First Mithridatic War, 90-85 B.C. Second and Third Mithridatic Wars, 83-65 B.C. Bosporan Rebellion, 47 B.C.
Mithridates VI of Pontus was a minor king of a mountainous region in northern Asia minor, who managed to keep Rome embroiled in wars in the region for over twenty years. Pontus was one of several "buffer" states that separated the territory of Rome, from that of Parthia in the east. As a result of the Mithridatic wars, Rome's sphere of influence in the east increased, and her borders reached those of the Parthian kingdom.
Meanwhile, another army under Flaccus had landed in Asia to join forces with Greek cities from that region who had revolted from Mithridates. There was significant pro-Marius sentiment in this army however, so they mutinied, and selected a Marian partisan, Flavius Fimbria as their leader. He engaged Mithridates directly in battle at Miletopolis and won a victory, but Sulla, who was determined to return to Rome as soon as possible, made terms with Mithridates and then threatened to turn on the Marian army under Fimbria. Fimbria at this point, killed himself to avoid meeting Sulla in the field, and Sulla returned to Italy, where the armies of the Marian party were drawn up awaiting him.
|Siege of Athens (First )
This city was occupied by a garrison sympathetic to Mithridates, under Archelaus, the Pontus general, and Aniston, an Athenian in service to Mithridates. It besieged by Sulla, in B.C. in 87 B.C. and fell the following year, but Archelaus and many of his followers escaped.
|Battle of Chaeronea (First )
Fought B.C. 86, between the Romans under Sulla, 30,000 strong, and the troops of Pontus, 90,000 in number, under Archelaus. The Romans were completely victorious.
|Battle of Miletopolis (First )
Fought B.C. 86, between the Romans, under Flavius Fimbria, and the Pontic troops, under Mithridates. The Romans gained a complete victory.
|Battle of Orchomenus (Third )
Fought B.C. 85, between the Pontic army, under Archelaus, and the Romans, under Sulla. The Asiatic cavalry attacked and drove back the Roman line, but Sulla himself rallied his troops, and led them in a charge which totally routed the enemy with heavy loss.
|King of Pontus, enemy of Rome, raised rebellions in Greece and Asia Minor.|
|A Athenian who favored an alliance with Mithridates. Installed to govern Athens during the siege.|
|Mithridates chief general in Greece. Met Sulla at Chaeronea and Orchomenus.|
|Defeated Mithradates in Greece. Marched on Rome, defeated the party of his enemy Marius.|
|Marion General who won victories against Mithridates in Asia Minor.|
|Orator Aristion in||The Story of Rome by Mary Macgregor|
|Sulla Besieges Athens in||The Story of Rome by Mary Macgregor|
At the end of the First Mithridatic War, the command of the Roman army in Asia minor was given to Licinius Murena, a Sulla partisan. Murena determined that Mithridates was re-arming, and invaded Pontus. Due to the Civil War going on in Rome at precisely this time, Sulla was unable to provide support for Murena's army, and he was defeated. There was no alternative but to make peace on terms unfavorable to Rome, which merely delayed the resolution of the issue.
|Battle of Cyzicus (Third )
Fought B.C. 74, when the army of Mithridates, who was besieging Cyzicus, was hemmed by the Romans under Lucullus, and though the latter, with inferior forces, did not venture on a pitched battle, he fought a series of minor engagements, in which he eventually destroyed the Pontic army, their losses amounting in the end to over 200,000 men.
|Battle of Cabria (Third )
Fought B.C. 72, between three Roman legions under Lucullus, and the Pontic army under Diophantus and Taxiles. The Pontic cavalry, on which Mithridates chiefly relied, was overwhelmed by Fabius Hadrianus, and the king was driven out of Pontus, which was erected into a Roman province.
|Battle of Tigranocerta (Third )
Fought B.C. 69, when the Romans, 10,000 strong, under Lucullus, who was besieging the city, were attacked by 200,000 Pontic and Armenian troops, under Tigranes. ''Tigranes had failed to occupy some high ground which commanded the position of his cavalry. This Lucullus seized, and attacking the Pontic cavalry in rear, broke it, He then attacked and routed the infantry, with a loss according to the Roman account of 100,000. The Romans lost 5 men only.
|Battle of Ziela (Third )
Fought B.C. 67, between the Romans, under Triarius, and the Pontic army, under Mithridates. The King attacked the Roman camp, and practically annihilated them, though himself dangerously wounded in the assault.
|Battle of Nicopolis (Akbar )
Fought B.C. 66, between the Romans, under Pompey, and the army of Mithridates. The Romans had occupied the heights in front of the retreating Asiatics, and Mithridates encamped under their position. In the night the Romans attacked him in his camp, and utterly routed him. This was the last battle fought by Mithdridates against the legions of Rome.
|Battle of Chalcedon (Third )
Fought B.C. 74, between the Roman fleet, under Rutilius Nudo, and that of Pontus. The Romans sallied out of the harbour, but were driven back, and the Pontic fleet then broke the chain protecting the entrance and destroyed the whole of the Roman ships, 70 in number.
|Led Rome against Mithradates in third Mithradatic War. Known for extravagant lifestyle.|
|Very renowned general. Defeated pirates. Led opposition to Caesar in civil war.|
|King of Armenia and son-in-law of Mithridates.|
|Across the Euphrates in||Helmet and Spear by Alfred J. Church|
|Death of Mithradates in||Lucius. Adventures of a Roman Boy by Alfred J. Church|
|Battle-Fields and Gardens in||Tales of the Romans: The Children's Plutarch by F. J. Gould|
|Lucullus in||Our Young Folks' Plutarch by Rosalie Kaufman|
|Pompey in||Our Young Folks' Plutarch by Rosalie Kaufman|
|Pompey Goes to War with Mithridates in||The Story of Rome by Mary Macgregor|
|Battle of Nicopolis (Bosporan Rebellion )
Fought B.C. 47, when Domitius Calvinus, with one Roman legion and a contingent of Pontic and other Asiatic troops, encountered the Bosporans, under Pharnaces. Calvinus' Asiatic troops fled at the first onset, and he was completely defeated, only the steadiness of the Romans saving him from disaster.
|Battle of Ziela
(Bosporan Rebellion )
Fought August 2, B.C. 47, between 7 Roman legions, with some Asiatic auxiliaries, under Julius Caesar, and the Bosporans, under Pharnaces. Pharnaces attacked the Romans while they were pitching camp, but the legionaries quickly formed up, and utterly routed their assailants. This is the occasion of Caesar's famous despatch, "Veni, vidi, vici."
|Conquered Gaul, prevailed in civil war. Mastermind of Roman empire. Killed by senators.|
|Son of Mithridates and king of Bosporus. Rebelled against Rome and was crushed by Caesar.|
|Roman General who was defeated by Pharnaces II at the battle of Nicopolis.|
The death of Mithradates and his daughters
in Lucius. Adventures of a Roman Boy