1823 to 1901
Ashantis — versus — British, and Fanti
First Ashanti War— 1823-1826 Second Ashanti War— 1873-1874
Third Ashanti War and Ashanti Uprising— 1894-1901
The Europeans had traded on the west coast of Africa for hundreds of years. By the 19th century, the slave trade was officially forbidden by Britain, but the trade in gold and ivory continued. During all this time, the Europeans, (mostly French, Dutch and British by the 19th century) only inhabited coastal islands and forts, and did not venture inland at all. The Europeans dealt only with the coastal tribes, and largely ignored inter-tribal disputes, as long as they didn't affect the tribes with which they directly conducted their business.
First Ashanti War : 1823-1826
|Battle of Accra (
Fought 1824, between 10,000 Ashantis and a force of 1,000 British under Sir Charles McCarthy. The British were surrounded and routed by the natives, McCarthy being killed.
|Battle of Accra (
Fought 1825, between 15,000 Ashantis and 400 British troops, with 4,600 native auxiliaries. The Ashantis were completely defeated, and the king compelled to abandon his designs on Cape Coast Castle.
|Battle of Dodowah (
Fought 1826, between the Ashanti army, which had invaded the Gold Coast, and the British under Colonel Purdon. The Ashantis fought bravely, but were routed with heavy loss.
|Governor of the British trading post in the Gold Coast, who was killed by the Ashanti.|
Second Ashanti War : 1873-1874
|Battle of Amoaful (
Fought January 31, 1874, when the British expeditionary force under Sir Garnet Wolseley defeated the Ashantis after a desperate resistance, which cost the assailants 16 officers and 174 men killed and wounded. The 42nd Regiment, which led the attack, lost 9 officers and 105 men.
|King of Ashanti's who lead the second Ashanti War.|
|British general who led several wars in Africa including putting down the Arabi and Ashanti rebellions.|
Third Ashanti War and Ashanti Uprising : 1894-1901
Since Brtain did not make any attempt to break up the Ashanti confederacy, they soon re-emerged as a dominant power, and soon afterward, a new Ashanti king came to power who repudiated much of the treaty with Britain. In 1893, the Ashantis again made incursions into the British protectorate, and this gave the British a pretext for making new demands on the Ashanti government, including both the keeping of previous treaties, and accepting additional constraints. When the British received no response, they invaded Ashanti-land but met little resistance, and quickly dominated the region. The Third Ashanti War was one of several British Imperial Wars that were likely motivated both by genuine humanitarian concerns, and also by economic and imperial ambitions. The european powers had recently 'carved up' Africa, and established guidelines for colonial expansion which provided that any region claimed as a colony must first be actually occupied, hence the necessity establishing a residency in the Ashanti Capital of Kumasi.
Several years after the imposition of British residency in Ashanti-land, a major rebellion occurred, incited by a British demand that the Kusami tribe turn over the golden stool on which they enthrone their kings. By this time however, the confederation was broken up, and only certain tribes, including the Kusami, rebelled. The rebelling tribes besieged all of the European residents as well as many of their native allies in the fort in Kusami. The outcome of this rebellion, which took several months to put down, was that Britain formally annexed all of Ashanti-land into the British dominions, and created the Crown Colony of the Gold Coast.
|King of Ashanti's during the Third Ashanti War. Exiled by the British.|
|British Governor of Ashanti-land. Incited a rebellion by his unreasonable demands.|
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|Conclusion in||The Land of the Golden Trade by John Lang|
|Story of British West Africa in||Growth of the British Empire by M. B. Synge|
|British in West Africa in||The Reign of Queen Victoria by M. B. Synge|