475, the garrison, reduced to 400 men, surrendered, and were allowed to march out with the honors of war. The capture of Perpignan gave France possession of Rousillon.
  
1656  
Battle of Valenciennes (Austrian Succession ) Spanish victory
Defended by a Spanish garrison under Francisco de Manesses, Valenciennes was besieged June, 1656, by the French, under Turenne and La Ferte. The French encamped in two divisions on the opposite side of the Scheldt, and when the city was on the point of surrendering, La Ferte's division was attacked by 20,000 Spaniards, under Condé, and totally routed with a loss of 400 officers and 4,000 men, before Turenne could come to his assistance. In consequence of this defeat, Turenne was forced to abandon the siege and retire.
  

Anglo Dutch Wars — 1652 to 1672     to top

England and Holland battle at sea for command of colonial trade.



DateBattle Summary
1652  
Battle of Goodwin Sands (First ) Dutch victory
Fought November 29, 1652, between a Dutch fleet of 95 sail, under Van Tromp, and an English fleet of 40 ships, under Blake. The Dutch were victorious, the English fleet being much cut up, and two ships captured.
  
1653  
Battle of Portland (First ) English victory
Fought February 18, 1653, between an English fleet of about 70 sail, under Blake, Deane and Monk, and a Dutch fleet of 73 ships, convoying 300 merchantmen, under Van Tromp, de Ruyter and Evetzen. In the early part of the engagement, which was very severely contested, three English ships were carried by the board, and that portion of the fleet which had come into action was nearly overwhelmed. At this crisis, however, the rest of the English ships engaged, the battle was restored, and the captured ships retaken. On the 19th the battle was renewed off the Isle of Wight, 5 Dutch ships being captured or destroyed. On the l0th the Dutch sheered off defeated, having lost during the three days' fighting, 11 men-of-war, 60 merchant ships, 1,500 killed and wounded and 700 prisoners. The English losses were also heavy.
  
1653  
Battle of Leghorn (First ) Dutch victory
Fought off Leghorn March 31, 1653, when six English ships, under Commodore Appleton, were destroyed by a Dutch fleet of 16 sail, under Admiral Van Gelen. Only a sloop escaped the destruction. Van Gelen was mortally wounded during the action.
  
1653  
Battle of Texel (First ) English victory
Fought June 2, 1653, between a British fleet, under Monk, and a Dutch fleet, under Van Tromp. The action was undecided, but on the following day, Monk having been reinforced by 18 ships, under Admiral Blake, renewed the attack, and signally defeated Van Tromp, with a loss of 11 ships and 1,300 prisoners taken, and 6 ships sunk. The British lost 20 ships and 363 killed and wounded.
  
1665  
Battle of Southwoid Bay (Second ) English victory
Fought 1665, between the English fleet, under the Duke of York, and the Dutch fleet, under Admiral Opdam. The English were completely victorious, the Dutch losing 18 ships and 7,000 men. The English lost one ship only, and 700 men.
  
1666  
Battle of the Downs (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought June 1, 2 and 3, 1666, between the English fleet under the Duke of Albemarle, and the Dutch under De Ruyter, Van Tromp and De Witt. After an obstinate fight, Albemarle, on the 3rd, retired, after setting fire to his disabled vessels, but the Dutch were too seriously crippled to pursue.
  
1666  
Battle of the Goodwins (Second ) Dutch victory
Fought July 1, 1666, between a British fleet of 60 sail, under the Duke of Albemarle, and a Dutch fleet of 71 sail-of-the-line, and 30 smaller vessels under van Tromp and de Ruyter, The action lasted two days, and was desperately contested, but the Dutch being reinforced in the morning of the 3rd, Albemarle bore away. On the 4th, having been joined by Prince Rupert's squadron, he renewed the attack, but without success. The English lost 10 ships, while most of the others were disabled. The killed and wounded amounted to 1,700, while 2,000 were taken prisoners.
  
1666  
Battle of North Foreland (Second ) English victory
Fought July 25, 1666, between the English fleet, under the Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert, and the Dutch, under Van Tromp and de Ruyter. The English gained a complete victory, capturing or burning 20 ships. The Dutch had 4,000 men killed or drowned.
  
1667  
Battle of St. Kitts (Second ) English victory
Fought May 10, 1667, when Sir John Harman, commanding an English squadron of 12 frigates, fell in with a combined Dutch and French fleet of 22 sail, under Commodore Kruysen and M. de la Barre, off St. Kitts. Notwithstanding his inferiority, Harman boldly attacked, and gained a signal victory, burning 5 and sinking several more of the enemy's vessels. The allies took refuge in the harbour of St. Kitts, and Sir John, following them in, destroyed the rest of their fleet, at a cost of 80 men only.
  
1667  
Battle of Sheerness (Second ) Dutch victory
Fought June 7, 1667, and following days, when the Dutch fleet, under de Ruyter, sailed up the Medway as far as Upnor Castle, and destroyed 7 ships of war.
  
1672  
Battle of Solebay (Third ) drawn battle victory
Fought May 28, 1672, when the French and English fleets, together about 140 sail, under the Comte d'Estrees and the Duke of York, were surprised at anchor, by a Dutch fleet of 115 ships, under de Ruyter. The French were first attacked, but soon edged out of the fight, and the bulk of the work fell to the English. The battle was indecisive, for though the Dutch lost five or more ships, and the English one only, the allied fleet was too crippled to take the offensive for over a month after the action.