The American Indian unit of Heritage Academy's Early American course is under development. At this time, most study questions about American Indians are interspersed with those of the Colonial Era, Early Republic, and Westward Expansion units. We plan to add additional books on this topic and develop a more comprehensive approach in the future. For the time being, however, we have completed a core reading list, a timeline, and a list of prominent characters.
|Daughter of an Indian Chieftain who helped the early settlers in the Jamestown Colony in Virginia.
|Chief of the Powhatan confederacy and father of Pocahontas. Kept an uneasy peace with Jamestown settlers.
|Queen of the Pamunkey, following the Powhatan wars, who made an alliance with the Virginia government during Bacon's rebellion.
|Leader of the Powhatan confederacy who led an Indian massacre against Jamestown beginning in 1622, which killed hundreds of white settlers.
New England Indians
|New England Indian who helped the pilgrims their first year in Plymouth Colony.
|First American Indian encountered by the Pilgrims at the Plymouth colony.
|Indian chief who befriended the pilgrims and lived in peace with them for forty years in Massachusetts.
|Indian leader of Iroquois Indians who was the subject of a famous Longfellow poem.
|Leader of the Wampanoags who led the first serious uprising against the white settlers in New England.
Northwest (Great Lakes) Indians
|Indian leader who tried to be neutral during the Revolutionary War, but was murdered.
|Leader of a Great Lakes tribe who planned a rebellion. His attempt to take fort Detroit was thwarted by an Indian who warned the garrison.
|Indian chief who was friendly to white settlers until his family was killed. He then warred against the U.S.
|Indian chief from the Ohio Valley who first fought against the U.S. but later counseled Peace.
|Shawnee Hero. Tried to unify tribes against the colonists. Fought for Britain during War of 1812.
|Choctaw chieftain who resisted de Soto at the Battle of Mauvila during his expedition through the southwest.
|AmerIndian chief who frustrated warred against the United States in the Seminole Wars.
|Half-breed Seminole Warrior who resisted the settlement of Florida.
|Important Indian chief in the Illinois territory. Inspired the Sauks to resist the Americans during the Black Hawk War.
|Indian woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark during their explorations of the Louisiana Purchase.
|Cheyenne chief who tried to make peace, but was sabotaged by aggressive acts of his own Indians as well as the white settlers.
|Shoshone Indian War Chief
|Apache Indian War Chief.
|Navajo Indian War Chief.
|Chief of a Piute tribe. First befriended the white settlers, but rebelled when his tribe was mistreated.
|Sioux Indian War Chief.
|Last Apache Warrior to hold out against the U.S. Army. Finally capitulated and became a celebrity.
|Medicine man who organized resistance to U.S. Army. His warriors defeated Custer at Little Bighorn.
|Ponca chieftain whose tribe was forcibly removed from their settlement. He later 'sued' the government and won.
|Led a tribe of Modocs off the Klamath reservation to their native home, where they held out caves for several months.
|Dakota Indian chief who fought against the American army at Rosebud and Little Big Horn.
|Led Nez Perces in a resistance against the encroachment of white settlers. Finally surrendered.
|Daughter of Chief Winnemucca. Served as translator between Piutes and U.S. Army. Wrote a book.
Spanish contacts in North America: 1492-1800
|makes his first expediton to Florida.
|leads and expedition through the Southeast, discovers the Mississippi.
|leads a Spanish expedition to New Mexico.
Early Colonies: 1600-1700
|Pocahontas, daughter of chief Powhatan, saves the life of.
|marries John Rolfe and travels to England.
|Indian massacre led by the Powhatan Confederacy kills 350 Jamestown colonists.
|Second Indian massacre of settlers leads toagainst Virginia tribes.
|Nathaniel Bacon leads a rebellion because of the governor's failure to protect settlers from Indians.
|decimate native tribes in the Carolina colony.
|in Connecticut decimates the Pequot tribe.
|is the most deadly conflict between Massachusetts settlers and New England tribes.
Northwest Indian Wars: 1763-1832
|'s family and 50 other settlers settle in Boonesborough, Kentucky.
|Rufus Putnam founds the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territories in Marietta, Ohio.
|Battle of Fallen Timbers bringsto a close.
|and lead an expedition to explore Louisiana Purchase.
|: defeats Shawnees in Indiana Territory.
Florida/Alabama Indian Wars
|fights in Alabama.
|leads in Florida.
Sioux Wars: 1854-1890
|Dakota War drives Santee Sioux out of Minnesota Territory
|devastates Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of the Rockies.
|Lakota and Cheyene fight for their tribal lands inin Montana/Wyoming.
|'s army of six hundred whiped out at in Sioux territory.
|300 Lakotas killed at, when army attempts to confiscate guns.
Western Indian Wars: 1865-1896
|Jesuit Pierre deSmet travels throughout Oregon Territory setting up Indian missions.
|Whitman Massacre kills 14 early settlers in Washington State.
Core Reading Assignments
|Drake - Indian History for Young Folks
|Burton - Massasoit
|Eastman - Indian Heroes and the Great Chieftains
|Eastman - Indian Boyhood
|Perry - Four American Indians
|Sabin - Boy's Book of Indian Warriors
|Sabin - Boys' Book of Border Battles
|The Battle of Adobe Walls to When Ghost Shirts Failed (7)
|Sabin - Frontier Fighters
|Hugh Glass and Grizzly Bear to The Sibley Scout (10)
|Schultz - With the Indians in the Rockies
|Abbott - King Philip
|Abbott - The Adventures of Kit Carson
|Ober - Ferdinand De Soto and the Invasion of Florida
|The Landing in Florida to Last Days of De Soto (14)
|Ober - Juan Ponce de Leon
|The Fount of Perennial Youth to Juan Ponce's Last Campaign (8)
|Grinnell - Trails of the Pathfinders
|Schultz - Bird Woman —Guide of Lewis and Clark
|Grinnell - Blackfeet Indian Stories
|Grinnell - When Buffalo Ran
|Howard - Famous Indian Chiefs I Have Known
|Hudson - The Famous Missions of California
|Eastman - The Soul of the Indian
|Fitch - Junipero Serra