The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins. — H. L. Mencken

Boer Wars

1848 to 1902
Boers — versus — British

Boomplaats — 1848      First Boer War — 1880-1881     
Second Boer War—:Overview — 1899-1902      The Boer Offensive — Oct-Dec 1899     
The British Offensive — Jan-Sept 1900      The Guerilla Campaign — 1900-1902     

Introduction

The strife between Britain and the Boers, (descendents of the Dutch farmers who settled in South Africa in the mid seventeenth century) began soon after the British gained control of the Cape colony during the Napoleonic Wars. The causes of the contention were many, but two of the major factors were the resolution of the British to abolish slavery in their territories, and their failure to protect the outlying Boer farms from raids by the natives (while refusing to allow the Boers to deal with the problem in their own manner). The Boers were a rugged and independent race, who had survived in a hostile environment, surrounded by savage natives, wild-beasts, and a difficult terrain for generations, while the British were exceedingly civilized, idealistic, and officious. The Boers resented Britain's interference in their way of life, and sought to escape their sphere of influence.

Boomplaats : 1848

In the mid 1840's a large number of Boers, called Voertrekkers, migrated to the eastern coastal area of Natal, where they sought to purchase land from the Zulus. After an initial disastrous encounter with the Zulu king Dingan, the Boers prevailed over the native tribes, and negotiated a peace under which they were granted land. Britain, who feared to lose control of the region, soon annexed the region into British territory, but did nothing to enforce their claim until 1848. At that point, the first military encounter between the Boers and Britain occurred at the Battle of Boomplaats. The Boers, led by Andre Pretorius, occupied the town of Bloemfontein, but were driven out by the British. The British were led by Harry Smith, a governor of the region who had dealt fairly with the Boers in the past, and sincerely wanted them to remain content as British subjects. Many Boers trusted him and so resolved to stay in the region, but others disliked British rule too much to compromise and so resettled North of the Vaal river in a region later called Transvaal.



DateBattle Summary
1848  
Battle of Boomplaats (Boomplaats ) British victory
Fought August 29, 1848, between the British, 500 strong, with 250 Griquas, under Sir Harry Smith, and a force of 1,000 Transvaal Boers under Commandant Jan Kock. The British stormed the Boer position and drove out the defenders, at a cost of 22 killed and 38 wounded. The Boers stated their losses at 5 killed and 9 wounded.
  


Commander
Short Biography
Harry Smith Notable British military commander who served in the Peninsular War and afterward India and South Africa.
Andries Pretorius Leader of Boers who avenged death of Piet Retief, and formed the Transvaal Republic.


Story Links
Book Links
Family Quarrel  in  South Africa  by  Ian D. Colvin
Rebellion of Slachter's Nek  in  Our Empire Story  by  H. E. Marshall


First Boer War : 1880-1881

boer
MAJUBA HILL, WHERE 150 BOER VOLUNTEERS DEFEATED 600 BRITISH SOLDIERS.
The British found that governing the outlying regions of South Africa was very difficult. The Cape Town Government attempted to make treaties with the tribal chiefs, and were faced with difficult dilemmas when the chiefs broke the treaties. Eventually the British government agreed to withdraw their claim to the territory of the Boers, and in 1854 allowed the Boers to form their own republic, called the Orange Free State. The Transvaal Boers also formed their own republic, north of the Vaal, called the South African Republic. Eventually diamonds were found in the Orange Free State. Britain finagled control of the mines and averted a major conflict with the Republic by paying off the aggrieved state. Britain's problems with the Northern Boer Republic, which mainly involved extreme differences of opinion regarding the "native" issue, were not so easily solved. Britain eventually marched into the region and took over the government, but when they did, they inherited the Boer's Zulu problems, which resulted in the disastrous Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. No sooner had the British finished fighting the Zulus, but the Boer's rebelled and thus began the First Boer War.

The duration of the first Boer war was very short. The British were defeated at every turn, and the government in London had no interest in pursuing the war to completion, so it conceded independence to the Boers after a particularly humiliating defeat at Majuba Hill. The concession to the Boers was particularly controversial, because many British leaders felt it was a disgraceful defeat, which should not have been allowed to stand.



DateBattle Summary
1880  
Battle of Bronkhorst Spruit (First ) Boers victory
The opening engagement of the war, when, on December 20, 1880, a British column, 259 strong, under Colonel Anstruther, was ambushed by 150 mounted Boers under Joubert, and defeated with a loss of 155 killed and wounded. The Boers stated their losses at 2 killed and 5 wounded only.
  
1881  
Battle of Lang's Nek (First ) Boers victory
Fought January 28, 1881, when a British column, 1,100 strong, under General Colley, attacked the Boers in a strong position at Lang's Nek. The British were repulsed with a loss of 198 killed and wounded. The Boers lost 14 killed and 27 wounded.
  
1881  
Battle of Ingogo (First ) Boers victory
Fought February 8, 1881 when a small British column, consisting of 5 companies of infantry, 4 guns, and a small mounted force, attacked the Boer position, and were repulsed with a loss of 139 killed and wounded. The Boers admitted a loss of 14 only.
  
1881  
Battle of Majuba (First ) Boers victory
Fought February 27, 1881, when a British column, 647 strong, under Sir George Colley, posted on the summit of Majuba Hill, was attacked and driven off by the Boers under General Joubert. A strong party of young Boers stormed the hill while the fire of the defenders was kept down by a picked body of marksmen, and the British were driven from their position with heavy loss, especially during the retirement down the hillside. The casualties amounted to 223 killed and wounded, Sir George Colley being killed, and 50 prisoners. The Boer losses were very small. After this disaster an armistice was agreed to, and peace soon afterwards concluded.
  


Commander
Short Biography
Sir Theophilus Shepstone British commander who reclaimed the Boer Republic for Britain
Piet Joubert Boer general during the First Boer War
Sir George Colley British General during the First Boer War. Defeated and killed on Majuba Hill.
Paul Kruger Boer leader who resisted British rule, and was president of the Transvaal Republic.


Story Links
Book Links
Upon Majuba's Height  in  Our Empire Story  by  H. E. Marshall
Dutch Republics of South Africa  in  Growth of the British Empire  by  M. B. Synge
In South Africa  in  The Reign of Queen Victoria  by  M. B. Synge


Second Boer War—Overview : 1899-1902

boer
BOER FIRING DURING THE SIEGE OF LADYSMITH
Twenty years after the First Boer War, the British resumed the conflict and fought the second Boer War to the bitter end. It was a horribly costly war in terms of human life, and unlike many of Britain's previous imperial wars, where the losses were suffered primarily by Britain's adversaries, the Boers took a tremendous toll on the British themselves. The resources of the Boers however, in both manpower and weapons however, was so inferior to the British that eventually they were overcome, but not before establishing their reputation as the most resilient foe that Britain had ever faced.

Only five years after the close of the First Boer War, an enormous quantity of gold was discovered in the territory of the Boer's Transvaal Republic. As thousands of British citizens and other foreigners flocked to the gold-fields, the conflicts between the British government in Cape Town, and that of the Boer republics increased. There were conflicts over taxes, rail transportation, the rights of British citizens settled in the gold city of Johannesburg, and alliances with other nations. But there was also an over-arching vision, by Cecil Rhodes and many other imperialist Britons, of a unified South Africa governed as part of the British Commonwealth, and the very existence of the Boer Republics threatened this vision. One of Rhodes' cronies attempted to incite an uprising in Johannesburg in order to overthrow the government of the Transvaal. The attempt failed, but at that point the Boer's prepared for war. When negotiations broke down, the Boers did not wait to be invaded, but went immediately on the offensive.

Story Links
Book Links
Boers in Battle  in  With the Boer Forces  by  Howard C. Hillegas
Generals of the War  in  With the Boer Forces  by  Howard C. Hillegas
Incidents of the War  in  With the Boer Forces  by  Howard C. Hillegas
War and Peace  in  Our Empire Story  by  H. E. Marshall
Victoria—Boer and Briton  in  Our Island Story  by  H. E. Marshall
Return to India—South African War—Conclusion in  The Story of Lord Roberts  by  Edmund Francis Sellar
Transvaal War  in  The Reign of Queen Victoria  by  M. B. Synge
War in South Africa  in  The World at War  by  M. B. Synge


Book Links
With the Boer Forces  by  Howard Hillegas

The Boer Offensive : Oct-Dec 1899

As soon as war was declared the Boers moved aggressively. They besieged Kimberly, Mafeking and Ladysmith and then had numerous engagements with British forces sent to relieve the sieges. During the first few months of the war, things went from bad to worse for the British, culminating in a series of disastrous battles in mid December.



DateBattle Summary
1899  
Siege of Mafeking (Second ) British victory
This small township, entirely destitute of regular defenses, was invested October, 1899, by a force of 5,000 Boers, under General Cronje, and defended by a garrison of about 700 irregulars and armed townsmen, under Colonel Baden-Powell. Later in the siege Cronje withdrew a large part of his force, leaving about 2,000 under Snyman to prosecute the siege. Though the bombardment was continuous, only one resolute attempt was made to penetrate the defenses; when on May 12, 1900, 300 Boers, under Sarel Eloff, succeeded in getting within the lines, but were surrounded and forced to surrender. On May 17, the place was relieved by a cavalry column under Colonel Mahon. The garrison lost 293, the Boers about 1,000, in the course of the siege.
  
1899  
Siege of Kimberley (Second ) British victory
This town, defended by a garrison of 4,000 (including armed townsmen) under Colonel Kekewich, was besieged October 15, 1899, by the Boers, under Commandant Wessels, and later under General Cronje. It withstood a severe and continuous bombardment till February 15, 1900, when it was relieved by a force of cavalry, 5,000 strong, under General French. The losses of the garrison during the siege amounted to 18 officers and 163 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Dundee (Second ) British victory
Fought October 20, 1899, between 4,000 Boers, under General Lucas Meyer, and a British force of equal strength, under General Symons. The Boers occupied a strong position on the heights of Dundee, from which they were dislodged by the British infantry, with a loss of about 300. The British lost 19 officers, 142 men killed and wounded, and 331 prisoners, the latter a detachment of cavalry and mounted infantry, who were surrounded by a superior force of Boers, and surrendered. General Symons was mortally wounded. The action is also called the battle of Talana Hill.
  
1899  
Battle of Elandslaagte (Second ) British victory
Fought October 21, 1899, between a strong Boer force under General Koch, and 3 battalions and 5 squadrons of British troops, with 12 guns, under General French. The Boers occupied a strong position, on high ground near the Ladysmith-Dundee railway, from which they were driven by the infantry and Imperial Light Horse (dismounted) with a loss of 250 killed and wounded, and 200 prisoners, including Koch. The British lost 35 officers and 219 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Rietfontein (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought October 24, 1899, between 4,000 British, under Sir George White, and the Free Staters, who were advancing to interrupt the retreat of Colonel Yule from Dundee. The enemy occupied a range of hills about seven miles from Ladysmith, where they were attacked by White. After an indecisive action the British retired to Ladysmith, with a loss of 111 killed and wounded, but the object aimed at was attained, for the Boers were prevented from interfering with Colonel Yule's march.
  
1899  
Battle of Farquhar's Farm (Second ) Boers victory
Fought October 29, 1899, between the main Boer army, under Joubert, and the garrison of Ladysmith, under Sir George White. The Boer position covered about eight miles, and White attacked in three columns, one of which, detached to the left to hold a position at Nicholson's Nek, was overwhelmed and surrendered. The Boers meanwhile developed a strong attack against the British right, and White, having no guns capable of coping with the heavy Boer ordnance, ordered a retreat. This was effected in good order, and was greatly aided by the opportune arrival of two heavy naval guns, under Captain Hedworth Lambton. The British lost 317 killed and wounded, and 1,068 missing. The Boer losses are unknown, but were certainly small.
  
1899  
Siege of Ladysmith (Second ) British victory
Sir George White, with about 12,000 troops, was shut up in Ladysmith by the invading army, under General Joubert, November 2, 1899. The Boers, who were well provided with heavy guns, contented themselves in the main with a continuous bombardment. On January 6, 1900, however, a picked force, under Commandant de Villiers, supported by several thousand Boer marksmen posted on the heights, made attempt to force the British lines at Waggon Hill and Caesar's Camp. The battle lasted throughout the day, and more than once the defenders were very hard pressed, but they held their ground till nightfall, when the Boers withdrew, having lost about 800 men. From this date the Boers again contented themselves with bombarding the town, until it was finally relieved by Sir Redvers Buller, February 27. In addition to deaths by disease, the garrison lost during the siege 89 officers and 805 men, more than half of whom fell in the battle of January 6.
  
1899  
Battle of Spion Kop (Second ) Boers victory
General Buller's second attempt to break through the Boer lines on the Tugela, and relieve Ladysmith, is known by this name. The operations commenced on the 19th, 24,000 men being employed. On that day Sir Charles Warren's division commenced to turn the Boer right, and gradually drove them from ridge to ridge till the evening of the 22nd, when by a night surprise, Spion Kop, the centre of the position, was seized. It was, however, found impossible to get artillery up the steep slopes, and the brigade holding the hill lost about a third of their strength in the course of the 23rd, including the Brigadier, General Woodgate. At nightfall, Colonel Thorneycroft, who had been appointed to the command, abandoned the hill, and on the following day General Buller decided to recross the Tugela. The British losses during the operations amounted to 87 officers and 1,647 men.
  
1899  
Battle of Belmont (Second ) British victory
Fought November 23, 1899, between a Boer commando, about 3,000 strong, occupying a strong position on the hills near Belmont, and Lord Methuen's division of 71 battalions of infantry and a regiment of cavalry. The Boer position was carried by a frontal attack, which cost the assailants 28 officers and 270 men. The Boers lost about 300 killed and wounded, and 50 prisoners.
  
1899  
Battle of Graspan (Second ) drawn battle victory
Fought November 25, 1899, between Lord Methuen's division, with a naval brigade, 400 strong, and a Boer commando of about 2,500 men. The Boers occupied a strong position, the key of which, a high kopje, was attacked in front and flank, and carried, with a loss of 9 officers and 185 men. The marines, who numbered 200, lost 3 officers and 86 men of this total. The Boers lost about 100. This is also called the battle of Enslin.
  
1899  
Battle of Modder River (Second ) British victory
Fought November 28, 1899, between a Boer force, about 9,000 strong, under General Cronje, and the British, under Lord Methuen. Cronje held a strong position on both banks of the river, which was not accurately known to Lord Methuen, who was marching to the Modder. His columns came under fire about 7 a.m., and the action lasted till evening, when a turning movement enabled him to drive Cronje from his entrenchments. The British losses were 24 officers and 461 men killed and wounded, those of the Boers being about the same.
  
1899  
Battle of Stormberg (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 10, 1899, when General Gatacre, with about 3,000 men, made a night march to attack the Boer position at Stormberg. He was misled by his guides, and came unexpectedly under a heavy Boer fire. The position was too strong to carry, and Gatacre was forced to retire, with a loss of 89 killed and wounded, and 633 prisoners.
  
1899  
Battle of Magersfontein (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 11, 1899, between 9,000 Boers, under General Cronje, and Lord Methuen's division, with the addition of the Highland Brigade. Cronje's position was exceedingly strong, and an attempt to turn it by a flank march undertaken at night led to a disaster to the Highland brigade, who came under a heavy fire before they were extended, and lost 57 officers and over 700 men, including their brigadier, General Wauchope. Eventually the attacking force was withdrawn, without having made any impression on the Boer position. The total British losses were 68 officers and 1,011 men. The Boers admitted a loss of 320, but it was probably considerably heavier.
  
1899  
Battle of Colenso (Second ) Boers victory
Fought December 15, 1899, being the first action in Sir Redvers Buller's campaign for the relief of Ladysmith. Buller attempted to carry by a frontal attack the Boer position on the opposite side of the Tugela, and notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, was compelled to retire, with a loss of 71 officers and 1,055 rank and file. Of this total the Irish Brigade lost about half. The Boers captured 10 guns.
  


Commander
Short Biography
Paul Kruger Boer leader who resisted British rule, and was president of the Transvaal Republic.
Louis Botha Boer Hero during the Second Boer War. First Prime Minister of South Africa.
Colonel Baden-Powell British General known for defending Mafeking during the 2nd Boer War, and also for founding the Boy-Scouts.
Piet Cronje Boer General during the Second Boer War. Captured with 4000 troops at Paardeburg.
General French British General who relieved the siege of Kimberly during the Second Boer War.


The British Offensive : Jan-Sept 1900

boer
SURRENDER OF CRONJE AFTER PAARDEBERG.
As soon as war was declared, the most eminent General in Britain was recalled from semi-retirement to lead the British effort in South Africa. General Frederick Roberts had been critical of the humiliating peace that Britain had accepted after the First Boer War, and the fact that his son had been killed in early fighting during the Second Boer War, strengthened his resolve to see the difficult War through to completion. He required several months to gather and organize forces, but in February 1900 he launched a series of counter-offensives that were highly effective. First Kimberly was relieved, then at the battle of Paardeburg, General Cronje was surrounded and forced to surrender with 4000 men. Finally, Ladysmith was relieved. Roberts continued the offensive, and soon captured Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State. Mafeking, which had been besieged for over seven months, was finally relieved on May 18th. By June he had captured Pretoria and Johannesburg, the two major cities in the Transvaal republic. By this time, it appeared that the war was won.



DateBattle Summary
1900  
Battle of Vaalkranz (Second ) Boers victory
General Buller's third attempt to pierce the Boer lines on the Tugela. On February 5, 1900, he seized Vaalkranz, under cover of a feint attack at Brakfontein towards the Boer right. The hill was held by a brigade during the 6th and 7th, but finding further progress impossible, Buller again recrossed the Tugela. The British losses amounted to 374 killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Paardeberg (Second ) British victory
Fought February 18, 1900, between 5,000 Boers, under Cronje, and the British, numbering 4 Infantry Brigades, with 4 batteries, under Lord Kitchener. Cronje had taken refuge in the bed of the Tugela river, and an attempt was made to dislodge him. The absence of cover for the attacking force, however, rendered this impossible, but he was surrounded, and on the arrival of Lord Roberts, subjected to a sustained artillery fire, which lasted until he surrendered on the 27th. The British losses during the operations amounted to 98 officers and 1,437 men, of whom 1,100 fell in the battle of the 18th. The prisoners taken numbered 3,000 Transvaalers and 1,100 Free Staters, with 6 guns.
  
1900  
Battle of Pieter's Hill (Second ) British victory
The scene of the severest fighting in the course of Sir Redvers Buller's final and successful attempt to relieve Ladysmith. The operations commenced by the capture of Hlangwane, on February 19, 1900, which gave the British command of the Tugela, which was crossed on the 21st. On the 22nd a steady advance was made up to the line of Pieter's Hill, which was attacked by the Irish Brigade, under General Hart, on the 23rd. At a cost of nearly half their numbers, they succeeded in establishing themselves under cover, close to the Boer trenches, but could not dislodge the defenders. It was not till the 27th, when Buller had turned the Boer left, that a general assault was successful, and the Boers evacuated the position. The British losses during the operations were 1,896 killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Driefontein (Second ) British victory
Fought March 10, 1900, between the Boer Army covering Bloemfontein, under de Wet, and the British under Lord Roberts. The Boers occupied a position about seven miles in extent, which was attacked in front by Kelly-Kenny's division, and on the left flank by that of Tucker. The Boers were driven out and the road to Bloemfontein opened, at a cost to the British of 424 killed and wounded. The Boers left over 100 dead on the field.
  
1900  
Battle of Karee (Second ) British victory
Fought March 29, 1900, when a Boer force holding a line of hills about eighteen miles north of Bloemfontein were driven from their entrenchments by a British division under General Tucker. The British lost 10 officers and 172 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Sanna's Post (Second ) Boers victory
Fought March 31, 1900, when a force of cavalry, with 2 R.H.A. batteries and a considerable convoy, under Colonel Broadwood, was ambushed by a party of Boers, under De Wet, while crossing a donga. The guns were just entering the donga when the Boers opened fire, and 4 guns of Q battery succeeded in getting clear and opening fire, stuck to their work till only 10 men of the battery were left standing. Broadwood succeeded in extricating his force, but at a cost of 19 officers and 136 men killed and wounded, 426 prisoners, 7 guns, and the whole of his convoy. General Colville's column was within a few miles, but though the firing was heard, he failed to relieve. This is also known as the action of Kornspruit.
  
1900  
Battle of Reddersberg (Second ) Boers victory
Fought April 3, 1900, when 5 companies of British infantry were surrounded by a force of Boers, with 5 guns, and after holding out for twenty-four hours, were compelled by want of water to surrender, having lost 4 officers and 43 men killed and wounded. The prisoners numbered 405.
  
1900  
Siege of Wepener (Second ) British victory
This place was invested by a strong force of Boers, under De Wet, April 9, 1900, and was defended by 1,700 men of the Colonial Division, under Colonel Dalgety. Notwithstanding the Boer's great preponderance in artillery, and a succession of bold assaults on the trenches, the garrison held out gallantly till April 25, when they were relieved by General Rundle, having lost 300 killed and wounded in the course of the operations.
  
1900  
Siege of Lindley (Second ) Boers victory
At this place a force of 500 yeomanry, under Colonel Spragge, after holding out for four days against a largely superior Boer force, surrendered May 27, 1900.
  
1900  
Battle of Senekal (Second ) Boers victory
Fought May 29, 1900, when a British force, under General Rundle, attacked the Boers, strongly posted on the Biddulphsberg. The attack was made amidst great bush fires, in which many of the wounded perished, and was unsuccessful, the British losses amounting to 7 officers and 177 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Diamond Hill (Second ) British victory
Fought June 11 and 12, 1900, when General Botha, with the main Boer army of 15,000 men, strongly entrenched about 15 miles from Pretoria, was attacked by Lord Roberts with 17,000 men and 70 guns, and driven from his position. The Boer lines were so extended that three distinct actions were in progress at the same time. The British lost 25 officers and 137 men killed and wounded.
  
1900  
Battle of Elands River (Second ) drawn battle victory
On August 4, 1900, a force of 400 Australians, under Colonel Hore, were surrounded by 2,500 Boers, with 6 guns. The Australians occupied an exposed kopje, with no water nearer than the river half-a-mile away. Their maxim became unserviceable, an attempt by General Canington to relieve them failed, and so severe was the Boer fire that, in 11 days, 1,800 shells fell within their lines. They held out, however, till August 15, when they were relieved by Lord Kitchener, having lost 75 killed and wounded, and nearly all their horses.
  
1900  
Battle of Dalmanutha (Second ) British victory
Fought August 21 to 28, 1900, when the position of the Boers from Belfast to Machadodorp covering the Delagoa Bay Railway, and extending over a line 30 miles long, was attacked on the west by Lord Roberts, and on the south by Sir Redvers Buller, On the 28th Buller entered Machadodorp, by which time the Boers, who were under General Botha, had been driven from all their positions. Kruger at once fled to Delagoa Bay. The British loss in the four days amounted to about 500.
  


Commander
Short Biography
Lord Roberts Career officer, saw service in Indian Mutiny, Afghanistan, Abyssinia, India and South Africa.
Horatio Kitchener Military hero of the late 19th century, first in Sudan, and later in the Boer Wars
Louis Botha Boer Hero during the Second Boer War. First Prime Minister of South Africa.


The Guerilla Campaign : 1900-1902

boer
THE BOER LEADERS WERE BLINDFOLDED AND GUARDED BY SOLDIERS OF THE BLACK WATCH
The British assumed that once the Boers main cities were taken and their supply lines cut, victory could be declared and peace terms agreed to. But the war was only entering another phase. They Boers were hardy frontiersmen and expert marksmen, who could live off the land indefinitely. Instead of fighting pitched battles, they simply reclaimed any area that the British withdrew from, and fought a guerilla campaign against the invaders. They attacked British installations in small bodies, and disappeared into the brush when reinforcements were called. In this way they tormented the British for two years, and made it impossible for them to claim victory. The manner in which the Boers were finally defeated was by breaking up the large expanses in which they found refuge with barbed-wire and guardhouses. In this manner the small militias in which the Boers were broken up into, could be surrounded and forced into the open. Slowly but surely, this scheme, devised by Kitchener, caused enough attrition to drive the Boers to consider giving up their arms. In the final peace terms, the Boers were granted lenient terms if they surrendered and swore allegiance to the British crown. The turning point came when Louis Botha, one of the war heroes of the Boers agreed to work towards peace with Britain. He later worked towards unification of the South African states, and became the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa.


Commander
Short Biography
Christian de Wet Boer General who distinguished himself during the final guerilla campaign.
Jan Christian Smuts Boer General who later became a South African Statesman.
Horatio Kitchener Military hero of the late 19th century, first in Sudan, and later in the Boer Wars
Louis Botha Boer Hero during the Second Boer War. First Prime Minister of South Africa.


Image Links


Battlefield of Colenso, December 15, 1899
 in With the Boer Forces

Boers watching the fight at Dundee
 in With the Boer Forces

Electing a Field-Cornet
 in With the Boer Forces

Krijgsraad, near Thaba N'Chu
 in With the Boer Forces

Boer Commandants reading message from British Officers after Dundee
 in With the Boer Forces

Spion Kop, where Boers charged up the hillside
 in With the Boer Forces

Boer firing during the siege of Ladysmith
 in With the Boer Forces

Plan of Battlefield of Sannaspost
 in With the Boer Forces

Village and Mountain of Thaba N'Chu
 in With the Boer Forces

Calling for volunteers to man captured cannon after Sannaspost
 in With the Boer Forces

President Kruger addressing American Volunteers
 in With the Boer Forces

Battlefield of Elandslaagte
 in With the Boer Forces

Mrs. Otto Krantz, a Boer Amazon
 in With the Boer Forces

First British Prisoners of War Captured near Dundee
 in With the Boer Forces

Majuba Hill, where 150 Boer volunteers defeated 600 British soldiers
 in Oom Paul's People

The Boer leaders were blindfolded and guarded by soldiers of the Black Watch.
 in Our Island Story

Surrender of Cronje after Paardeberg
 in The Story of Lord Roberts