British Middle Ages—Stuarts and Civil War
1603 to 1714
James I Stuart to Death of Anne
Era Summary—Stuarts and Civil War
The reign of the Stuarts, lasting from 1603 to 1714, coincided almost exactly with the 17th century and was the most significant in English history in terms of formation of modern ideas of political and religious liberty. By the end of the Stuart reign, England was governed primarily by a democratically elected parliament and the idea of "freedom of conscience" was well established. Obviously these ideas had not yet been followed to their ultimate conclusion, since only the wealthiest class was allowed to vote and Catholics were still persecuted, but it was Englishmen living under the turbulent Stuart reign who laid the foundations for western style democracy and religious pluralism, an achievement unparalleled by any other nation, even within Christendom.
The problem of reporting on the evolution of ideas is that ideas are complicated and controversial, whereas events are relatively straight forward. The "dictates of conscience" were not a particularly important factor during the, for example, since loyalty by all parties was determined primarily through self-interest. The , on the other hand, were the result of a convoluted mixture of strongly held religious principles, ideals of self-government, dismay at the corruption of existing institutions, loyalty to traditional institutions, and good old-fashioned self-interest. There were brave and heroic men on all sides (not both sides, for this was a many-sided conflict) as well opportunists and tyrants. Bearing in mind the complexities of the situation, the Stuart reign proceeded as follows:
When Elizabeth died, the crown passed to her grand-nephew,, (a.k.a. James VI of Scotland). Scotland was governed independently of England at the time, but was a much poorer and more backward nation. Like England, Scotland had been greatly affected by the reformation, but instead of merely breaking with Rome and establishing a state church, the Scottish Presbyterians favored more radical Calvinist style reforms, which did away entirely with the priesthood, the organized church, and the liturgy. This was important because although the Catholic religion had already been proscribed in England by the beginning of the Stuarts' reign, the worst persecutions and religious wars in Englandís history were still to come. Rather than between Protestants and Catholics, they were between two forms of Protestantism. These antagonists were the Anglicans, who urged preservation of much of the traditional liturgy and organization, and the Puritans, who favored the complete abolition of an established church.
Although James had grown up entirely under the sway of the Presbyterian Scots, he was by no means sympathetic to many of their ideas. He saw that rejecting the ideal of traditional authority was but a step towards rejecting the idea of a king. The Scots as a whole were greatly bound by traditional loyalty to their Stuart kings, who had ruled in Scotland for hundreds of years, but there were radicals among the Presbyterians with dangerous ideas regarding self-government. James therefore allied himself with the interests of the Anglican Church and repressed the non-conformists in England. It was during the reign of James that the Puritans settled the New England colonies in America. Other important events of the reign of James I included a failed Catholic rebellion called theand the publication of the King James Bible.
Charles I and the English Civil War
James I quarreled with his Parliament, which was becoming more sympathetic to the cause of the Puritans, but a full scale war between Parliament and the king did not break out until the reign of his son. Compared to previous kings Charles I was not particularly tyrannical, but the disposition of Parliament had changed considerably since the age of the Tudors. England was becoming a wealthy and powerful trading nation; the cities were growing larger; the middle-class was rising in importance; gunpowder and long-bows had changed the nature of warfare; and the old ideas of being ruled by a landed aristocracy was resisted by many of the best men of the nation. The ideas of self-government and freedom of conscience in religious matters were hopelessly intermixed, but when war finally broke out the essential division was between the traditionalists, who supported the king and the Anglican Church, and the Puritans, who supported more rights for Parliament and the disestablishment of the state church. From the very beginning, however, loyalties were mixed on both sides. For example, about a third of Parliament decided to fight for the king, and many Scots who opposed the Anglican Church were entirely loyal to their Stuart king.
Cromwell and the Commonwealth
After the first phase of the(1642-1645), the king was captured. Parliament and the army sought a compromise but could not find one. The king was eventually beheaded by his enemies, but even this brought no closure to the conflict. The civil war continued to rage, first in Ireland and then in Scotland. The man who had come to the fore during the civil war was , whose highly disciplined "Ironsides" had brought Parliament the victory. He was an extremely controversial figure, who, like Charles I, attempted to dissolve parliament when it disagreed with him. He presided over the Commonwealth of England, ruling essentially as a dictator. During this period the Anglican church was disestablished and many prominent families, including the ancestors of some of Americaís founding fathers, moved to Virginia, a royalist stronghold. Cromwell did much to advance the cause of religious freedom for everyone but Catholics and Anglicans, but was extremely unpopular with the general population, who decided that the only thing worse than a lax and corrupt government was a stringent and incorruptible government.
The Restoration and "Glorious Revolution"
When Cromwell died, therefore, one of his Puritan generals proposed ro restoreto the throne as long as he promised to respect the rights of Parliament and the religious freedom of the Puritans. Naturally this did not resolve the issue; persecutions and abuses continued. Charles II's reign was wrought with crises, including a terrible plague, the great fire of London, and an invasion by the Dutch navy. But although troubles and controversies continued between the monarchy and parliament, the inclination to turn to civil war to resolve them was abated. A crisis within the monarchy did not arise again until the death of Charles II, at which time his brother , a Catholic, ascended to the throne. His attempt to pass laws granting tolerance and opportunities to Catholics united the always feuding Protestants in hysterical opposition, and within a short time he was driven from the throne in favor of his daughter and son-in-law, who were loyal Protestants. The English refer to this as the "glorious revolution" because it was accomplished almost entirely without bloodshed on English soil although it did result in the in Ireland and Scotland. and Mary assumed the throne at the behest of Parliament, thereby permanently establishing the precedence of Parliament over royal prerogative.
After Mary's death her sister Anne assumed the throne. During the remainder of the Stuart reign the idea that one could accomplish political change through elected representatives rather than by petitioning a sovereign took hold and party politics became the accepted way of doing business. The Royalists became the Tory or conservative party, and the Whig, party represented the old Roundhead cause. A few other notable things occurred during Anneís reign. Her best general, the, won a great victory in France at the battle of Blenheim, a critical turning point in the . This was very important in terms of curtailing the power of who was by far the most important monarch of the age. Also, the Act of Union in 1707 permanently united Scotland and England into the country of Great Britain by combining the two parliaments. Finally, the Act of Settlement established that when Anne should die, the crown would pass to the Hanovers of Germany. Thus the groundwork was laid for the rise of the British Empire.
Characters—Stuarts and Civil War
|First Stuart king of England. Intelligent and competent, but unable to work effectively with Parliament.|
|Second Stuart king. His quarrels with Parliament led to civil war and his execution.|
|King of Netherlands, called to be king of England when James II, his father-in-law, was deposed.|
|Last of the Stuart queens, lived during the War of the Spanish Succession.|
|Cousin of James Stuart. Distant heir to throne. Prevented from marrying by jealous relations.|
|Daughter of James I. Married Elector of Palatine, but they lost their duchy in 30 years war.|
|Military leader of Parliament who headed the Commonwealth government after death of Charles I.|
|Military commander turned admiral who took a leading role in the Anglo-Dutch Naval Wars.|
|Kept a diary during the reign of Charles II; mentions the plague, the great fire, and much else.|
|Most renowned general of his age. Prevailed against the French at the Battle of Blenheim.|
|Wife of Lord Russell, who was executed for opposing the restoration of Charles II.|
|Explosives expert of the infamous "Gunpowder Plot" to blow up Parliament.|
Arts and Sciences
|Chancellor of England, and advocate of the scientific method of experiment and induction.|
|John Milton was friend of Cromwell and a poet. His most famous work was Paradise Lost.|
|Outstanding scientist. Made important breakthroughs in physics, optics, and mathematics.|
|Author of Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders.|
|Explorer who discovered Hudson Bay and other parts of North America.|
|Adventurer, leader and early settler at Jamestown. Befriended Pocahontas.|
|Founded French colonies in the St. Lawrence seaway and great lake region. Father of 'New France.'|
|Governed the Church of England during the reign of Charles I. Very unpopular with parliament.|
|Founder of the 'Society of Friends,' better known as Quakers.|
Timeline—Stuarts and Civil War
|1605||to blow up Parliament is discovered, held responsible.|
|1607||Founding of Jamestown colony in Virgina.|
|1607||Voyages ofto the new world.|
|1611||version of the Bible first published in England.|
|1620||Voyage of the Mayflower; Puritans settle in New England.|
|. Parliament vs. King.|
|1642||Battle of Edgehill—opening battle in Civil War.|
|1645||Battle of Naseby—is taken prisoner.|
|1649||Execution of Charles I,invades Ireland.|
|Commonwealth, lead by Cromwell.|
|1653||: naval war fought over commercial interests.|
|1665||Great Plague of London.|
|1667||Great Fire of London.|
|1688||Glorious Revolution:deposed by and Mary.|
|1689||—James II exiled to France after the Battle of Boyne.|
|1689||Toleration Act is passed, providing freedom of worship to "non-conforming" Christians.|
|checks the growing influence of France under .|
|1704||British victory at the Battle of Bleinhiem under.|
|1704||British gain possession of the gateway to the Mediterranean at the Siege of Gibralter.|
|1707||England and Scotland join to become Great Britain.|
Recommended Reading—Stuarts and Civil War
Read chapters from "core" texts before reviewing study questions.
* Level I & II study questions are based on Core Reading Assignments.